Special Issue "Monitoring Physiological Adaptation to Physical Training"

A special issue of Sports (ISSN 2075-4663).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 September 2019

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Michael R. Esco

Department of Kinesiology, University of Alabama, USA
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Guest Editor
Dr. Andrew Flatt

Department of Health Sciences and Kinesiology, Georgia Southern University
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Guest Editor
Dr. Fabio Nakamura

Physical Education UPE/UFPB, Joao Pessoa, PB, Brasil
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Interests: physiology; exercise; athletes; physical training; conditioning; training adaptation; monitoring; sport science; performance

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Monitoring physiological adaptation throughout physical training is becoming commonplace in practice. However, the research to validate such methods is lagging behind the emerging technological advances. Furthermore, numerous considerations are to be made to precisely understand the physiological changes in response to field conditioning. At a minimum, the chosen method must be specific to the domain of fitness that is targeted by the given physical training stimuli. A variety of subjective and objective methods exist to track changes in body composition, aerobic fitness, muscular performance, and flexibility, as well as for monitoring physiological responses to activity. However, techniques with unsubstantiated claims concerning their accuracy are often chosen.

This Special Issue will focus on a variety of topics related to the efficacy and usefulness of various methods for monitoring physiological adaptation to physical training. The goal of this Special Issue is to enhance the body of knowledge in this area with a particular focus on application. Submissions for original research, meta-analyses, reviews, and case reports are welcomed.

Prof. Michael R. Esco
Dr. Andrew Flatt
Dr. Fabio Nakamura
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sports is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 350 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Physiology
  • Exercise
  • Athletes
  • Physical Training
  • Conditioning
  • Training Adaptation
  • Evaluation
  • Sport Science
  • Monitoring
  • Performance
  • Recovery

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Musculoskeletal System Dysfunction Degree on Psychophysiological Indicators of Paralympic Athletes
Received: 23 November 2018 / Revised: 19 February 2019 / Accepted: 21 February 2019 / Published: 26 February 2019
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Abstract
The purpose of the work was to identify the influence of functional class and degree of damage to extremities on psychophysiological indicators of Paralympians. The study involved 33 elite athletes with musculoskeletal system disorders of the 6 (n = 15) and 10 [...] Read more.
The purpose of the work was to identify the influence of functional class and degree of damage to extremities on psychophysiological indicators of Paralympians. The study involved 33 elite athletes with musculoskeletal system disorders of the 6 (n = 15) and 10 (n = 18) functional classes in table tennis, aged 21–25 years old. Parameters characteristic for determining the psychophysiological state and typological characteristics of the nervous system were analyzed with the help of computer programs for psychophysiological testing. We determined the latent time of simple and complex reactions in different testing modes. Dispersion analysis was also used. We applied single-factor multidimensional dispersion analysis: one-way analysis of variance and General Linear Model, Multivariate. The indicators of psychophysiological testing were applied as dependent variables. The values of the functional class of athletes were used as the independent variable. To study the influence of damage degree of the upper or lower extremities on psychophysiological indicators, the extremities damage degree was applied as an independent variable. The time in the Paralympic 6 functional class to reach the minimum signal exposure in feedback mode was significantly longer compared with the 10 Paralympic functional class (p < 0.05). Comparing psychophysiological indicators when Paralympians are divided into groups more differentiated than functional classes (that is, according to the nature of the disease or the degree of limb lesions), significant differences were found in all psychophysiological indicators between the athletes of different groups. The greatest impact on psychophysiological indicators was a lesion of the lower extremities. The training of Paralympians in table tennis should consider the reaction rate indicators. In addition, when improving the functional classification of Paralympians in table tennis, a more differentiated approach should be taken when considering their capabilities, including psychophysiological indicators. During training and functional classification of Paralympic athletes in table tennis, it is important to consider their functional class as well as the degree of damage to upper and lower extremities and the level of psychophysiological functioning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monitoring Physiological Adaptation to Physical Training)
Open AccessArticle
Association between Subjective Indicators of Recovery Status and Heart Rate Variability among Divison-1 Sprint-Swimmers
Received: 22 August 2018 / Revised: 4 September 2018 / Accepted: 7 September 2018 / Published: 11 September 2018
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (515 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Heart rate variability (HRV) is a physiological marker of training adaptation among athletes. However, HRV interpretation is challenging when assessed in isolation due to its sensitivity to various training and non-training-related factors. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between [...] Read more.
Heart rate variability (HRV) is a physiological marker of training adaptation among athletes. However, HRV interpretation is challenging when assessed in isolation due to its sensitivity to various training and non-training-related factors. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between athlete-self report measures of recovery (ASRM) and HRV throughout a preparatory training period. Ultra-short natural logarithm of the root mean square of successive differences (LnRMSSD) and subjective ratings of sleep quality, fatigue, muscle soreness, stress and mood were acquired daily for 4 weeks among Division-1 sprint-swimmers (n = 17 males). ASRM were converted to z-scores and classified as average (z-score −0.5–0.5), better than average (z-score > 0.5) or worse than average (z-score < −0.5). Linear mixed models were used to evaluate differences in LnRMSSD based on ASRM classifications. LnRMSSD was higher (p < 0.05) when perceived sleep quality, fatigue, stress and mood were better than average versus worse than average. Within-subject correlations revealed that 15 of 17 subjects demonstrated at least one relationship (p < 0.05) between LnRMSSD and ASRM variables. Changes in HRV may be the result of non-training related factors and thus practitioners are encouraged to include subjective measures to facilitate targeted interventions to support training adaptations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monitoring Physiological Adaptation to Physical Training)
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Open AccessFeature PaperCase Report
Daily Heart Rate Variability before and after Concussion in an American College Football Player
Received: 21 March 2019 / Revised: 20 April 2019 / Accepted: 25 April 2019 / Published: 27 April 2019
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Abstract
This case report demonstrates the effects of sport-related concussion (SRC) on heart rate variability (HRV) in an American college football player. Daily measures of resting, ultra-short natural logarithm of the root mean square of successive differences (LnRMSSD), subjective wellbeing, and Player Load were [...] Read more.
This case report demonstrates the effects of sport-related concussion (SRC) on heart rate variability (HRV) in an American college football player. Daily measures of resting, ultra-short natural logarithm of the root mean square of successive differences (LnRMSSD), subjective wellbeing, and Player Load were obtained each training day throughout a 4-week spring camp and 4 weeks of preseason training. SRC occurred within the first 2 weeks of the preseason. During spring camp and preseason pre-SRC, the athlete demonstrated minimal day-to-day fluctuations in LnRMSSD, which increased post-SRC (LnRMSSD coefficient of variation pre-SRC ≤ 3.1%, post-SRC = 5.8%). Moderate decrements in daily-averaged LnRMSSD were observed post-SRC relative to pre-SRC (Effect Size ± 90% Confidence Interval = −1.12 ± 0.80), and the 7-day rolling average fell below the smallest worthwhile change for the remainder of the preseason. LnRMSSD responses to SRC appeared similar to trends associated with stress and training fatigue. Therefore, performance and sports medicine staff should maintain regular communication regarding player injury and fatigue status so that HRV can be interpreted in the appropriate context. Detection and monitoring of autonomic dysregulation post-SRC may require near-daily assessment, as LnRMSSD showed greater daily fluctuations rather than chronic suppression following the head injury. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monitoring Physiological Adaptation to Physical Training)
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Open AccessCase Report
Heart Rate Variability Responses to an Undulating Resistance Training Program in Free-Living Conditions: A Case Study in a Collegiate Athlete
Received: 11 September 2018 / Revised: 9 October 2018 / Accepted: 16 October 2018 / Published: 20 October 2018
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Abstract
The purpose of this case study was to evaluate the response in heart rate variability via the parasympathetically-mediated metric of the log-transformed root mean square of successive R-R interval differences (lnRMSSD) to weekly variations in total volume-load (TVL) during an 18-week periodized strength [...] Read more.
The purpose of this case study was to evaluate the response in heart rate variability via the parasympathetically-mediated metric of the log-transformed root mean square of successive R-R interval differences (lnRMSSD) to weekly variations in total volume-load (TVL) during an 18-week periodized strength training program in a competitive collegiate hockey athlete. The program consisted of three 60–90 min full-body exercise sessions per week with at least 24-h of rest between each session. Daily lnRMSSD measurements were taken immediately after waking using a validated smartphone application and the pulse-wave finger sensor. The weekly lnRMSSD values were calculated as the mean (lnRMSSDMEAN) and the coefficient of variation (lnRMSSDCV). A Pearson’s bivariate correlation of lnRMSSDMEAN and TVL revealed no statistically significant correlation between the two variables; TVL (r = −0.105, p = 0.678). However, significant correlations were found between lnRMSSDCV and both total load (TL) (r = −0.591, p = 0.013) and total volume (TV) (r = 0.765, p < 0.001). Additionally, weekly ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) mean values were statistically significantly correlated to TVL, r = 0.853, p < 0.001. It was concluded that lnRMSSDCV increased or decreased proportionally to an increase or decrease in TVL during the periodized resistance training program with TV being the strongest, independent indicator of these changes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monitoring Physiological Adaptation to Physical Training)
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