Spectroscopic, Chromatographic, and Chemometric Techniques Applied in Food Products Characterization

A special issue of Separations (ISSN 2297-8739). This special issue belongs to the section "Analysis of Food and Beverages".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 October 2022) | Viewed by 31562

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Guest Editor
Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca, 400372 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Interests: lipid and oilseeds technology; infrared spectroscopy; chemometrics; lipid oxidation; confectionery technology; food texture and rheology; food technology
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Guest Editor
Department of Food Engineering, University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca, 3-5 Mănăştur St., 400372 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Interests: antimicrobial packaging; natural preservatives; edible films; edible coatings; food preservation; food safety; food technology; food packaging
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The use of spectroscopic and/or chromatographic techniques coupled to chemometric methods represents a valuable tool for R&D in food manufacturing. The data collected can be used for the quality and safety evaluation of raw materials, ingredients, intermediate and finished food products. Through this Special Issue, authors are encouraged to submit manuscripts regarding:

  • Techniques for extraction, separation, estimation, and isolation of natural products;
  • Analytical method development and validation for food analysis;
  • Development and validation of rapid methods using calibration models based on near infrared (NIR) and/or middle infrared (MIR) spectra and chemometrics;
  • Physico-chemical characterization of foods by spectroscopic and/or chromatographic and/or chemometrics techniques;
  • Detection of food fraud and adulteration;
  • Determination of food authenticity and origin;
  • Assessment of chemical contaminants in food;
  • Evaluation of natural and synthetic additives;
  • Chemometrics tools for comparison and classification of agro-food products based on their physico-chemical properties, biological activities, sensory, and texture parameters.

Full-length original research articles, short communications, and review articles are welcomed.

Dr. Vlad Mureşan
Dr. Cristina Anamaria Semeniuc
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Separations is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • UV-Vis spectroscopy
  • NIR and MIR spectroscopy
  • FT-IR spectroscopy
  • Gas chromatography (GC)
  • Liquid chromatography (LC, HPLC)
  • Thin-layer chromatography (TLC)
  • Chemometrics
  • Food fraud and adulteration
  • Food authenticity and origin
  • Food chemical safety

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Editorial

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3 pages, 191 KiB  
Editorial
Spectroscopic, Chromatographic, and Chemometric Techniques Applied in Food Products Characterization
by Cristina Anamaria Semeniuc and Vlad Mureșan
Separations 2023, 10(1), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/separations10010055 - 14 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1484
Abstract
Spectroscopy is a technique indispensable for evaluating the quality of foods [...] Full article

Research

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16 pages, 3745 KiB  
Article
Analysis of the Lipid Component and the Sterol Ester Fraction for the Detection of Soft Wheat in Durum Wheat Flour and Pasta
by Daniele Naviglio, Angela Perrone, Francesca Varchetta, Paolo Trucillo, Domenico Montesano and Monica Gallo
Separations 2024, 11(2), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/separations11020053 - 7 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1344
Abstract
Food adulteration consists of changing the original structure of a food, and so, by its definition, it is a process not admitted by law. Adulterations can not only have commercial consequences, but also hygienic and nutritional ones, and in some cases, they can [...] Read more.
Food adulteration consists of changing the original structure of a food, and so, by its definition, it is a process not admitted by law. Adulterations can not only have commercial consequences, but also hygienic and nutritional ones, and in some cases, they can cause a serious danger to public health. Therefore, it is of great interest to understand and identify the modifications that alter the original chemical composition of a food item (nutrition label). Among the food processing sectors, the pasta food chain is a fascinating production process, which finds its roots in a mixture of a few, simple ingredients; in particular, in its basic formulation to produce pasta, exclusively durum wheat mixed with water is used, while soft wheat and therefore the flour obtained from it are destined for bakeries and the confectionery industry. In this work, a procedure was developed that allows the detection of the possible presence of soft wheat in durum wheat-based products, both in the flour and after the pasta-making process. It is to point out that this adulteration is only commercial fraud and there are no consequences for people’s health. In detail, the method was based on the isolation of the lipid fraction of flours and pastas and using the gas chromatographic analysis of the sterol ester fraction, which were not altered during the pasta-making phase, because they have very high boiling points. Based on the evaluation of some specific ratios between sterol esters, it was possible to trace the percentage of soft wheat present in a mixture with durum wheat, both in flour products and pastas. Full article
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14 pages, 2219 KiB  
Article
Comparative Characterization of Grain Protein Content and Composition by Chromatography-Based Separation Methods (SE-HPLC and RP-HPLC) of Ten Wheat Varieties Grown in Different Agro-Ecological Zones of Algeria
by Nesrine Hacini, Radia Djelloul, Ahmed Hadef, Marie-Françoise Samson and Dominique Desclaux
Separations 2022, 9(12), 443; https://doi.org/10.3390/separations9120443 - 15 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2186
Abstract
To characterize and compare the protein quality of ten durum wheat genotypes grown under three cropping modalities in Algeria (subhumid in Algiers, subhumid-semiarid in Constantine, and semiarid in Sétif), the protein profile of their kernels was performed by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (SE-HPLC and [...] Read more.
To characterize and compare the protein quality of ten durum wheat genotypes grown under three cropping modalities in Algeria (subhumid in Algiers, subhumid-semiarid in Constantine, and semiarid in Sétif), the protein profile of their kernels was performed by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (SE-HPLC and RP-HPLC). The “variety” factor has a major impact, mainly on the insoluble fraction (Fi), on the gliadin/glutenin ratio, on the large and small glutenin aggregates (F1 and F2, respectively), and on ω-gliadins and high molecular weight albumins (F3). Conversely, the total protein content and the albumin-globulin fraction (F5) depend mainly on the environment. The α- β- and γ-gliadins (F4) are equally dependent on variety and environment. The subhumid-semiarid agroecological conditions of Constantine (SH-SA) favored an important accumulation of proteins (14.1%), particularly by an increased synthesis of omega gliadins and high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS), compared to those of Algiers (SH) and Sétif (SA). For these latter environments, metabolic-type proteins are predominant, reflected in a higher F5 fraction (p < 0.05) (albumin and globulin), and significantly more alpha-beta and gamma gliadins. The use of chromatographic analyses to characterize wheat genotypes remains a reliable tool for breeding and variety promotion programs and can provide a better understanding of the ecophysiology of cereal crops. Full article
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15 pages, 2298 KiB  
Article
Expanding the Knowledge Related to Flavors and Fragrances by Means of Three-Dimensional Preparative Gas Chromatography and Molecular Spectroscopy
by Gemma De Grazia, Lorenzo Cucinotta, Archimede Rotondo, Paola Donato, Luigi Mondello and Danilo Sciarrone
Separations 2022, 9(8), 202; https://doi.org/10.3390/separations9080202 - 4 Aug 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2162
Abstract
As universally known, gas chromatography (GC) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) allows us to acquire spectra that can be searched in specific databases to attain qualitative information on a peak of interest. When not present in databases, structure elucidation is required before including [...] Read more.
As universally known, gas chromatography (GC) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) allows us to acquire spectra that can be searched in specific databases to attain qualitative information on a peak of interest. When not present in databases, structure elucidation is required before including a new component in a library: from that moment, scientists all around the world will be able to identify the new molecule with analytical confidence after GC-MS analysis. Conversely, if data are not shared in commercial databases, even if a molecule is studied and elucidated, it appears to be unknown or only identifiable on the basis of third-party data taken from the literature, which is a serious limitation. The present paper deals with a case that confirms this assumption. A component of Myrtus communis L. volatile fraction was tentatively identified based on literature data. Despite this, reliable identification could not be achieved due to the lack of a corresponding spectrum in commercial MS databases. Afterwards, the target component was isolated in a reasonable quantity and with a high degree of purity for downstream characterization by spectroscopic techniques. For this purpose, preparative (prep) GC may appear insufficient for the isolation of volatile components from highly complex samples. In this study, a prep-MDGC system was implemented for the isolation of the compound of interest from myrtle oil, consisting of three wide-bore columns of different selectivity coupled by means of Deans switch transfer devices. Based on the NMR and GC-FTIR data acquired, the unknown compound was identified as 2,2,5,5,7,7-hexamethyl-3,7-dihydro-1-benzofuran-4,6(2H,5H)-dione. Noticeably, this is a known molecule, yet its mass spectrum had never been registered into MS databases and thus was not available to the scientific community. Finally, the spectrum was included for the first time in a commercial library, namely the FFNSC 5.0 MS database. The aim of the present study was to highlight the opportunity to make analytical data quickly available in a reliable way by registering them in searchable MS databases to improve the identification means for researchers all over the world. Full article
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8 pages, 953 KiB  
Article
Polyphenols from Plants: Phytochemical Characterization, Antioxidant Capacity, and Antimicrobial Activity of Some Plants from Different Sites of Greece
by Konstantina Papastavropoulou, Emel Oz, Fatih Oz and Charalampos Proestos
Separations 2022, 9(8), 186; https://doi.org/10.3390/separations9080186 - 23 Jul 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1622
Abstract
Polyphenols are present in many plants and herbs, and the scientific community and consumers are aware of their health-promoting effects. Plants of Greek origin were studied for their polyphenol content and their antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) and high-performance liquid [...] Read more.
Polyphenols are present in many plants and herbs, and the scientific community and consumers are aware of their health-promoting effects. Plants of Greek origin were studied for their polyphenol content and their antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a diode array detector (HPLC–DAD) were used for the identification and characterization of plant polyphenols. For GC–MS, a silylation procedure was employed. Ferulic acid, quercetin, and catechin were the most abundant polyphenols. The Rancimat test, FRAP (Ferric-reducing Antioxidant power) assay, and DPPH (2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) assay were used to study the antioxidant capacity, which was proven for all studied plants. The antimicrobial activity was studied against specific pathogenic microorganisms. Pelargonium purpureum and Sideritis scardica plant extracts inhibited most microorganisms such as L. monocytogenes and E. coli. Extracts of studied plants showed both antioxidant and antimicrobial activities; hence, they can be considered to be used by the food industry. Full article
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11 pages, 2405 KiB  
Article
Separation and Determination of Biophenols in Olive Oil Samples Based on the Official Method of the International Olive Council and Commission Regulation (EU) No. 432/2012
by Konstantina Papastavropoulou, Ioannis N. Pasias, Elissavet Dotsika, Emel Oz, Fatih Oz and Charalampos Proestos
Separations 2022, 9(4), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/separations9040101 - 15 Apr 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2796
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the key quality characteristics of olive oil with a main focus on the biophenolic content, its beneficial effects on health and the contribution of various quality characteristics to its health claims, as well as its [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the key quality characteristics of olive oil with a main focus on the biophenolic content, its beneficial effects on health and the contribution of various quality characteristics to its health claims, as well as its influence from various parameters. Samples from different traditional oil-producing regions of Greece were initially examined for the most important quality parameters, such as the percentage of free acidity, the number of peroxides and the spectrophotometric investigation in the ultraviolet. The samples were then tested for their biophenolic content, expressed in milligrams of tyrosol, and its derivatives per 20 g of olive oil using the analytical technique high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Then, the biophenol contents of the analyzed samples were compared based on the presented intensities in terms of the variety and the area of cultivation, the altitude, the type of cultivation, the extraction system in the mill and the time interval from olive harvest to oiling. Finally, according to the results, the content of biophenols in olive oil and its health claims were found to be influenced by the various parameters with which they were compared. Full article
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19 pages, 4778 KiB  
Article
How Coffee Capsules Affect the Volatilome in Espresso Coffee
by Giuseppe Greco, Estefanía Núñez-Carmona, Marco Abbatangelo, Patrizia Fava and Veronica Sberveglieri
Separations 2021, 8(12), 248; https://doi.org/10.3390/separations8120248 - 17 Dec 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2797
Abstract
Coffee capsules have become one of the most used methods to have a coffee in the last few years. In this work, coffee was prepared using a professional espresso coffee machine. We investigated the volatilome of four different polypropylene coffee capsule typologies (Biologico, [...] Read more.
Coffee capsules have become one of the most used methods to have a coffee in the last few years. In this work, coffee was prepared using a professional espresso coffee machine. We investigated the volatilome of four different polypropylene coffee capsule typologies (Biologico, Dolce, Deciso, Guatemala) with and without capsules in order to reveal the possible differences in the VOCs spectra. The volatilome of each one was singularly studied through an analysis by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC–MS), checking the abundance of different VOCs in coffee extracted with and without a capsule protection and compared to its related sample. Furthermore, ANOVA and Tukey tests were applied to statistically identify and individuate the possible differences. As a result, it was found that coffee capsules, offer advantages of protecting coffee from oxidation or rancidity and, consequently extended shelf life as well as did not cause a reduction of volatile compounds intensity. Therefore, it is possible to conclude that the aroma of polypropylene coffee capsule extraction is not damaged compared to a traditional espresso. Full article
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12 pages, 2206 KiB  
Article
Protective Effects of Dietary Supplement Spirulina (Spirulina platensis) against Toxically Impacts of Monosodium Glutamate in Blood and Behavior of Swiss mouse
by Adina Lia Longodor, Aurelia Coroian, Igori Balta, Marian Taulescu, Corina Toma, Bogdan Sevastre, Zamfir Marchiș, Luisa Andronie, Ioana Pop, Florica Matei, Octavia Maria Tamas-Krumpe and Stefania Maris
Separations 2021, 8(11), 218; https://doi.org/10.3390/separations8110218 - 15 Nov 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2481
Abstract
(1) Background: Well-known monosodium glutamate (E-621, MSG), originally used as a food flavor enhancer, was approved approximately in all countries, but the toxicity versus the safety of (MSG) are still unclear due to variable scientific toxicological reports. Moreover, it was reported to [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Well-known monosodium glutamate (E-621, MSG), originally used as a food flavor enhancer, was approved approximately in all countries, but the toxicity versus the safety of (MSG) are still unclear due to variable scientific toxicological reports. Moreover, it was reported to trigger elevated frequencies of nausea and headaches in humans and provide deleterious effects on laboratory animals. The objectives of the present study were to (i) estimate the possible toxic effects of the food additive MSG (ii) and the ameliorating protective effects of the dietary supplement spirulina (Spirulina platensis) on the biochemical parameters of blood and the damage produced in organs of Swiss mice after applying a supplementary daily dose of MSG for 4 weeks. (2) Methods: The present study was conducted on 20 mature Swiss mice, which were randomly organized into four groups of five Swiss mice. The treatments were (I) the control group, in which Swiss mice were fed only animal feed and drinking water; group II MSG1, which received 1 mL of MSG; group III MSG0.5, which was treated with 0.5 mL of MSG; and (IV) the group MSGS, which was treated with 1 mL of monosodium glutamate and 1 mL of spirulina (aiming to reduce the MSG toxicity). (3) Results: At the end of the experiment, Swiss mice treated with MSG demonstrated a passiveness regarding behavioral aspects. As we hypothesized, the parameters of the spirulina group reached similar values to the control group, and no histopathological observations have been found. Altogether, our findings evidenced that monosodium glutamate leads to histopathological changes in Swiss mice kidneys and caused important modifications for all biochemical parameters of the blood serum. Noticeably, the potential protective effect of Spirulina platensis was proved and was described by using the FTIR spectroscopy technique. (4) Conclusions: A diet rich in antioxidants and other plant-derived bioactive compounds may provide healthy nutrition, alleviating the potential side effects of some food additives. Full article
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16 pages, 3118 KiB  
Article
Comparison between Mid-Infrared (ATR-FTIR) Spectroscopy and Official Analysis Methods for Determination of the Concentrations of Alcohol, SO2, and Total Acids in Wine
by Irene Dini, Ritamaria Di Lorenzo, Antonello Senatore, Daniele Coppola and Sonia Laneri
Separations 2021, 8(10), 191; https://doi.org/10.3390/separations8100191 - 17 Oct 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2346
Abstract
The determination of alcohol, SO2, and total acids in wine through conventional laboratory techniques have some limitations related to the amount of the samples, analytical preparation of laboratory staff, and time to carry out the analysis. In recent years, spectroscopic and [...] Read more.
The determination of alcohol, SO2, and total acids in wine through conventional laboratory techniques have some limitations related to the amount of the samples, analytical preparation of laboratory staff, and time to carry out the analysis. In recent years, spectroscopic and chromatographic methods have been proposed to determinate simultaneously multiple analytical parameters. The new methods claim the speed of analysis and easy execution. However, they need a validation process that guarantees the reliability of the results to be used in official determinations. This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness of FT-infrared reflectance (FT-IR) to quantify total acid, alcohol, and SO2 concentration in the wines. For this purpose, 156 DOC Italian wines were tested with IR technology, and results were compared to those obtained by official analysis methods. The comparison was performed using two non-parametric statistical methods: the Bland & Altman test and Passing & Bablok regression. Our results showed that the spectrophotometric methods make errors due to interfering contaminants in the sample that can be corrected by blank determination. Therefore, the spectrophotometric methods that use the infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum can be used by the wine industry and regulators for the wine routine as an alternative to official methodologies. Full article
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12 pages, 1076 KiB  
Article
Determination of Metals in Walnut Oils by Means of an Optimized and Validated ICP-AES Method in Conventional and Organic Farming Type Samples
by Natalia Manousi, Natasa P. Kalogiouri, Aristidis Anthemidis and George A. Zachariadis
Separations 2021, 8(10), 169; https://doi.org/10.3390/separations8100169 - 3 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1714
Abstract
Agricultural products are indispensable for equilibrated diets since they discharge minerals and several bioactive constituents. Considering the increasing demand for organic products, research has been conducted over recent years to investigate whether organically grown food products are chemically different compared to those produced [...] Read more.
Agricultural products are indispensable for equilibrated diets since they discharge minerals and several bioactive constituents. Considering the increasing demand for organic products, research has been conducted over recent years to investigate whether organically grown food products are chemically different compared to those produced with conventional farming. In this work, a novel inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometric method was developed and validated for the determination of nutrient and toxic elements in walnut oils produced with conventional and organic farming. The method presented good linearity (r2 > 0.9990) for each element at the selected emission line. The limits of detection and limits of quantification ranged between 0.09 μg g−1 to 2.43 μg g−1 and 0.28 μg g−1 to 8.1 μg g−1, respectively. Method accuracy and was assessed by analyzing the certified reference materials BCR 278-R and spiked walnut oil samples. The determined metals were quantified, and the results were analyzed by Student’s t-test to investigate the differences in the elemental profile of the walnut oils according to type of farming (conventional or organic). Full article
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10 pages, 10785 KiB  
Article
Survey on Antibiotic Residues in Egg Samples in Italy
by Giorgio Saluti, Maria Novella Colagrande, Federica Castellani, Matteo Ricci, Gianfranco Diletti and Giampiero Scortichini
Separations 2021, 8(9), 148; https://doi.org/10.3390/separations8090148 - 9 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2292
Abstract
The presence of antibiotic residue in eggs is a current issue due to the increasingly important phenomenon of antibiotic resistance. A multiclass, confirmatory method for the determination of seventy-three antimicrobial agents (amphenicols, cephalosporins, diaminopyrimidines, lincosamides, macrolides, penicillins, pleuromutilins, quinolones, sulfonamides, and tetracyclines) with [...] Read more.
The presence of antibiotic residue in eggs is a current issue due to the increasingly important phenomenon of antibiotic resistance. A multiclass, confirmatory method for the determination of seventy-three antimicrobial agents (amphenicols, cephalosporins, diaminopyrimidines, lincosamides, macrolides, penicillins, pleuromutilins, quinolones, sulfonamides, and tetracyclines) with liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry was applied to 200 egg samples collected from 119 Italian farms during the years 2018–2021. Full article
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19 pages, 3134 KiB  
Article
ICP–MS Analysis of Multi-Elemental Profile of Greek Wines and Their Classification According to Variety, Area and Year of Production
by Konstantina Pasvanka, Marios Kostakis, Maria Tarapoulouzi, Pavlos Nisianakis, Nikolaos S. Thomaidis and Charalampos Proestos
Separations 2021, 8(8), 119; https://doi.org/10.3390/separations8080119 - 13 Aug 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3228
Abstract
Major, minor and trace elements in wines from Greece were determined by inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (ICP–MS). The concentrations of 44 elements (Na, Mg, P, K, Ca, Cu, Co, Cr, Zn, Sn, Fe, Mn, Li, Be, B, V, Sr, Ba, Al, Ag, Ni, [...] Read more.
Major, minor and trace elements in wines from Greece were determined by inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (ICP–MS). The concentrations of 44 elements (Na, Mg, P, K, Ca, Cu, Co, Cr, Zn, Sn, Fe, Mn, Li, Be, B, V, Sr, Ba, Al, Ag, Ni, As, Sn, Hg, Pb, Sb, Cd, Ti, Ga, Zr, Nb, Pd, Te, La, Sm, Ho, Tm, Yb, W, Os, Au, Tl, Th, U) in 90 white and red wines from six different regions in Greece for two consecutive vinification years, 2017 and 2018, were determined. Results for the elements aforementioned were evaluated by multivariate statistical methods, such as discriminant analysis and cluster analysis, and the wines were discriminated according to wine variety and geographical origin. Due to the specific choice of the analytes for multivariate statistical investigation, a prediction rate by cross-validation of 98% could be achieved. The aim of this study was not only to reveal specific relationships between the wine samples or between the chemical variables in order to classify the wines from different regions and varieties according to their elemental profile (wine authentication), but also to observe the annual fluctuation in the mineral content of the studied wine samples. Full article
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18 pages, 2428 KiB  
Article
Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction, Antioxidant Activity, and Fatty Acid Composition of Bran Oil from Rice Varieties Cultivated in Portugal
by Tânia I. Pinto, José A. Coelho, Bruna I. Pires, Nuno R. Neng, José M. Nogueira, João C. Bordado and José P. Sardinha
Separations 2021, 8(8), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/separations8080115 - 5 Aug 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3107
Abstract
Bran of different rice cultivars produced in Portugal were used to study supercritical carbon dioxide extraction conditions of rice bran oil (RBO) and evaluate and compare antioxidant activity and fatty acid composition of the different rice bran varieties. The effect of plant loading [...] Read more.
Bran of different rice cultivars produced in Portugal were used to study supercritical carbon dioxide extraction conditions of rice bran oil (RBO) and evaluate and compare antioxidant activity and fatty acid composition of the different rice bran varieties. The effect of plant loading (10–20 g), CO2 flow rate (0.5–1.5 L/min), pressure (20–60 MPa), and temperature (40–80 °C) was studied. The amount of oil extracted ranged from 11.72%, for Ariete cultivar, to 15.60%, for Sirio cultivar. The main fatty acids components obtained were palmitic (13.37%–16.32%), oleic (44.60%–52.56%), and linoleic (29.90%–38.51%). Excellent parameters of the susceptibility to oxidation of the oils were obtained and compare. RBO of Ariete and Gladio varieties presented superior DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities, whereas, Minima, Ellebi, and Sirio varieties had the lowest scavenging activities. Moreover, the oil obtained towards the final stages of extraction presented increased antioxidant activity. Full article
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