Special Issue "Spectroscopic, Chromatographic, and Chemometric Techniques Applied in Food Products Characterization"

A special issue of Separations (ISSN 2297-8739). This special issue belongs to the section "Analysis of Food and Beverages".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 28 October 2022 | Viewed by 5887

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Vlad Mureşan
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Food Engineering Department, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, 64 Calea Floresti Street, 400509 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Interests: lipid and oilseeds technology; infrared spectroscopy; chemometrics; lipid oxidation; confectionery technology; food texture and rheology; food technology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Cristina Anamaria Semeniuc
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Department of Food Engineering, University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca, 3-5 Mănăştur St., 400372 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Interests: antimicrobial packaging; natural preservatives; edible films; edible coatings; food preservation; food safety; food technology; food packaging
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The use of spectroscopic and/or chromatographic techniques coupled to chemometric methods represents a valuable tool for R&D in food manufacturing. The data collected can be used for the quality and safety evaluation of raw materials, ingredients, intermediate and finished food products. Through this Special Issue, authors are encouraged to submit manuscripts regarding:

  • Techniques for extraction, separation, estimation, and isolation of natural products;
  • Analytical method development and validation for food analysis;
  • Development and validation of rapid methods using calibration models based on near infrared (NIR) and/or middle infrared (MIR) spectra and chemometrics;
  • Physico-chemical characterization of foods by spectroscopic and/or chromatographic and/or chemometrics techniques;
  • Detection of food fraud and adulteration;
  • Determination of food authenticity and origin;
  • Assessment of chemical contaminants in food;
  • Evaluation of natural and synthetic additives;
  • Chemometrics tools for comparison and classification of agro-food products based on their physico-chemical properties, biological activities, sensory, and texture parameters.

Full-length original research articles, short communications, and review articles are welcomed.

Dr. Vlad Mureşan
Dr. Cristina Anamaria Semeniuc
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Separations is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • UV-Vis spectroscopy
  • NIR and MIR spectroscopy
  • FT-IR spectroscopy
  • Gas chromatography (GC)
  • Liquid chromatography (LC, HPLC)
  • Thin-layer chromatography (TLC)
  • Chemometrics
  • Food fraud and adulteration
  • Food authenticity and origin
  • Food chemical safety

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

Article
Separation and Determination of Biophenols in Olive Oil Samples Based on the Official Method of the International Olive Council and Commission Regulation (EU) No. 432/2012
Separations 2022, 9(4), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/separations9040101 - 15 Apr 2022
Viewed by 683
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the key quality characteristics of olive oil with a main focus on the biophenolic content, its beneficial effects on health and the contribution of various quality characteristics to its health claims, as well as its [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the key quality characteristics of olive oil with a main focus on the biophenolic content, its beneficial effects on health and the contribution of various quality characteristics to its health claims, as well as its influence from various parameters. Samples from different traditional oil-producing regions of Greece were initially examined for the most important quality parameters, such as the percentage of free acidity, the number of peroxides and the spectrophotometric investigation in the ultraviolet. The samples were then tested for their biophenolic content, expressed in milligrams of tyrosol, and its derivatives per 20 g of olive oil using the analytical technique high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Then, the biophenol contents of the analyzed samples were compared based on the presented intensities in terms of the variety and the area of cultivation, the altitude, the type of cultivation, the extraction system in the mill and the time interval from olive harvest to oiling. Finally, according to the results, the content of biophenols in olive oil and its health claims were found to be influenced by the various parameters with which they were compared. Full article
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Article
How Coffee Capsules Affect the Volatilome in Espresso Coffee
Separations 2021, 8(12), 248; https://doi.org/10.3390/separations8120248 - 17 Dec 2021
Viewed by 616
Abstract
Coffee capsules have become one of the most used methods to have a coffee in the last few years. In this work, coffee was prepared using a professional espresso coffee machine. We investigated the volatilome of four different polypropylene coffee capsule typologies (Biologico, [...] Read more.
Coffee capsules have become one of the most used methods to have a coffee in the last few years. In this work, coffee was prepared using a professional espresso coffee machine. We investigated the volatilome of four different polypropylene coffee capsule typologies (Biologico, Dolce, Deciso, Guatemala) with and without capsules in order to reveal the possible differences in the VOCs spectra. The volatilome of each one was singularly studied through an analysis by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC–MS), checking the abundance of different VOCs in coffee extracted with and without a capsule protection and compared to its related sample. Furthermore, ANOVA and Tukey tests were applied to statistically identify and individuate the possible differences. As a result, it was found that coffee capsules, offer advantages of protecting coffee from oxidation or rancidity and, consequently extended shelf life as well as did not cause a reduction of volatile compounds intensity. Therefore, it is possible to conclude that the aroma of polypropylene coffee capsule extraction is not damaged compared to a traditional espresso. Full article
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Article
Protective Effects of Dietary Supplement Spirulina (Spirulina platensis) against Toxically Impacts of Monosodium Glutamate in Blood and Behavior of Swiss mouse
Separations 2021, 8(11), 218; https://doi.org/10.3390/separations8110218 - 15 Nov 2021
Viewed by 673
Abstract
(1) Background: Well-known monosodium glutamate (E-621, MSG), originally used as a food flavor enhancer, was approved approximately in all countries, but the toxicity versus the safety of (MSG) are still unclear due to variable scientific toxicological reports. Moreover, it was reported to [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Well-known monosodium glutamate (E-621, MSG), originally used as a food flavor enhancer, was approved approximately in all countries, but the toxicity versus the safety of (MSG) are still unclear due to variable scientific toxicological reports. Moreover, it was reported to trigger elevated frequencies of nausea and headaches in humans and provide deleterious effects on laboratory animals. The objectives of the present study were to (i) estimate the possible toxic effects of the food additive MSG (ii) and the ameliorating protective effects of the dietary supplement spirulina (Spirulina platensis) on the biochemical parameters of blood and the damage produced in organs of Swiss mice after applying a supplementary daily dose of MSG for 4 weeks. (2) Methods: The present study was conducted on 20 mature Swiss mice, which were randomly organized into four groups of five Swiss mice. The treatments were (I) the control group, in which Swiss mice were fed only animal feed and drinking water; group II MSG1, which received 1 mL of MSG; group III MSG0.5, which was treated with 0.5 mL of MSG; and (IV) the group MSGS, which was treated with 1 mL of monosodium glutamate and 1 mL of spirulina (aiming to reduce the MSG toxicity). (3) Results: At the end of the experiment, Swiss mice treated with MSG demonstrated a passiveness regarding behavioral aspects. As we hypothesized, the parameters of the spirulina group reached similar values to the control group, and no histopathological observations have been found. Altogether, our findings evidenced that monosodium glutamate leads to histopathological changes in Swiss mice kidneys and caused important modifications for all biochemical parameters of the blood serum. Noticeably, the potential protective effect of Spirulina platensis was proved and was described by using the FTIR spectroscopy technique. (4) Conclusions: A diet rich in antioxidants and other plant-derived bioactive compounds may provide healthy nutrition, alleviating the potential side effects of some food additives. Full article
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Article
Comparison between Mid-Infrared (ATR-FTIR) Spectroscopy and Official Analysis Methods for Determination of the Concentrations of Alcohol, SO2, and Total Acids in Wine
Separations 2021, 8(10), 191; https://doi.org/10.3390/separations8100191 - 17 Oct 2021
Viewed by 477
Abstract
The determination of alcohol, SO2, and total acids in wine through conventional laboratory techniques have some limitations related to the amount of the samples, analytical preparation of laboratory staff, and time to carry out the analysis. In recent years, spectroscopic and [...] Read more.
The determination of alcohol, SO2, and total acids in wine through conventional laboratory techniques have some limitations related to the amount of the samples, analytical preparation of laboratory staff, and time to carry out the analysis. In recent years, spectroscopic and chromatographic methods have been proposed to determinate simultaneously multiple analytical parameters. The new methods claim the speed of analysis and easy execution. However, they need a validation process that guarantees the reliability of the results to be used in official determinations. This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness of FT-infrared reflectance (FT-IR) to quantify total acid, alcohol, and SO2 concentration in the wines. For this purpose, 156 DOC Italian wines were tested with IR technology, and results were compared to those obtained by official analysis methods. The comparison was performed using two non-parametric statistical methods: the Bland & Altman test and Passing & Bablok regression. Our results showed that the spectrophotometric methods make errors due to interfering contaminants in the sample that can be corrected by blank determination. Therefore, the spectrophotometric methods that use the infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum can be used by the wine industry and regulators for the wine routine as an alternative to official methodologies. Full article
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Article
Determination of Metals in Walnut Oils by Means of an Optimized and Validated ICP-AES Method in Conventional and Organic Farming Type Samples
Separations 2021, 8(10), 169; https://doi.org/10.3390/separations8100169 - 03 Oct 2021
Viewed by 585
Abstract
Agricultural products are indispensable for equilibrated diets since they discharge minerals and several bioactive constituents. Considering the increasing demand for organic products, research has been conducted over recent years to investigate whether organically grown food products are chemically different compared to those produced [...] Read more.
Agricultural products are indispensable for equilibrated diets since they discharge minerals and several bioactive constituents. Considering the increasing demand for organic products, research has been conducted over recent years to investigate whether organically grown food products are chemically different compared to those produced with conventional farming. In this work, a novel inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometric method was developed and validated for the determination of nutrient and toxic elements in walnut oils produced with conventional and organic farming. The method presented good linearity (r2 > 0.9990) for each element at the selected emission line. The limits of detection and limits of quantification ranged between 0.09 μg g−1 to 2.43 μg g−1 and 0.28 μg g−1 to 8.1 μg g−1, respectively. Method accuracy and was assessed by analyzing the certified reference materials BCR 278-R and spiked walnut oil samples. The determined metals were quantified, and the results were analyzed by Student’s t-test to investigate the differences in the elemental profile of the walnut oils according to type of farming (conventional or organic). Full article
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Article
ICP–MS Analysis of Multi-Elemental Profile of Greek Wines and Their Classification According to Variety, Area and Year of Production
Separations 2021, 8(8), 119; https://doi.org/10.3390/separations8080119 - 13 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1018
Abstract
Major, minor and trace elements in wines from Greece were determined by inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (ICP–MS). The concentrations of 44 elements (Na, Mg, P, K, Ca, Cu, Co, Cr, Zn, Sn, Fe, Mn, Li, Be, B, V, Sr, Ba, Al, Ag, Ni, [...] Read more.
Major, minor and trace elements in wines from Greece were determined by inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (ICP–MS). The concentrations of 44 elements (Na, Mg, P, K, Ca, Cu, Co, Cr, Zn, Sn, Fe, Mn, Li, Be, B, V, Sr, Ba, Al, Ag, Ni, As, Sn, Hg, Pb, Sb, Cd, Ti, Ga, Zr, Nb, Pd, Te, La, Sm, Ho, Tm, Yb, W, Os, Au, Tl, Th, U) in 90 white and red wines from six different regions in Greece for two consecutive vinification years, 2017 and 2018, were determined. Results for the elements aforementioned were evaluated by multivariate statistical methods, such as discriminant analysis and cluster analysis, and the wines were discriminated according to wine variety and geographical origin. Due to the specific choice of the analytes for multivariate statistical investigation, a prediction rate by cross-validation of 98% could be achieved. The aim of this study was not only to reveal specific relationships between the wine samples or between the chemical variables in order to classify the wines from different regions and varieties according to their elemental profile (wine authentication), but also to observe the annual fluctuation in the mineral content of the studied wine samples. Full article
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Article
Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction, Antioxidant Activity, and Fatty Acid Composition of Bran Oil from Rice Varieties Cultivated in Portugal
Separations 2021, 8(8), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/separations8080115 - 05 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 705
Abstract
Bran of different rice cultivars produced in Portugal were used to study supercritical carbon dioxide extraction conditions of rice bran oil (RBO) and evaluate and compare antioxidant activity and fatty acid composition of the different rice bran varieties. The effect of plant loading [...] Read more.
Bran of different rice cultivars produced in Portugal were used to study supercritical carbon dioxide extraction conditions of rice bran oil (RBO) and evaluate and compare antioxidant activity and fatty acid composition of the different rice bran varieties. The effect of plant loading (10–20 g), CO2 flow rate (0.5–1.5 L/min), pressure (20–60 MPa), and temperature (40–80 °C) was studied. The amount of oil extracted ranged from 11.72%, for Ariete cultivar, to 15.60%, for Sirio cultivar. The main fatty acids components obtained were palmitic (13.37%–16.32%), oleic (44.60%–52.56%), and linoleic (29.90%–38.51%). Excellent parameters of the susceptibility to oxidation of the oils were obtained and compare. RBO of Ariete and Gladio varieties presented superior DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities, whereas, Minima, Ellebi, and Sirio varieties had the lowest scavenging activities. Moreover, the oil obtained towards the final stages of extraction presented increased antioxidant activity. Full article
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