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Entrepreneurial Orientation (EO), Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC), and Performance in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs): Gender Gap and Inter-Country Context

1
Business Department, Autonomous University of Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia, Spain
2
Marketing Department, University of Murcia, 30100 Murcia, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2020, 12(17), 7159; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12177159
Received: 24 July 2020 / Revised: 29 August 2020 / Accepted: 1 September 2020 / Published: 2 September 2020
Expanding and maintaining the number of Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) is directly related to sustainable economic, social, and individual development. However, SMEs are vulnerable to competition. Thus, this study focusses on the analysis of entrepreneurial orientation (EO) as an antecedent of integrated marketing communications’ (IMC) successful implementation directed at improving SMEs’ performance, with additional focus on the institutional inter-country context. Considering the role of owner-managers in SMEs, analysis of the gender gap is also applied. The data from 315 managers’ surveys (in Spain and Belarus) is analyzed using Structural Equation Modelling (SEM). The results show a positive relationship between EO, IMC, and performance among SMEs in both markets. However, these connections are significantly stronger in the case of male, rather than female managers in a developed market (Spain). There is no gender gap in an emerging market (Belarus). Moreover, and conversely, in a developing market, the EO-IMC-performance relations are more intensive when the manager is female. Further implementations are provided for practitioners and government organizations with a focus on the gender gap and inter-country differences. View Full-Text
Keywords: SMEs; entrepreneurial orientation; IMC capability; organizational performance; competitive advantage; gender; inter-country analysis SMEs; entrepreneurial orientation; IMC capability; organizational performance; competitive advantage; gender; inter-country analysis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Butkouskaya, V.; Llonch-Andreu, J.; Alarcón-del-Amo, M.-d.-C. Entrepreneurial Orientation (EO), Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC), and Performance in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs): Gender Gap and Inter-Country Context. Sustainability 2020, 12, 7159. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12177159

AMA Style

Butkouskaya V, Llonch-Andreu J, Alarcón-del-Amo M-d-C. Entrepreneurial Orientation (EO), Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC), and Performance in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs): Gender Gap and Inter-Country Context. Sustainability. 2020; 12(17):7159. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12177159

Chicago/Turabian Style

Butkouskaya, Vera; Llonch-Andreu, Joan; Alarcón-del-Amo, María-del-Carmen. 2020. "Entrepreneurial Orientation (EO), Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC), and Performance in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs): Gender Gap and Inter-Country Context" Sustainability 12, no. 17: 7159. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12177159

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