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Sensors and Signal Processing for Fault Diagnosis and Failure Prognosis of Means of Transport

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Intelligent Sensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2022) | Viewed by 18815

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Faculty of Transport and Aviation Engineering, Silesian University of Technology, 8 Krasinskiego Street, 40-019 Katowice, Poland
Interests: signal processing; condition monitoring; vibration; noise; transport means
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

I invite you to submit an original research paper to a special issue of the Sensors journal entitled “Sensors and Signal Processing for Fault Diagnosis and Failure Prognosis of Means of Transport”. Means of transport are required to exhibit high reliability and comfort of use. Vibration and noise signals of means of transport are valuable information about their technical condition. The use of different sensors and measurement methods as well as advanced signal processing methods enable early detection of wear and faults to means of transport. All this increases reliability and extends their failure-free operation, as well as allows scheduling repairs in advance. The development of measuring methods and equipment should be geared towards fast measurement in stationary and non-stationary operating conditions, even in hard-to-reach places. The signal recorded in this way requires advanced processing to be carried out in order to diagnose the damage occurring and to enable further prognosis. Improvement of existing solutions and development of new sensors, measurement methods and signal processing methods are the challenges and specific problems of the research work undertaken.

In this Special Issue, I encourage you to present new and original scientific papers in the area of simulation studies, laboratory and real tests of means of transport in the scope of:

- sensors and measurement devices,

- signal recording methods,

- advanced methods of processing vibration and noise signals,

- condition monitoring,

- diagnosing wear and faults,

- failure prognosis.

For further information please contact me by email.

Prof. Dr. Tomasz Figlus
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Sensors
  • Condition monitoring
  • Signal processing
  • Vibration
  • Noise
  • Means of transport

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

21 pages, 6439 KiB  
Article
Road Recognition Based on Vehicle Vibration Signal and Comfortable Speed Strategy Formulation Using ISA Algorithm
by Xiulai Wang, Zhun Cheng and Ningling Ma
Sensors 2022, 22(17), 6682; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22176682 - 3 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1759
Abstract
When a vehicle is being driven, it is excited by the road roughness and generates its own vibration. In order to improve the vehicle’s riding comfort and the physical–mental health of passengers in the vehicle, this paper proposes a formulation method for a [...] Read more.
When a vehicle is being driven, it is excited by the road roughness and generates its own vibration. In order to improve the vehicle’s riding comfort and the physical–mental health of passengers in the vehicle, this paper proposes a formulation method for a comfortable speed strategy and the technical route of its application. According to international standard ISO 2631-1, the relationship between the weighted root-mean-square acceleration value and comfortable vehicle speed is analyzed. The simulation test platform of the road roughness signal and vehicle vibration signal is built by using the filtering white noise method and the second Lagrange equation through Matlab/Simulink. Combined with the simulation platform, this paper extracts seven characteristics with statistical properties from the time-domain signal and obtains 500 sample data. Random forest (RF), extreme learning machine (ELM), and radial basis function neural network (RBF-NN) are applied to identify roads. Two comfortable speed strategy formulation methods based on the improved simulated annealing (ISA) algorithm are proposed and compared according to the solution effect of each grade of comfortable speed. The results show that the simulated signals of each grade road roughness are accurate. Road recognition can be effectively carried out using the statistical characteristics of vehicle vibration acceleration signals. ELM has high recognition accuracy and fast execution speed. The ISA-II algorithm has a low solution error of comfortable speed and a low computation time. The comfortable speed of the research vehicle on different road grades showed a great difference. Full article
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12 pages, 5589 KiB  
Article
Fault Identification in Membrane Structures Using the Hilbert Transforms
by Aleksandra Waszczuk-Młyńska, Adam Gałęzia and Radkowski Stanisław
Sensors 2022, 22(16), 6224; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22166224 - 19 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1062
Abstract
Fault diagnostics present a crucial technical issue in the areas of both the condition monitoring of machines and the monitoring of structural health. The identification of faults at an early stage in their development has an immense effect on the safety of monitored [...] Read more.
Fault diagnostics present a crucial technical issue in the areas of both the condition monitoring of machines and the monitoring of structural health. The identification of faults at an early stage in their development has an immense effect on the safety of monitored structures. Correct identification allows for the monitoring of the development of faults and the choosing of optimal operation strategies. This article discusses a method of monitoring structural health, based on the application of the Hilbert transforms (GHT and FrHT) for detecting fault formations and their development in membrane structures. A signal resulting from the HT is analyzed using spectral analysis to identify features indicating the technical state. Full article
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24 pages, 5481 KiB  
Article
A New De-Noising Method Based on Enhanced Time-Frequency Manifold and Kurtosis-Wavelet Dictionary for Rolling Bearing Fault Vibration Signal
by Qingbin Tong, Ziyu Liu, Feiyu Lu, Ziwei Feng and Qingzhu Wan
Sensors 2022, 22(16), 6108; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22166108 - 16 Aug 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1176
Abstract
The transient pulses caused by local faults of rolling bearings are an important measurement information for fault diagnosis. However, extracting transient pulses from complex nonstationary vibration signals with a large amount of background noise is challenging, especially in the early stage. To improve [...] Read more.
The transient pulses caused by local faults of rolling bearings are an important measurement information for fault diagnosis. However, extracting transient pulses from complex nonstationary vibration signals with a large amount of background noise is challenging, especially in the early stage. To improve the anti-noise ability and detect incipient faults, a novel signal de-noising method based on enhanced time-frequency manifold (ETFM) and kurtosis-wavelet dictionary is proposed. First, to mine the high-dimensional features, the C-C method and Cao’s method are combined to determine the embedding dimension and delay time of phase space reconstruction. Second, the input parameters of the liner local tangent space arrangement (LLTSA) algorithm are determined by the grid search method based on Renyi entropy, and the dimension is reduced by manifold learning to obtain the ETFM with the highest time-frequency aggregation. Finally, a kurtosis-wavelet dictionary is constructed for selecting the best atom and eliminating the noise and reconstruct the defective signal. Actual simulations showed that the proposed method is more effective in noise suppression than traditional algorithms and that it can accurately reproduce the amplitude and phase information of the raw signal. Full article
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21 pages, 10186 KiB  
Article
An Investigation of the Reliability of Different Types of Sensors in the Real-Time Vibration-Based Anomaly Inspection in Drone
by Mohamad Hazwan Mohd Ghazali and Wan Rahiman
Sensors 2022, 22(16), 6015; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22166015 - 12 Aug 2022
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 3113
Abstract
Early drone anomaly inspection is vital to ensure the drone’s safety and effectiveness. This process is often overlooked, especially by amateur drone pilots; however, some faulty conditions are difficult to notice by the naked eye or discover, even though the drone inspection process [...] Read more.
Early drone anomaly inspection is vital to ensure the drone’s safety and effectiveness. This process is often overlooked, especially by amateur drone pilots; however, some faulty conditions are difficult to notice by the naked eye or discover, even though the drone inspection process has been conducted; therefore, a real-time early drone inspection approach based on vibration data is proposed in this study. Firstly, the reliability of several microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) sensors, namely the ADXL335 accelerometer, ADXL 345 accelerometer, ADXL377 accelerometer, and SW420 vibration sensor in detecting faulty conditions, were tested and compared. The experimental results demonstrated that the vibration parameter measured using ADXL335 and ADXL345 accelerometers are the best choice as most of the faulty conditions can be detected, in contrast to other MEMS sensors. The output produced from the anomaly inspection algorithm is then converted to the “Healthy” or “Faulty” state, which is displayed in a mobile application for easy monitoring. Full article
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17 pages, 7902 KiB  
Article
Damage Detection for Conveyor Belt Surface Based on Conditional Cycle Generative Adversarial Network
by Xiaoqiang Guo, Xinhua Liu, Grzegorz Królczyk, Maciej Sulowicz, Adam Glowacz, Paolo Gardoni and Zhixiong Li
Sensors 2022, 22(9), 3485; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22093485 - 3 May 2022
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 3807
Abstract
The belt conveyor is an essential piece of equipment in coal mining for coal transportation, and its stable operation is key to efficient production. Belt surface of the conveyor is vulnerable to foreign bodies which can be extremely destructive. In the past decades, [...] Read more.
The belt conveyor is an essential piece of equipment in coal mining for coal transportation, and its stable operation is key to efficient production. Belt surface of the conveyor is vulnerable to foreign bodies which can be extremely destructive. In the past decades, much research and numerous approaches to inspect belt status have been proposed, and machine learning-based non-destructive testing (NDT) methods are becoming more and more popular. Deep learning (DL), as a branch of machine learning (ML), has been widely applied in data mining, natural language processing, pattern recognition, image processing, etc. Generative adversarial networks (GAN) are one of the deep learning methods based on generative models and have been proved to be of great potential. In this paper, a novel multi-classification conditional CycleGAN (MCC-CycleGAN) method is proposed to generate and discriminate surface images of damages of conveyor belt. A novel architecture of improved CycleGAN is designed to enhance the classification performance using a limited capacity images dataset. Experimental results show that the proposed deep learning network can generate realistic belt surface images with defects and efficiently classify different damaged images of the conveyor belt surface. Full article
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26 pages, 13257 KiB  
Article
Condition Monitoring of Railway Crossing Geometry via Measured and Simulated Track Responses
by Marko D. G. Milosevic, Björn A. Pålsson, Arne Nissen, Jens C. O. Nielsen and Håkan Johansson
Sensors 2022, 22(3), 1012; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22031012 - 28 Jan 2022
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 6886
Abstract
This paper presents methods for continuous condition monitoring of railway switches and crossings (S&C, turnout) via sleeper-mounted accelerometers at the crossing transition. The methods are developed from concurrently measured sleeper accelerations and scanned crossing geometries from six in situ crossing panels. These measurements [...] Read more.
This paper presents methods for continuous condition monitoring of railway switches and crossings (S&C, turnout) via sleeper-mounted accelerometers at the crossing transition. The methods are developed from concurrently measured sleeper accelerations and scanned crossing geometries from six in situ crossing panels. These measurements combined with a multi-body simulation (MBS) model with a structural track model and implemented scanned crossing geometries are used to derive the link between the crossing geometry condition and the resulting track excitation. From this analysis, a crossing condition indicator Cλ1λ2, γ is proposed. The indicator is defined as the root mean square (RMS) of a track response signal γ that has been band-passed between frequencies corresponding to track deformation wavelength bounds of λ1 and λ2 for the vehicle passing speed (f = v/ λ). In this way, the indicator ignores the quasi-static track response with wavelengths predominantly above λ1 and targets the dynamic track response caused by the kinematic wheel-crossing interaction governed by the crossing geometry. For the studied crossing panels, the indicator C10.2 m, γ (λ1=1 and λ2=0.2) was evaluated for γ = u, v, or a as in displacements, velocities, and accelerations, respectively. It is shown that this condition indicator has a strong correlation with vertical wheel–rail contact forces that is sustained for various track conditions. Further, model calibrations were performed to measured sleeper displacements for the six investigated crossing panels. The calibrated models show (1) a good agreement between measured and simulated sleeper displacements for the lower frequency quasi-static track response and (2) improved agreement for the dynamic track response at higher frequencies. The calibration also improved the agreement between measurements and simulation for the crossing condition indicator demonstrating the value of model calibration for condition monitoring purposes. Full article
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