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Geological Heritage and Biodiversity in Natural and Cultural Landscapes

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Sustainability, Biodiversity and Conservation".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (25 January 2021) | Viewed by 31310

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Department of Biology, University of Salamanca, Faculty of Botany and Physiology, Avda. Licenciado Mendez Nieto s/n.Campus Unamuno.Faculty of Pharmacy, 37007-Salamanca
Interests: Conservation biology; Biological Heritage and Biodiversity; Landscape degradation: climate change, agrecosystems, ethnobotany

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Geological Heritage has very diverse elements, both for its intrinsic nature and for its social and scientific significance. These elements have a scientific dimension (stratigraphic, geomorphological, lithological, paleontological, etc.) and a landscape dimension, both with implications for territorial management. In territorial management and planning, it is essential to carry out an inventory and cataloging of places of natural and social interest, to establish a comprehensive policy. The identification and valuation of the geological and biological heritage, and their interaction in the landscape, should favor the conservation and preservation of this natural and historical heritage. Sustainable development implies a rational use that prevents the degradation or loss of these unique environments of the natural environment; as well as a dissemination and awareness of landscape resources, for a better understanding and enjoyment, integrating activities of environmental education and nature tourism.

The diversity of a territory is the result of the complex and continuous interaction of the geological substrate (geotopical) and biological factors that model the existing ecological and evolutionary processes at the level of genes, species, ecosystems, and landscapes, and that are expressed in a characteristic representation of organisms adapted to these factors. These vary according to the spatial dimensions and the temporal scales considered, in a wide range that goes from the geological processes that involve millions of years and vast territories to the casuistic biotic and anthropic events that can occur in an instant in any territorial sector.

However, it is the circumstances derived from human activity that in recent decades are intensely modeling natural landscapes on a planetary scale. Whether this process of global “domestication” is part of the natural evolutionary cycle or not is an issue that is subject to intense debate and is inextricably associated with the other crucial debate on the ethics of human development. Is it incompatible with the preservation of geodiversity and biodiversity and landscape agreements? Is it possible to obtain the necessary resources from a territory without draining them and maintaining the ecosystem services of the same? Is there a more responsible social and political paradigm with the preservation of the natural environment? From the point of view of science, one of the ways to contribute objectively to that evaluation is to provide the collection and processing of field and laboratory data, which determine and model trends to explain this diversity and the geo-environmental interactions present in each rural and/or natural landscape, including the human species. The objective of this Special Issue is to highlight the importance of studies on geological and biological heritage and their involvement in geodiversity and biodiversity in an integrated way in the landscape, describing varied methodologies applied to specific territories (cultural and traditional heritage,) taking into account the singularity and its geoconservation based on active processes (geological risks, anthropic environmental impacts, etc.) and dynamics of its ecosystems (biological invasions, bioindicators, ethnobotanical studies, interactions between species, agrobiodiversity, etc.). This Special Issue will collect high-quality papers that contribute to the methodology and application of both design approaches and evaluation and decision-making frameworks in the context of the definition of strategies for natural heritage (geological and biological) and landscape.

Dr. Antonio Martinez Graña
Dr. José Ángel Sánchez Agudo
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • geological heritage and geodiversity
  • biological heritage and biodiversity
  • landscape: quality and landscape fragility
  • cultural heritage and sustainability
  • landscape degradation: climate change, agroecosystems, ethnobotany

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

16 pages, 4854 KiB  
Article
Effects of the Climate Change on Peripheral Populations of Hydrophytes: A Sensitivity Analysis for European Plant Species Based on Climate Preferences
by Ricardo Enrique Hernández-Lambraño, David Rodríguez de la Cruz and José Ángel Sánchez Agudo
Sustainability 2021, 13(6), 3147; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13063147 - 12 Mar 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2129
Abstract
Biogeographical theory suggests that widespread retractions of species’ rear edges are expected due to anthropogenic climate change, affecting in a particularly intense way those linked to fragile habitats, such as species’ rear edges closely dependent on specific water conditions. In this way, this [...] Read more.
Biogeographical theory suggests that widespread retractions of species’ rear edges are expected due to anthropogenic climate change, affecting in a particularly intense way those linked to fragile habitats, such as species’ rear edges closely dependent on specific water conditions. In this way, this paper studies the potential effects of anthropogenic climate change on distribution patterns of threatened rear edge populations of five European hydrophyte plants distributed in the Iberian Peninsula. We explored (i) whether these populations occur at the limit of the species’ climatic tolerance, (ii) we quantified their geographic patterns of vulnerability to climate change, and in addition, (iii) we identified in a spatially explicit way whether these threatened populations occur in vulnerable environments to climate change. To do this, we simulated the climatic niche of five hydrophyte species using an ecological modelling approach based on occurrences and a set of readily available climatic data. Our results show that the Iberian populations studied tended to occur in less suitable environments relative to each of the species’ optimal climates. This result suggests a plausible explanation for the current degree of stagnancy or regression experienced by these populations which showed high sensitivity and thus vulnerability to thermal extremes and high seasonality of wet and temperature. Climatic predictions for 2050 displayed that most of the examined populations will tend to occur in situations of environmental risk in the Iberian Peninsula. This result suggests that the actions aimed at the conservation of these populations should be prioritized in the geographic locations in which vulnerability is greatest. Full article
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13 pages, 1048 KiB  
Article
The Vega Alta of Segura River (Southeast of Spain): A Wetland of International Importance
by Gustavo Ballesteros-Pelegrín, Daniel Ibarra-Marinas and Ramón García-Marín
Sustainability 2021, 13(6), 3145; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13063145 - 12 Mar 2021
Viewed by 1643
Abstract
The Ramsar Convention is an intergovernmental treaty for the conservation and wise use of wetlands, which establishes nine criteria related to natural values and a cultural one that wetlands must meet to be included in the list of wetlands of international importance. We [...] Read more.
The Ramsar Convention is an intergovernmental treaty for the conservation and wise use of wetlands, which establishes nine criteria related to natural values and a cultural one that wetlands must meet to be included in the list of wetlands of international importance. We aim to evaluate if the wetlands of the Vega Alta of the Segura River (southeast of Spain) meet the requirements to fulfil this agreement. Thanks to meticulous fieldwork and a bibliographic review related to the stated objective, we collected information on the existing environmental and cultural values. The results show that this set of wetlands is home to 11 species of threatened vertebrates in Spain, two priority habitats in the European Union, as well as cultural values related to their origin, conservation, and ecological functioning. Likewise, in the area there are archaeological sites, traditional uses of water associated with the cultivation of rice, and religious manifestations. Effective wetland inventories and rigorous analyzes of their ecological and environmental characteristics, as well as their socioeconomic functions, need to be carried out in order to improve their management and protection. This wetland certainly meets three criteria to be included in the Ramsar Convention list of wetlands. Full article
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14 pages, 22703 KiB  
Article
Connectivity Predicts Presence but Not Population Density in the Habitat-Specific Mountain Lizard Iberolacerta martinezricai
by Diego Lizana-Ciudad, Víctor J. Colino-Rabanal, Óscar J. Arribas and Miguel Lizana
Sustainability 2021, 13(5), 2647; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13052647 - 2 Mar 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1612
Abstract
The Batuecan lizard Iberolacerta martinezricai is a critically endangered species due to its significantly reduced distribution, which is restricted to the scree slopes (SS) of a few mountain peaks within the Batuecas-Sierra de Francia Natural Park (western Spain). Given its high specialisation in [...] Read more.
The Batuecan lizard Iberolacerta martinezricai is a critically endangered species due to its significantly reduced distribution, which is restricted to the scree slopes (SS) of a few mountain peaks within the Batuecas-Sierra de Francia Natural Park (western Spain). Given its high specialisation in this type of discontinuous habitat, the long-term conservation of the species requires maintaining the connectivity between populations. This study analyses the contribution of connectivity, as well as other patch-related factors, in the distribution and density patterns of the species. With this aim, 67 SS were sampled by line transects from May to October 2018. Each SS was characterised using variables indicative of the microhabitat conditions for the lizard. Inter-SS connectivity was quantified using graph theory for seven distances. Generalised linear models (GLMs) were performed for both presence and density. Model results showed that while connectivity was a relevant factor in the presence of lizards, density only involved patch-related variables. Discrepancies probably occurred because the factors influencing presence operate on a wider scale than those of abundance. In view of the results, the best-connected SS, but also those where the lizard is most abundant and from which more dispersed individuals are likely to depart, seem to be the essential patches in any conservation strategy. The results may also be relevant to other species with habitat-specific requirements. Full article
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15 pages, 7479 KiB  
Article
Analysis of the Adaptative Strategy of Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Ten. in the Colonization of New Territories
by Jhony Fernando Cruz Román, Ricardo Enrique Hernández-Lambraño, David Rodríguez de la Cruz and José Ángel Sánchez Agudo
Sustainability 2021, 13(4), 2384; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13042384 - 23 Feb 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2136
Abstract
The current situation of global environmental degradation as a result of anthropogenic activities makes it necessary to open new research lines focused on the causes and effects of the main alterations caused in the ecosystems. One of the most relevant is how the [...] Read more.
The current situation of global environmental degradation as a result of anthropogenic activities makes it necessary to open new research lines focused on the causes and effects of the main alterations caused in the ecosystems. One of the most relevant is how the niche dynamics of invasive species change between different geographical areas, since its understanding is key to the early detection and control of future invasions. In this regard, we analyzed the distribution pattern of Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Ten., a plant of the Asteraceae family originally from the Eurasian region that currently invades wide areas of the world. We estimated its niche shifts between continents using a combination of principal components analysis (PCA) and Ecological Niche Modelling (ENM) on an extensive set of data on global presences of its native and invaded ranges from Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF). A set of bioclimatic variables and the Human Footprint (HFP) with a resolution of 10 km were selected for this purpose. Our results showed that the species has a marked global trend to expand toward warmer climates with less seasonality, although in some regions its invasiveness appears to be less than in others. The models had a good statistical performance and high coherence in relation to the known distribution of the species and allowed us to establish the relative weight of the contribution of each variable used, with the annual temperature and seasonality being the determining factors in the establishment of the species. Likewise, the use of non-climatic variable HFP has provided relevant information to explain the colonizing behavior of the species. The combination of this methodology with an adequate selection of predictor variables represents a very useful tool when focusing efforts and resources for the management of invasive species. Full article
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20 pages, 1909 KiB  
Article
Effect of Protected Areas on Human Populations in the Context of Colombian Armed Conflict, 2005–2018
by Roberto Rodríguez-Díaz, Víctor Javier Colino-Rabanal, Alejandra Gutierrez-López and María José Blanco-Villegas
Sustainability 2021, 13(1), 146; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13010146 - 25 Dec 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3811
Abstract
It is widely recognised that conservation policies in protected areas must also favour the development and viability of human populations. Although much research has focused on economic consequences, understanding the real impact of conservation on local populations requires a more holistic standpoint. Using [...] Read more.
It is widely recognised that conservation policies in protected areas must also favour the development and viability of human populations. Although much research has focused on economic consequences, understanding the real impact of conservation on local populations requires a more holistic standpoint. Using quasi-experimental matching methods and a diachronic perspective, the biodemographic and socio-economic effects of Colombia’s National Natural Parks (NNPs) were evaluated (all in a context of internal conflict and post-conflict). The analyses were made for the set of NNPs and then grouped into four natural regions (Andes, Caribbean, Amazon-Orinoquía and Pacific) and two conflict intensities. Differences were found mainly for NNPs with low-intensity conflict, but only for biodemographic variables, not for socio-economic ones. Starting from a situation of disadvantage, a relative improvement in the conditions of the NNP municipalities was observed throughout the 13-year period in relation to the control group. Results should be taken with caution due to the conflict situation, but the lack of correlation between biodemographic and socio-economic aspects highlights the need to include more complex approaches in protected area management policies. Full article
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17 pages, 2595 KiB  
Article
Natural Protected Areas as Providers of Ecological Connectivity in the Landscape: The Case of the Iberian Lynx
by Iván Barbero-Bermejo, Gabriela Crespo-Luengo, Ricardo Enrique Hernández-Lambraño, David Rodríguez de la Cruz and José Ángel Sánchez-Agudo
Sustainability 2021, 13(1), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13010041 - 23 Dec 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3031
Abstract
The design of conservation plans for the improvement of habitats of threatened species constitutes one of the most plausible possibilities of intervention in the structure and composition of the landscape of a large territory. In this work we focus on the Iberian lynx [...] Read more.
The design of conservation plans for the improvement of habitats of threatened species constitutes one of the most plausible possibilities of intervention in the structure and composition of the landscape of a large territory. In this work we focus on the Iberian lynx in order to establish potential ecological corridors using ecoinformatic tools from the GIS environment to improve connectivity between the existing natural spaces within the scope of its historical distribution. We processed 669 records of the presence of the lynx and six predictor variables linked to the habitat of the species. With this, corridors have been generated between natural areas. The determination of possible bottlenecks or dangerous areas (e.g., hitches on highways) allows for focusing efforts on their conservation. This type of approach seeks to improve efficiency in the design of measures aimed at expanding the territory’s capacity to host its populations, improving both its viability and that of all the other species that are linked to it. The proposals for action on the specific areas defined by the models elaborated in this work would imply interventions on the land uses and existing vegetation types in order to improve connectivity throughout the territory and increase the resilience of its ecosystems. Full article
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15 pages, 1382 KiB  
Article
Mycological Indicators in Evaluating Conservation Status: The Case of Quercus spp. Dehesas in the Middle-West of the Iberian Peninsula (Spain)
by Prudencio García Jiménez, Abel Fernández Ruiz, José Sánchez Sánchez and David Rodríguez de la Cruz
Sustainability 2020, 12(24), 10442; https://doi.org/10.3390/su122410442 - 14 Dec 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1880
Abstract
The use of bioindicators to assess the conservation status of various ecosystems is becoming increasingly common, although fungi have not been widely used for this purpose. The aim was to use the analysis of the macromycetes fruiting bodies in the area of a [...] Read more.
The use of bioindicators to assess the conservation status of various ecosystems is becoming increasingly common, although fungi have not been widely used for this purpose. The aim was to use the analysis of the macromycetes fruiting bodies in the area of a natural reserve and the degree of preservation of its different zones combined with the use of geographical information systems (GIS). For this purpose, quantitative and qualitative fungal samples were carried out in plots of the middle-west of the Iberian Peninsula previously delimited and characterised thanks to GIS during the springs and autumns of the 2009–2012 period. In addition, the lifestyles of the fungal species were analysed as well as the influence of the main meteorological parameters on fungal fruiting. A total of 10,125 fruiting bodies belonging to 148 species were counted on 20 plots with four vegetation units (holm oak dehesas, mixed holm oaks and Pyrenean oak dehesas with different abundance and grasslands). The distribution of the different species, their lifestyles and the number of fruiting bodies in the different plots of the reserve indicated that the eastern part was best conserved, showing that the combination of fungal diversity studies and the use of GIS could be useful in the management of areas with environmental relevance. Full article
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15 pages, 19013 KiB  
Article
Geomorphological Map and Quaternary Landscape Evolution of the Monfragüe Park (Cáceres, Spain)
by José Luis Goy, Raquel Cruz, Antonio Martínez-Graña, Virginia Valdés and Mariano Yenes
Sustainability 2020, 12(23), 10099; https://doi.org/10.3390/su122310099 - 3 Dec 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2062
Abstract
From the geomorphological cartography, the geometric and spatial distribution of the quaternary forms and deposits are analyzed, with special relevance to the fluvial terraces that allow obtaining the chronology of the successive landscape changes of the course of the Tagus River attributed to [...] Read more.
From the geomorphological cartography, the geometric and spatial distribution of the quaternary forms and deposits are analyzed, with special relevance to the fluvial terraces that allow obtaining the chronology of the successive landscape changes of the course of the Tagus River attributed to the activity of the Fault of Alentejo-Plasencia (APF). The “Appalachian” relief of Monfragüe National Park, constituting a series of quartzitic combs with direction NW, between which they find slopes, hills and valleys following the same direction, for the dismantlement of the Cenozoic cover that was covering the substratum (still present in the central sector) and encasement of the Rivers Tagus and Tiétar. The remains of fluvial terraces inside and outside the Park stand out at different heights and so they originate from different times and show different landscapes along the routes of the Tagus river and its movement over time. In the north end (basin of the Campo Arañuelo), there are remains of ten fluvial terraces of relative importance attributed to the River Tagus (with heights relative to the thalweg between 120 and 20 m). In the south edge, there are eight levels attributed to a former fluvial drainage network, which assimilates to the River Tagus, with the more recent level reaching over 280 m on the current river. Neotectonics readjustments that rejuvenated the relief produced the elevation of the socle and cover, at the time of diversions in the path of the fluvial network, up to the structure and encasement (for supertax and/or antecedence). During the Quaternary, the activity of the Alentejo-Plasencia Fault (APF) has given rise to palaeogeographic changes in the fluvial valley of the Tagus River. During the ancient Lower Pleistocene, its course passed south of the current one (Talaván-Torrejón el Rubio basin); at the end of the Lower Pleistocene, it came out crossing the syncline through the Boquerón porthole, and the meander that bordered the town of Almaraz was abandoned; at the beginning of the Middle Pleistocene, it changes its direction, from NE–SW to SE–NW, leaving the porthole and joining the Tiétar river within the Park; later it moves somewhat to the south. These changes in the route and the anomalous fitting of the course of the Tagus River into the Paleozoic substrate, have been attributed to the APF, which, through impulses, has had a great activity from the Lower Pleistocene to the Middle Pleistocene. Full article
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19 pages, 6013 KiB  
Article
Geomorphological and Geochronological Analysis Applied to the Quaternary Landscape Evolution of the Yeltes River (Salamanca, Spain)
by Iván Martín-Martín, Pablo-Gabriel Silva, Antonio Martínez-Graña and Javier Elez
Sustainability 2020, 12(19), 7869; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12197869 - 23 Sep 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2234
Abstract
This paper aims to study the Quaternary geomorphological evolution of the Yeltes river-valley (Duero Basin, Central Spain) primarily based on the study of the Late Neogene piedmont dissected by the river and its Quaternary terrace sequence, since fluvial terraces are excellent archives to [...] Read more.
This paper aims to study the Quaternary geomorphological evolution of the Yeltes river-valley (Duero Basin, Central Spain) primarily based on the study of the Late Neogene piedmont dissected by the river and its Quaternary terrace sequence, since fluvial terraces are excellent archives to study the landscape and climate evolution during this period. Detailed geomorphological mapping implemented in GIS-based digital elevation models was used to the further applications of existing fluvial chronofunctions (relative terrace height-age transfer functions) to establish a numerical geochronology to the sequence of fluvial terraces in the zone. The obtained theoretical ages points to an onset of fluvial incision in the zone after 2.0–2.5 Myr ago, with the dissection of the “Raña surface” (a Gelasian alluvial piedmont widely developed in Central Spain). The obtained terrace ages coincide, in most cases, with warm isotopic stages (MIS) or mainly with the transit of cold to warm MIS. Additionally, this study suggests that the full connectivity of the Yeltes drainage (Ciudad Rodrigo Basin) with the Atlantic drainage was not completely effective until MIS 9 (c. 0.29 Myr). The new reported data allows for the exploration of the timing and processes involved in the capture of inland sedimentary basins (Ciudad Rodrigo, Duero basins) by the Atlantic drainage during the early Quaternary. Full article
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24 pages, 14925 KiB  
Article
Puyango, Ecuador Petrified Forest, a Geological Heritage of the Cretaceous Albian-Middle, and Its Relevance for the Sustainable Development of Geotourism
by Fernando Morante-Carballo, Geanella Herrera-Narváez, Nelson Jiménez-Orellana and Paúl Carrión-Mero
Sustainability 2020, 12(16), 6579; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12166579 - 14 Aug 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3942
Abstract
Geodiversity treaties have multiplied and given rise to geological heritage as a singular value of protection and preservation for territories. The Puyango Petrified Forest (PPF) is a recognized Ecuadorian reserve, which was declared a National Heritage Treasure. It has an area of 2659 [...] Read more.
Geodiversity treaties have multiplied and given rise to geological heritage as a singular value of protection and preservation for territories. The Puyango Petrified Forest (PPF) is a recognized Ecuadorian reserve, which was declared a National Heritage Treasure. It has an area of 2659 hectares, and it is located in the south of Ecuador, between the provinces of El Oro and Loja. The petrified trunks and trees were buried by volcanic lava, dating from the Cretaceous Period, 96 to 112 million years ago. Thus, silicification and carbonization, two important fossilization events, have produced hundreds of samples of paleontological wealth in Puyango. The objective of this work is to methodologically assess the geodiversity of a fraction of the PPF by registering its geological heritage and value for its preservation and sustainable development. The methodology is based on: (i) Analysis of information on the territory used for tourist visits, as a pilot study area. Presentation of paleontological components and their main sections to enhance their geotouristics value; (ii) Assessment of the geological heritage for its geotourism categorization with a recognized scientific methodology and one proposed by the co-authors propose; and (iii) Analysis of Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) as a guide for protection and development strategies. Findings reveal the high geotourism potential for a Geopark Project in Puyango, since only 300 hectares are used for tourism and the remaining area is a virgin environment for research and improving knowledge of geodiversity and biodiversity. Full article
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22 pages, 28252 KiB  
Article
Landscape Evaluation as a Complementary Tool in Environmental Assessment. Study Case in Urban Areas: Salamanca (Spain)
by Marco Criado, Antonio Martínez-Graña, Fernando Santos-Francés and Leticia Merchán
Sustainability 2020, 12(16), 6395; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12166395 - 8 Aug 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2595
Abstract
In recent years, the landscape has become another environmental resource, so it is important to incorporate it into planning actions. However, its broad sense of study has made it difficult to develop methodologies that precisely diagnose the state of the landscape and its [...] Read more.
In recent years, the landscape has become another environmental resource, so it is important to incorporate it into planning actions. However, its broad sense of study has made it difficult to develop methodologies that precisely diagnose the state of the landscape and its management requirements, especially in dynamic spaces like urban areas. In order to develop a method capable of providing information that can be incorporated into environmental assessment and territorial planning tasks so that the needs of the landscape are taken into account in the decision-making stages, an objective methodology is presented based on the study of different parameters (biotic, abiotic and socioeconomic) analyzed in the field and subsequently geoprocessed through Geographic Information Systems according to their influence on the landscape. Through the proposed methodology it is possible to determine the quality, fragility and need of protection of the landscape, as well as to identify the diverse landscape units that form the landscape of a territory. Based on these results, a landscape diagnosis can be drawn up to quantify its overall and partial state, carry out monitoring analyses and make comparisons between different landscape units, so that management measures can be adopted according to the obtained scenarios. Full article
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19 pages, 10884 KiB  
Article
Geomorphological Analysis Applied to the Evolution of the Quaternary Landscape of the Tormes River (Salamanca, Spain)
by J.L. Goy, G. Rodríguez López, A.M. Martínez-Graña, R. Cruz and V. Valdés
Sustainability 2019, 11(24), 7255; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11247255 - 17 Dec 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2643
Abstract
This paper presents a geomorphological analysis of the Tormes River during the Quaternary. The Tormes River formed in the center-west of the Iberian Peninsula in the province of Salamanca. It runs along a Cenozoic basin with basement materials and through Varisco, and consists [...] Read more.
This paper presents a geomorphological analysis of the Tormes River during the Quaternary. The Tormes River formed in the center-west of the Iberian Peninsula in the province of Salamanca. It runs along a Cenozoic basin with basement materials and through Varisco, and consists of mainly granitic and metamorphic materials, leaving a wide stream of river terraces, both erosional and depositional, that confirm its evolution throughout the Quaternary. Geomorphological analyses using Geographic Information Systems tools, Digital terrain model high resolution (MDT05, LIDAR), Orthophotos (scale 1:5000), and geological maps (1:50,000 Series Magna) have allowed different morphologies and depositional terraces to be distinguished, namely, 19 levels of erosional terraces and 3 levels of erosion surfaces. Based on these correlations, the levels of terraces in the Tormes River between T1 (+140 m) and T7 (+75–80 m) are located in the Pleistocene, those between T8 (+58–64 m) and T14 (+18–23 m) in the Middle Pleistocene, those between T15 (+12–13 m) and T17 (+6–7 m) in the Upper Pleistocene, and those between T18 (+3 m) and T19 (+1.5 m) in the Holocene. The erosion surfaces are divided into six levels: S6 (+145 m), S5 (+150 m), S4 (+160 m), S3 (+170 m), S2 (+180 m) and S1 (+190 m) located in the Lower Pleistocene, This work performs a geomorphological mapping procedure applied to the evolutionary analysis of the landscape, so that it determines different geomorphological units allowing the relief and morphology of the terrain in past times, establishing a dynamic analysis of the landscapes. Full article
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