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Special Issue "Entrepreneurship and Intrapreneurship in Social, Sustainable, and Economic Development"

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Sustainable Management".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2020).

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Sebastian Aparicio
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Durham University Business School, Durham University, Durham, UK
Interests: entrepreneurship; economic growth; institutional economics; sustainable development
Dr. Andreu Turro
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Business, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Spain
Interests: Intrapreneurship, Institutional economics, Innovation, Firm growth
Dr. Maria Noguera
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Tourism and Hospitality Management, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Spain
Interests: Gender, Female entrepreneurship, Institutional economics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Entrepreneurship is a research area that has grown rapidly over the last 30 years. Scholars from different disciplines have contributed to understanding psychological, sociological, anthropological, managerial and economic aspects of entrepreneurial activity (Landström, Harirchi, and Åström, 2012). Among these contributions, academia has recognised the importance of institutions not only for entrepreneurship but also for economic development (Bjørnskov and Foss, 2016). Yet, there is still much room to keep exploring how other sorts of entrepreneurial activities can enhance economic, social and sustainable development from an institutional perspective (Urbano, Aparicio, and Audretsch, 2019).

Although entrepreneurship is diverse in terms of its types and nature, particular gaps might exist from sociodemographic characteristics, corporate dynamics, regional and national outputs and environmental issues (Audretsch, Kuratko, and Link, 2015). For example, finer connections between women’s entrepreneurship (Noguera, Alvarez, and Urbano, 2013), intrapreneurship (Turró, Urbano, and Peris-Ortiz, 2014) and sustainable entrepreneurship (Pacheco, Dean, and Payne, 2010), among other (less explored) types of entrepreneurial activities and development, might serve to improve our understanding of entrepreneurial behavior. 

There is also a lacuna about the role of the institutional context (North, 1990) in shaping individual decisions not only for becoming entrepreneurs (Yunis, Hashim, and Anderson, 2019) but also for undertaking innovative projects within firms (Turró et al., 2014). Hence, it is suggested that institutions may condition the identification of entrepreneurial opportunities that offer solutions for social and sustainable problems at the regional and country level (Pacheco et al., 2010).

Given these research opportunities, the aims and scope of this particular Special Issue are very broad. Specific topics, therefore, may include but are not limited to explorations about the influence of (formal and informal) institutions on gender issues, corporate entrepreneurship and intrapreneurship, as well as on green entrepreneurial activity for sustainable development. To achieve this aim, this Special Issue invites scholars within all the main economics, management and sustainability subdisciplines, among others areas, to submit conceptual and/or empirical papers which present cutting-edge research on entrepreneurship and intrapreneurship for sustainable development at the regional and national level. Papers which examine trends and initiatives, employ original methodologies and offer interesting empirical insights and theoretical contributions to this issue are very welcome.

Many thanks in advance for considering this Special Issue and we look forward to hearing from you.

References

Audretsch, D. B., Kuratko, D. F., & Link, A. N. (2015). Making sense of the elusive paradigm of entrepreneurship. Small Business Economics, 45(4), 703-712.

Bjørnskov, C., & Foss, N. J. (2016). Institutions, entrepreneurship, and economic growth: what do we know and what do we still need to know? Academy of Management Perspectives, 30(3), 292-315.

Landström, H., Harirchi, G., & Åström, F. (2012). Entrepreneurship: Exploring the knowledge base. Research Policy, 41(7), 1154-1181.

Noguera, M., Alvarez, C., & Urbano, D. (2013). Socio-cultural factors and female entrepreneurship. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 9(2), 183-197.

North, D. C. (1990). Institutions, institutional change and economic performance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Pacheco, D. F., Dean, T. J., & Payne, D. S. (2010). Escaping the green prison: Entrepreneurship and the creation of opportunities for sustainable development. Journal of Business Venturing, 25(5), 464-480.

Turró, A., Urbano, D., & Peris-Ortiz, M. (2014). Culture and innovation: The moderating effect of cultural values on corporate entrepreneurship. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 88, 360-369.

Urbano, D., Aparicio, S., & Audretsch, D. (2019). Twenty-five years of research on institutions, entrepreneurship, and economic growth: what has been learned? Small Business Economics, 53(1), 21-49.

Yunis, M., Hashim, H., & Anderson, A. (2019). Enablers and Constraints of Female Entrepreneurship in Khyber Pukhtunkhawa, Pakistan: Institutional and Feminist Perspectives. Sustainability, 11(1), 27.

Dr. Sebastian Aparicio
Dr. Andreu Turro
Dr. Maria Noguera
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • entrepreneurial activity
  • intrapreneurship
  • gender
  • institutions
  • sustainable entrepreneurship
  • national growth
  • regional development

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Editorial

Jump to: Research

Editorial
Entrepreneurship and Intrapreneurship in Social, Sustainable, and Economic Development: Opportunities and Challenges for Future Research
Sustainability 2020, 12(21), 8958; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12218958 - 28 Oct 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1707
Abstract
Understanding entrepreneurship and intrapreneurship as engines of outcomes beyond economic terms, this paper introduces the Special Issue “Entrepreneurship and intrapreneurship in social, sustainable, and economic development”. Institutions set the basis to analyze the role societies and organizations play in supporting entrepreneurial and intrapreneurial [...] Read more.
Understanding entrepreneurship and intrapreneurship as engines of outcomes beyond economic terms, this paper introduces the Special Issue “Entrepreneurship and intrapreneurship in social, sustainable, and economic development”. Institutions set the basis to analyze the role societies and organizations play in supporting entrepreneurial and intrapreneurial activity. Thus, we take a broad look at formal and informal institutions as those contextual components that are encompassed in a social progress orientation. Based on this, we discuss and provide examples about how entrepreneurship and intrapreneurship lead social, sustainable, and economic outcomes. Thus, in this paper and this Issue, we argue that it is necessary to consider those (institutional) antecedents and (developmental) consequences of entrepreneurship and its diversity as a simultaneous process. In addition to summarizing the main contributions of those articles contained in this Issue, we highlight some opportunities and challenges to further explore the role of entrepreneurship and intrapreneurship not only in economic development but also in social change and sustainability. Full article
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Research

Jump to: Editorial

Article
College Students’ Entrepreneurial Mindset: Educational Experiences Override Gender and Major
Sustainability 2020, 12(19), 8272; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12198272 - 08 Oct 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1037
Abstract
Entrepreneurship education has been popularly adopted in higher education contexts. Although evidence-based implementations of such education are widely acknowledged as beneficial, valid assessments of it are sparse. One possible outcome of entrepreneurship education is a change in students’ entrepreneurial mindset, which can be [...] Read more.
Entrepreneurship education has been popularly adopted in higher education contexts. Although evidence-based implementations of such education are widely acknowledged as beneficial, valid assessments of it are sparse. One possible outcome of entrepreneurship education is a change in students’ entrepreneurial mindset, which can be measured by the recently validated College Students’ Entrepreneurial Mindset Scale (CS-EMS). However, this scale awaits evidence regarding measurement invariance. This study aims to (1) examine measurement invariance of the CS-EMS; (2) compare the latent and observed means across groups based on gender, major, and educational experiences; and (3) investigate the conditional effects of the three grouping variables. Using data from 317 Korean college students’ survey responses, we conducted sequential tests of factorial invariance and latent mean comparisons using multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis. Additionally, the conditional effects of the gender, major, and educational experiences were tested by structural equation modeling. The results indicate that strict invariance held for the groups compared by either gender or educational experiences, while scalar invariance held between the engineering and non-engineering groups. While the male, engineering, and educational experience groups generally scored higher on both the latent and observed sub-scales, the results of the conditional effects of grouping variables indicated that educational experiences mattered most. One practical implication for the educators is that the CS-EMS is a promising assessment tool for addressing the effectiveness of entrepreneurship education, especially when the targeted educational goals are any of its sub-constructs. Full article
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Article
Entrepreneurial Competencies and Organisational Change—Assessing Entrepreneurial Staff Competencies within Higher Education Institutions
Sustainability 2020, 12(18), 7323; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12187323 - 07 Sep 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1133
Abstract
Universities have become more entrepreneurial organisations in the past decades. However, the entrepreneurial competences needed for driving societal change have not been largely discussed in research literature. This paper sought to examine entrepreneurial staff competencies in the context of universities of applied sciences. [...] Read more.
Universities have become more entrepreneurial organisations in the past decades. However, the entrepreneurial competences needed for driving societal change have not been largely discussed in research literature. This paper sought to examine entrepreneurial staff competencies in the context of universities of applied sciences. A single case study from Finland, Tampere University of Applied Science, was selected. As the case institution has systematically developed an entrepreneurial strategy, the aim was to examine how entrepreneurial thinking and actions at individual and organisational levels were realised. The quantitative study involved 17 supervisors and 39 employees, and the survey took place in the Spring of 2020. The results indicate that the entrepreneurial strategy has been successfully implemented. Although both supervisors and employees evaluate themselves and the organisation to be entrepreneurial, internal communication should be further developed. Especially the provision of constructive feedback to support self-efficacy and self-esteem should be highlighted. As previous studies have stressed the challenges of integrating entrepreneurial behaviour in a ‘traditional’ academic context, these results provide insights for universities aiming to implement an entrepreneurial strategy, stressing psychological factors in the development of entrepreneurial competencies. Furthermore, we introduce a new theoretical approach to the discussion on the entrepreneurial university based on entrepreneurial competences. Full article
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Article
Entrepreneurial Orientation (EO), Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC), and Performance in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs): Gender Gap and Inter-Country Context
Sustainability 2020, 12(17), 7159; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12177159 - 02 Sep 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1413
Abstract
Expanding and maintaining the number of Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) is directly related to sustainable economic, social, and individual development. However, SMEs are vulnerable to competition. Thus, this study focusses on the analysis of entrepreneurial orientation (EO) as an antecedent of integrated [...] Read more.
Expanding and maintaining the number of Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) is directly related to sustainable economic, social, and individual development. However, SMEs are vulnerable to competition. Thus, this study focusses on the analysis of entrepreneurial orientation (EO) as an antecedent of integrated marketing communications’ (IMC) successful implementation directed at improving SMEs’ performance, with additional focus on the institutional inter-country context. Considering the role of owner-managers in SMEs, analysis of the gender gap is also applied. The data from 315 managers’ surveys (in Spain and Belarus) is analyzed using Structural Equation Modelling (SEM). The results show a positive relationship between EO, IMC, and performance among SMEs in both markets. However, these connections are significantly stronger in the case of male, rather than female managers in a developed market (Spain). There is no gender gap in an emerging market (Belarus). Moreover, and conversely, in a developing market, the EO-IMC-performance relations are more intensive when the manager is female. Further implementations are provided for practitioners and government organizations with a focus on the gender gap and inter-country differences. Full article
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Article
Diagnosis of Administrative and Financial Processes in Community-Based Tourism Enterprises in Ecuador
Sustainability 2020, 12(17), 7123; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12177123 - 01 Sep 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1053
Abstract
In recent years, community-based tourism has become a source of income within indigenous and rural communities, either as a principal or complementary activity. However, the management of the administrative and financial processes of this type of enterprise was unknown. In this sense, this [...] Read more.
In recent years, community-based tourism has become a source of income within indigenous and rural communities, either as a principal or complementary activity. However, the management of the administrative and financial processes of this type of enterprise was unknown. In this sense, this paper aims to analyze the state of these processes within the so-called Community-Based Tourism Enterprises (CBTEs) in the provinces of Pichincha, Napo, and Imbabura (Ecuador). For this purpose, a matrix was designed to collect information on the administrative and financial processes that an enterprise should have, detailing all their elements with their respective assessment. Also, an interview was administered to the 28 community leaders (one for each CBTE) to diagnose each issue of business management. In this diagnosis, it was concluded that, despite having a certificate from the Ministry of Tourism (MINTUR), the Community-Based Tourism Enterprises have not implemented important administrative and financial processes such as a strategic plan, operational plan, market study, cost analysis, process manual, market plan, initial situation, results status, final status, or financial indicators. Therefore, in the long term, this leads to poor management of business resources, which can result in the closure of these enterprises. Full article
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Article
The Effects of Rural and Urban Areas on Time Allocated to Self-Employment: Differences between Men and Women
Sustainability 2020, 12(17), 7049; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12177049 - 29 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 793
Abstract
This study investigates the association of the rural–urban divide and the time individuals allocate to self-employment. The empirical analysis uses fixed effects modelling on data from the UK Household Longitudinal Survey over the period 2009–2019. The study identifies significant differences in the time [...] Read more.
This study investigates the association of the rural–urban divide and the time individuals allocate to self-employment. The empirical analysis uses fixed effects modelling on data from the UK Household Longitudinal Survey over the period 2009–2019. The study identifies significant differences in the time men and women allocate to self-employment between rural and urban areas according to their career age group. While men and women tend to allocate more time to selfemployment in their senior career age when residents of urban areas, the time they allocate to self-employment between rural and urban areas in early- and mid-career age differs markedly. More importantly, we find that significant differences exist not only between residents of rural and urban areas, but also between residents of these areas and in-migrants to these areas. We find a significant positive effect on the time senior career age women who migrate to rural areas allocate to self-employment. In contrast, we find that early career men who move from rural to urban areas allocate significantly more time to self-employment. The results reveal the existence of complex dynamics between gender and age, which affect the allocation of time to self-employment between rural and urban areas. Full article
Article
Social Entrepreneurial Intention and the Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic: A Structural Model
Sustainability 2020, 12(17), 6970; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12176970 - 27 Aug 2020
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 3990
Abstract
The interest in promoting social entrepreneurship projects lies in their ability to develop innovative solutions to social and environmental problems. This ability becomes even more important in situations of global crises such as that arising from COVID-19. Based on the Theory of Planned [...] Read more.
The interest in promoting social entrepreneurship projects lies in their ability to develop innovative solutions to social and environmental problems. This ability becomes even more important in situations of global crises such as that arising from COVID-19. Based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), an explanatory structural model of social entrepreneurial intention was tested, and the impact of the COVID-19 crisis on this intention was evaluated. To do this, a quantitative investigation was conducted using a survey of Spanish university students, obtaining a total of 558 responses: 324 before the COVID-19 crisis and 234 during the crisis period (February and June 2020). The results obtained make it possible to validate the explanatory model of social entrepreneurial intention from the perspective of the TPB. In addition, it shows that social entrepreneurial intention decreases in times of deep socioeconomic crises and high uncertainty, such as that caused by COVID-19. Full article
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Article
Flourishing Women through Sustainable Tourism Entrepreneurship
Sustainability 2020, 12(14), 5643; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12145643 - 14 Jul 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1487
Abstract
As a small island in the Mediterranean Sea, Cyprus must develop a sustainable tourism model. Although the ongoing political problems in Cyprus provide additional challenges, the number and activities of women ecotourism entrepreneurs demonstrated an inspiring growth over the last decade in the [...] Read more.
As a small island in the Mediterranean Sea, Cyprus must develop a sustainable tourism model. Although the ongoing political problems in Cyprus provide additional challenges, the number and activities of women ecotourism entrepreneurs demonstrated an inspiring growth over the last decade in the northern part of Cyprus. The well-being and flourishing of these women entrepreneurs influence their participation and further involvement in the sector. Psychological empowerment plays a significant role in achieving a flourishing society, and our results reveal that ecotourism can be used to create positive change in women’s lives. We study how the mindsets and flourishing levels of these ecotourism entrepreneurs are related and how empowerment can change the direction of this relationship. Our research model was developed based on the self-Determination theory. Surveys were distributed to 200 women ecotourism entrepreneurs in rural areas of Northern Cyprus. We demonstrate that women who have growth mindsets, i.e., those that believe people’s characteristics such as abilities are not fixed, experience lower levels of flourishing, perhaps contrary to what some might expect. This result may be due to the presence of gender inequality and may be an outcome of living in a region where a frozen conflict places additional external constraints on women entrepreneurs. However, as we predict, psychological empowerment changes the direction of this relationship. When psychological empowerment is high, women with a higher level of growth mindset experience a greater level of flourishing, even in an unfavorable context. This is the first study which analyzes women ecotourism entrepreneurs in Northern Cyprus. Moreover, this is the first study that focuses on the relationship between growth mindset, flourishing and psychological empowerment. The results can be used by governmental and non-governmental organizations as a source in their decision-making processes while managing and coordinating microfinance opportunities for rural development to support women’s empowerment and well-being. Full article
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Article
The Impact of the Family Background on Students’ Entrepreneurial Intentions: An Empirical Analysis
Sustainability 2020, 12(11), 4775; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12114775 - 11 Jun 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1705
Abstract
In the current economic and social environment, a real challenge for youth is the acquisition and development of the relevant skills in entrepreneurship in order to consider entrepreneurship as a desirable employment choice. Given this aspect, the purpose of this paper is to [...] Read more.
In the current economic and social environment, a real challenge for youth is the acquisition and development of the relevant skills in entrepreneurship in order to consider entrepreneurship as a desirable employment choice. Given this aspect, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the main factors influencing students’ entrepreneurial intentions, paying particular attention to their entrepreneurial family background. Additionally, the paper aims to explore the effect of entrepreneurial family background on the relationship between effectiveness of entrepreneurship education and entrepreneurial intention. We conducted a study where results were based on the outcomes of a survey among Romanian high school and university students in the final year (N = 617). Our four main hypotheses were tested through independent samples t-tests, correlation analysis, and hierarchical multiple regression analysis. The findings highlighted that the students with an entrepreneurial family background reported a higher entrepreneurial intention than those without such a background. The variables that positively influenced the entrepreneurial intentions of the students were entrepreneurial family background, effectiveness of entrepreneurship education, and entrepreneurial personality traits. Furthermore, this entrepreneurial family background negatively moderated the relationship between effectiveness of entrepreneurship education and entrepreneurial intention. For this reason, emphasis should be placed on both formal and informal entrepreneurial education, which will increase the propensity of young people to choose an entrepreneurial career. Full article
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Article
Entrepreneurship and Innovation in Soccer: Web of Science Bibliometric Analysis
Sustainability 2020, 12(11), 4499; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12114499 - 02 Jun 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1698
Abstract
According to the existing literature, there is growing interest in the sports industry by individuals involved in entrepreneurship and innovation. However, no bibliometric analyses on the importance of and interest that these individuals have in the football industry have been conducted. A total [...] Read more.
According to the existing literature, there is growing interest in the sports industry by individuals involved in entrepreneurship and innovation. However, no bibliometric analyses on the importance of and interest that these individuals have in the football industry have been conducted. A total of 220 articles and reviews retrieved from Thomson Reuters Web of Science (Core Collection™) between 1997 and 2019 were analysed. These articles were published in 169 different journals by 609 authors from 340 different institutions in 46 countries. The following basic bibliometric analyses and co-occurrence networks were carried out: co-authorship and co-words. As a result, four clusters that summarise the following four different thematic areas were found: (1) football, entrepreneurship and social development, (2) football, innovation and management, (3) football, efficiency and new technology, and (4) football, injuries and innovation in rehabilitation. A thematic analysis of the four clusters found was carried out. Finally, practical implications and future lines of research were presented. Full article
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Article
Cultural Antecedents of Green Entrepreneurship in Saudi Arabia: An Institutional Approach
Sustainability 2020, 12(9), 3673; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12093673 - 02 May 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1566
Abstract
Recent decades have brought cultural changes toward the increase of environmentally-friendly initiatives such as green entrepreneurship. Some countries are failing to develop environmental initiatives, whereas others are transitioning and advancing toward this new trend. In particular, Saudi Arabia has initiated efforts toward becoming [...] Read more.
Recent decades have brought cultural changes toward the increase of environmentally-friendly initiatives such as green entrepreneurship. Some countries are failing to develop environmental initiatives, whereas others are transitioning and advancing toward this new trend. In particular, Saudi Arabia has initiated efforts toward becoming an ecologically-friendly society. Motivated by this, we explore whether cultural characteristics are associated with green entrepreneurship in Saudi Arabia. Institutional economics is adopted to frame our hypotheses and analysis. The hypothesized relationships were empirically tested in a sample of 84 observations from 21 cities during the period 2015–2018. Data were collected from reports by the Saudi General Authority and analyzed through regression models. The main results show that cultural characteristics, such as environmental actions, environmental consciousness, and temporal orientation, increase the level of green entrepreneurial activity across cities in Saudi Arabia. The findings of this study contribute to existing knowledge on green entrepreneurship, as well as to the discussion of implications for policy and practice related to environmentally-friendly productive activities. Full article
Article
The Efficiency of R&D Expenditures in ASEAN Countries
Sustainability 2020, 12(7), 2686; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12072686 - 29 Mar 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1629
Abstract
The aim of this study is to determine whether funds spent on research and development are used efficiently in Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries. Fifteen countries in the 2000-2016 period have been examined. Measuring the efficiency of research and development spending [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to determine whether funds spent on research and development are used efficiently in Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries. Fifteen countries in the 2000-2016 period have been examined. Measuring the efficiency of research and development spending was performed using the non-parametric Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) methodology, which allows for the assessment of input–output efficiency. The research includes the following input and output variables: annual public and private spending on innovation, high-technology exports as a percentage of manufactured exports, patent applications to the World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO) by priority year for million inhabitants, trademark applications (TA) for million inhabitants and information and communications technology (ICT) exports as a percentage of manufactured exports. Hong Kong and the Philippines are perhaps the most efficient with respect to research and development (R&D) when analysed using the constant return to scale (CRS) approach. However, according to the variable return to scale (VRS) approach, the most efficient ASEAN countries are Hong Kong, Indonesia, Singapore and the Philippines. The study also confirms that increased spending on innovation is resulting in non-proportional effects. Full article
Article
Obstacles to Sustainable Entrepreneurship amongst Tourism Students: A Gender Comparison
Sustainability 2020, 12(5), 1812; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12051812 - 28 Feb 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1953
Abstract
Students’ start-ups are making a significant contribution towards sustainable entrepreneurship development. Thus, this article examines the obstacles to sustainable entrepreneurship amongst university students of tourism and focuses on gender difference. The empirical analysis was based on data from 290 tourism students’ surveys accomplished [...] Read more.
Students’ start-ups are making a significant contribution towards sustainable entrepreneurship development. Thus, this article examines the obstacles to sustainable entrepreneurship amongst university students of tourism and focuses on gender difference. The empirical analysis was based on data from 290 tourism students’ surveys accomplished in Spain, in the period from 2012 to 2018. Descriptive statistics were used for the data analysis and a t-test for gender comparison analysis. The research revealed that the students’ entrepreneurial intentions did not affect their evaluation of the barriers preventing them from creating their own businesses. The main barriers to new business creation were mainly related to economic factors (both societal and university related), the level of innovation in society, and the students’ self-confidence (mostly with regard to interest and motivation). Female students were more conscious of the possible obstacles to new business creation than male students. A significant difference between male and female students regarding personal obstacles was explained by the fact that the females considered their lack of entrepreneurial education as more significant than did the males. In addition, the female students tended to need more economic and practical support than male students. Finally, practical suggestions to encourage sustainable entrepreneurship amongst tourism students are discussed. Full article
Article
Relationship between Entrepreneurial Team Characteristics and Venture Performance in China: From the Aspects of Cognition and Behaviors
Sustainability 2020, 12(1), 377; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12010377 - 02 Jan 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1170
Abstract
Entrepreneurial and innovative activities are becoming a global economic and social phenomenon, especially in emerging economies. This study focuses on a typical emerging economy, China, and its entrepreneurial and innovative activities. On the basis of current research, the literature review and the chain [...] Read more.
Entrepreneurial and innovative activities are becoming a global economic and social phenomenon, especially in emerging economies. This study focuses on a typical emerging economy, China, and its entrepreneurial and innovative activities. On the basis of current research, the literature review and the chain of “cognition–behavior–outcome” are used for constructing the theoretical model for the relationship among entrepreneurial team cognition characteristics, behavior characteristics, and venture performance. A total of 101 valid copies of questionnaire are collected from entrepreneurial team members, as the research objects, and the structural equation modeling (SEM) method is applied to test the theoretical hypotheses. The research results reveal (1) significant effects of entrepreneurial team cognition characteristics and behavior characteristics on venture performance and (2) partial mediating effects of entrepreneurial team behavior characteristics on the relationship between cognition characteristics and venture performance. The research results are the expansion of research on entrepreneurial teams as well as the important reference for entrepreneurial team management and behavioral practice. Full article
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Article
Antecedents of Entrepreneurial Intention among Young People: Model and Regional Evidence
Sustainability 2019, 11(24), 6993; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11246993 - 07 Dec 2019
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 1478
Abstract
Entrepreneurial intentions determine to a large extent the entrepreneurial behavior; therefore, the study of those intentions and the factors that influence them constitute a valid research area. The purpose of this regional comparative study was to design a new causal model of the [...] Read more.
Entrepreneurial intentions determine to a large extent the entrepreneurial behavior; therefore, the study of those intentions and the factors that influence them constitute a valid research area. The purpose of this regional comparative study was to design a new causal model of the formation of the entrepreneurial intention among young adults in Spain and Poland. Using the Structural Equation Modeling (PLS) methodology, the results show that subjective variables (beliefs, social norms, values) initiate the chain of effects that influence the action variables (motivation, self-efficacy, intention). Attitude is the nexus variable between both groups of variables. It is verified that there are no significant differences in the responses to the items or in the causal relationships of the model between both countries. This confirms the relevance of a homogenizing generational approach at a global level that allows the application of policies to promote the entrepreneurial intention for the entire segment. The proposed model takes into account and complements the previous designs, and is practical because it can be used at different levels of the education sector and by institutions promoting entrepreneurship and sustainability. Full article
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