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Sensors and Systems for Automotive and Road Safety

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Vehicular Sensing".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2022) | Viewed by 73180

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Automotive Engineering and Transport, Faculty of Mechatronics and Mechanical Engineering, Kielce University of Technology, Avenue Tysiąclecia Państwa Polskiego 7, 25-314 Kielce, Poland
Interests: transportation; technical diagnostics; vehicle safety; accidents; biomechanics of collisions mechanics of motion
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Operation and Economics of Transport and Communications, University of Zilina, Avenue Univerzitná 8215/1, 010 26 Žilina, Slovakia
Interests: goods distribution; public transport; road safety; intelligent transport infrastructures; automotive engineering; biomechanics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Transport and Logistics, Institute of Technology and Business in České Budějovice, Avenue Okružní 517/10, 370 01 České Budějovice, Czech Republic
Interests: transport operation; city logistics; operations research; handling equipment optimization; telematics and smart technologies in transport; intelligent transport infrastructures; autonomous vehicles; road transport safety; emission research
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue focuses on the topic of vehicle safety research, in the design, construction and equipment of vehicles to minimise the occurrence and consequences of road crashes. New developments in vehicles are intended to reduce the number of accidents caused by human error and prevent fatalities, but also to reduce fuel consumption and lower exhaust emissions. Advanced safety systems used for this purpose require sensors both inside and outside vehicles to detect and identify objects, determine their movement parameters, monitor the behaviour of drivers and passengers and predict future behaviour in order to avoid potential collisions.

Transport and road infrastructure safety is closely related to vehicle safety. Intelligent transport infrastructure systems comprise various technologies, including telecommunications, information technology, automatic systems using complex measurement systems and sophisticated analysis methods. They support the transport system, increasing its efficiency and improving the safety of road users.

This Special Issue intends to bring together original theoretical or empirical articles addressing safety issues in vehicles and intelligent transport infrastructure systems. Topics relevant to this Special Issue include: the use of different types of sensors in research to improve vehicle safety; technology, methods and sensors used in crash tests; the application of sensors to detect and identify obstacles, oncoming objects, determine their movement parameters, position and predict their future behaviour in order to avoid potential collisions; measuring methods and sensors used in vehicle traction tests and vehicle diagnostics; the use of sensors to assess the performance indicators of reciprocating internal combustion engines taking into account their harmful effects on the environment; sensors for monitoring the behaviour and psycho-physical state of drivers and passengers (e.g. visual sensors, motion sensors, breathalysers), assessment algorithms; systems and sensors for intelligent transport infrastructures to monitor road users, to perform predictive analytics and to improve traffic flow and road safety; and cargo securing systems in road transport.

Prof. Dr. Marek Jaśkiewicz
Prof. Dr. Milos Poliak
Prof. Dr. Ondrej Stopka
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • accident
  • accident analysis
  • accident prevention
  • accident reconstruction
  • artificial intelligence in automate vehicles
  • autonomous and connected vehicles
  • autonomous vehicles
  • big data analysis in vehicular systems
  • networks connected vehicles in urban roads
  • crash test
  • crashworthiness
  • driver behavior monitoring
  • driving simulators
  • dummy emerging IoT applications in vehicular social networks (VSNs)
  • fault-tolerant systems
  • ground vehicle safety
  • intelligent transportation systems
  • intelligent vehicles
  • internet of vehicles
  • lighting of vehicles and roads
  • road safety
  • infrastructure safety of electric/hybrid cars
  • sensors for fault detection of vehicles
  • sensors for vehicle movement
  • smart cities
  • smart mobility and sustainable transport services
  • traffic control systems
  • traffic monitoring
  • traffic organization
  • traffic safety
  • vehicle active safety
  • vehicle communications: V2X, V2V, V2I
  • vehicle detection
  • vehicle dynamics
  • vehicle localization system
  • vehicle passive safety
  • vehicle privacy and trust
  • vehicle stability and handling vehicle testing
  • vehicle to everything
  • vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs)
  • vehicular networks
  • vehicular social networks (VSNs)
  • visibility (recognizability) of pedestrians and obstacles
  • wireless in-car networks

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Published Papers (26 papers)

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16 pages, 2507 KiB  
Article
A UWB/INS Trajectory Tracking System Application in a Cycling Safety Study
by Sicong Zhu, Hao Yue, Tatsuto Suzuki, Inhi Kim, Lei Yu and Qing Lan
Sensors 2023, 23(7), 3629; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23073629 - 31 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1323
Abstract
This paper focuses on the safety issue for cyclists and pedestrians at unsignalized intersections. The cycling speed needs to be calmed when approaching the intersection. This study proposes and deploys an integrated portable ultra-wideband/inertial navigation system (UWB/INS) to extract cycling trajectories for a [...] Read more.
This paper focuses on the safety issue for cyclists and pedestrians at unsignalized intersections. The cycling speed needs to be calmed when approaching the intersection. This study proposes and deploys an integrated portable ultra-wideband/inertial navigation system (UWB/INS) to extract cycling trajectories for a cycling safety study. The system is based on open-source hardware and delivers an open-source code for an adaptive Kalman filter to enhance positioning precision for data quality assurance at an outdoor experimental site. The results demonstrate that the system can deliver reliable trajectories for low-mobility objects. To mitigate accident risk and severity, varied cycling speed calming measures are tested at an experimental site. Based on the trajectory data, the statistical features of cycling velocities are evaluated and compared. A new proposed geometric design is found to be most effective when compared with conventional traffic signs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors and Systems for Automotive and Road Safety)
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19 pages, 2732 KiB  
Article
Battery-Powered RSU Running Time Monitoring and Prediction Using ML Model Based on Received Signal Strength and Data Transmission Frequency in V2I Applications
by Vienna N. Katambire, Richard Musabe, Alfred Uwitonze and Didacienne Mukanyiligira
Sensors 2023, 23(7), 3536; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23073536 - 28 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1612
Abstract
The application of the Internet of Things (IoT), vehicles to infrastructure (V2I) communication and intelligent roadside units (RSU) are promising paradigms to improve road traffic safety. However, for the RSUs to communicate with the vehicles and transmit the data to the remote location, [...] Read more.
The application of the Internet of Things (IoT), vehicles to infrastructure (V2I) communication and intelligent roadside units (RSU) are promising paradigms to improve road traffic safety. However, for the RSUs to communicate with the vehicles and transmit the data to the remote location, RSUs require enough power and good network quality. Recent advances in technology have improved lithium-ion battery capabilities. However, other complementary methodologies including battery management systems (BMS) have to be developed to provide an early warning sign of the battery’s state of health. In this paper, we have evaluated the impact of the received signal strength indication (RSSI) and the current consumption at different transmission frequencies on a static battery-based RSU that depends on the global system for mobile communications (GSM)/general packet radio services (GPRS). Machine learning (ML) models, for instance, Random Forest (RF) and Support Vector Machine (SVM), were employed and tested on the collected data and later compared using the coefficient of determination (R2). The models were used to predict the battery current consumption based on the RSSI of the location where the RSUs were imposed and the frequency at which the RSU transmits the data to the remote database. The RF was preferable to SVM for predicting current consumption with an R2 of 98% and 94%, respectively. It is essential to accurately forecast the battery health of RSUs to assess their dependability and running time. The primary duty of the BMS is to estimate the status of the battery and its dynamic operating limits. However, achieving an accurate and robust battery state of charge remains a significant challenge. Referring to that can help road managers make alternative decisions, such as replacing the battery before the RSU power source gets drained. The proposed method can be deployed in other remote WSN and IoT-based applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors and Systems for Automotive and Road Safety)
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24 pages, 3509 KiB  
Article
Smart Spread Spectrum Modulated Tags for Detection of Vulnerable Road Users with Automotive Radar
by Antonio Lazaro, Marc Lazaro, Ramon Villarino and David Girbau
Sensors 2023, 23(5), 2730; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23052730 - 2 Mar 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1846
Abstract
In recent years, there has been a significant increase in the number of collisions between vehicles and vulnerable road users such as pedestrians, cyclists, road workers and more recently scooter riders, especially in urban streets. This work studies the feasibility of enhancing the [...] Read more.
In recent years, there has been a significant increase in the number of collisions between vehicles and vulnerable road users such as pedestrians, cyclists, road workers and more recently scooter riders, especially in urban streets. This work studies the feasibility of enhancing the detection of these users by means of CW radars because they have a low radar cross section. Since the speed of these users is usually low, they can be confused with clutter due to the presence of large objects. To this end, this paper proposes, for the first time, a method based on a spread spectrum radio communication between vulnerable road users and the automotive radar consisting of modulating a backscatter tag, placed on the user. In addition, it is compatible with low-cost radars that use different waveforms such as CW, FSK or FMCW, and hardware modifications are not required. The prototype that has been developed is based on a commercial monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) amplifier connected between two antennas, which is modulated by switching its bias. Experimental results with a scooter, under static and moving conditions, using a low-power Doppler radar at a 24 GHz band compatible with blind spot radars, are provided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors and Systems for Automotive and Road Safety)
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32 pages, 907 KiB  
Article
Failure Identification Using Model-Implemented Fault Injection with Domain Knowledge-Guided Reinforcement Learning
by Mehrdad Moradi, Bert Van Acker and Joachim Denil
Sensors 2023, 23(4), 2166; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23042166 - 14 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1946
Abstract
The safety assessment of cyber-physical systems (CPSs) requires tremendous effort, as the complexity of cyber-physical systems is increasing. A well-known approach for the safety assessment of CPSs is fault injection (FI). The goal of fault injection is to find a catastrophic fault that [...] Read more.
The safety assessment of cyber-physical systems (CPSs) requires tremendous effort, as the complexity of cyber-physical systems is increasing. A well-known approach for the safety assessment of CPSs is fault injection (FI). The goal of fault injection is to find a catastrophic fault that can cause the system to fail by injecting faults into it. These catastrophic faults are less likely to occur, and finding them requires tremendous labor and cost. In this study, we propose a reinforcement learning (RL)-based method to automatically configure faults in the system under test and to find catastrophic faults in the early stage of system development at the model level. The proposed method provides a guideline to utilize high-level domain knowledge about a system model for constructing the reinforcement learning agent and fault injection setup. In this study, we used the system (safety) specification to shape the reward function in the reinforcement learning agent. The reinforcement learning agent dynamically interacted with the model under test to identify catastrophic faults. We compared the proposed method with random-based fault injection in two case studies using MATLAB/Simulink. Our proposed method outperformed random-based fault injection in terms of the severity and number of faults found. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors and Systems for Automotive and Road Safety)
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21 pages, 21100 KiB  
Article
Research Regarding Different Types of Headlights on Selected Passenger Vehicles when Using Sensor-Related Equipment
by Jan Vrabel, Ondrej Stopka, Jozef Palo, Maria Stopkova, Paweł Droździel and Martin Michalsky
Sensors 2023, 23(4), 1978; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23041978 - 10 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2590
Abstract
Statistical surveys show that the majority of traffic accidents occur due to low visibility, highlighting the need to delve into innovative car lighting technologies. A car driver must not only be able to see but also to be seen. The issue of headlight [...] Read more.
Statistical surveys show that the majority of traffic accidents occur due to low visibility, highlighting the need to delve into innovative car lighting technologies. A car driver must not only be able to see but also to be seen. The issue of headlight illumination is vital, especially during the dark hours of the night. Therefore, the focus of this article is determining the range of visibility of dipped (low-beam) headlights under specific experimental conditions. We also designed a methodical guideline aimed at identifying the distance at which dipped headlights illuminate the road while a vehicle is in motion. Research conducted on various classes of road confirmed that the Hyundai i40 is best used on higher-class roads, while the Dacia Sandero is better used on lower-class roads due to the shape and spreading out of its light cone. Furthermore, the pros and cons of the distribution of light cones on several classes of road are presented. Sensor-related equipment was also used to investigate light beam afterglow. In particular, an LX-1108 light meter was applied to determine the obstacle illumination intensity, the properties of which enable recording of low lighting values, and a DJI Mavic AIR 2 unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV; drone) was utilized to record the data related to the location of the examined vehicle, as well as light afterglow at night; relevant data evaluation was carried out using Inkscape software. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors and Systems for Automotive and Road Safety)
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20 pages, 3362 KiB  
Article
Simulation-Based Cybersecurity Testing and Evaluation Method for Connected Car V2X Application Using Virtual Machine
by Dae-Hwi Lee, Chan-Min Kim, Hyun-Seok Song, Yong-Hee Lee and Won-Sun Chung
Sensors 2023, 23(3), 1421; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23031421 - 27 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2659
Abstract
In a connected car, the vehicle’s internal network is connected to the outside through communication technology. However, this can cause new security vulnerabilities. In particular, V2X communication, to provide the safety of connected cars, can directly threaten the lives of passengers if a [...] Read more.
In a connected car, the vehicle’s internal network is connected to the outside through communication technology. However, this can cause new security vulnerabilities. In particular, V2X communication, to provide the safety of connected cars, can directly threaten the lives of passengers if a security attack occurs. For V2X communication security, standards such as IEEE 1609.2 define the technical functions that digital signature and encryption to provide security of V2X messages. However, it is difficult to verify the security technology by applying it to the environment with real roads because it can be made up of other safety accidents. In addition, vehicle simulation R&D is steadily being carried out, but there is no simulation that evaluates security for the V2X application level. Therefore, in this paper, a virtual machine was used to implement a V2X communication simulation environment that satisfies the requirements for the security evaluation of connected cars. Then, we proposed scenarios for cybersecurity testing and evaluation, implemented and verified through CANoe Option.Car2X. Through this, it is possible to perform sufficient preliminary verification to minimize the variables before verifying security technology in a real road environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors and Systems for Automotive and Road Safety)
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19 pages, 7634 KiB  
Article
Emissions Production by Exhaust Gases of a Road Vehicle’s Starting Depending on a Road Gradient
by Branislav Šarkan, Michal Loman, František Synák, Tomáš Skrúcaný and Jiří Hanzl
Sensors 2022, 22(24), 9896; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22249896 - 15 Dec 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1574
Abstract
An increasing number of motor vehicles are connected with negative environmental impacts in relation to their operation. Among the main negative effects are exhaust gas emissions production. The annual increase in passenger cars and emissions from them deteriorates air quality daily. Traffic junctions [...] Read more.
An increasing number of motor vehicles are connected with negative environmental impacts in relation to their operation. Among the main negative effects are exhaust gas emissions production. The annual increase in passenger cars and emissions from them deteriorates air quality daily. Traffic junctions also have a negative impact on increasing emissions production by exhaust gases. This situation may be caused by vehicle speed fluctuation, mainly when they get closer or leave. This study focuses on the emissions produced by exhaust gases after a road vehicle starts. The research was performed with a combustion engine vehicle on a route 30 m long. The vehicle was simulated in three different ways of starting (uphill, on ground level/plain and downhill). The values of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), hydrocarbons (HC) and nitrogen oxides (NOX) were observed, as well as the vehicle’s operation performance during start-ups. The research results showed that the lowest emissions production is when the vehicle is starting downhill. There, the emissions increased up to a distance of 9.7 m from the start. After reaching this distance, the emissions decreased and the vehicle speed continued to increase. While the vehicle started uphill, the emissions increased up to the distance of 16.8 m. After reaching this distance, the emissions began decreasing. Due to this fact, this type of testing is assessed as “the worst” from the emissions production point of view. The research demonstrates the relations between a road gradient representing starting on a plain surface and a vehicle’s emissions produced by the exhaust gases. It is known that exhaust emissions are higher predominantly at junctions. They depend considerably on vehicle speed and driving continuity on a route. This research helps to quantify all the data and, thus, to provide a possibility of further solutions in the future as a tool for emissions reduction in cities and close to traffic intersections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors and Systems for Automotive and Road Safety)
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12 pages, 3065 KiB  
Article
Does Vehicle-2-X Radio Transmission Technology Need to Be Considered within Accident Analysis in the Future?
by Maximilian Bauder, Tibor Kubjatko, Thomas Helmer and Hans-Georg Schweiger
Sensors 2022, 22(24), 9832; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22249832 - 14 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1350
Abstract
In this analysis, Cooperative Intelligent Transportation System relevant scenarios are created to investigate the need to differentiate Vehicle-to-X transmission technologies on behalf of accident analysis. For each scenario, the distances between the vehicles are calculated 5 s before the crash. Studies on the [...] Read more.
In this analysis, Cooperative Intelligent Transportation System relevant scenarios are created to investigate the need to differentiate Vehicle-to-X transmission technologies on behalf of accident analysis. For each scenario, the distances between the vehicles are calculated 5 s before the crash. Studies on the difference between Dedicated Short-Range Communication (IEEE 802.11p) and Cellular Vehicle-to-X communication (LTE-V2C PC5 Mode 4) are then used to assess whether both technologies have a reliable connection over the relevant distance. If this is the case, the transmission technology is of secondary importance for future investigations on Vehicle-to-X communication in combination with accident analysis. The results show that studies on freeways and rural roads can be carried out independently of the transmission technology and other boundary conditions (speed, traffic density, non-line of sight/line of sight). The situation is different for studies in urban areas, where both technologies may not have a sufficiently reliable connection range depending on the traffic density. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors and Systems for Automotive and Road Safety)
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21 pages, 2601 KiB  
Article
Analysis of the Impact of Invisible Road Icing on Selected Parameters of a Minibus Vehicle
by Dariusz Kurczyński and Andrzej Zuska
Sensors 2022, 22(24), 9726; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22249726 - 12 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1114
Abstract
The measurement of acceleration during vehicle motion can be used to assess the driving styles and behaviours of drivers, to control vehicle traffic, to detect uncontrolled vehicle behaviour, and to prevent accidents. The measurement of acceleration during vehicle motion on an icy road [...] Read more.
The measurement of acceleration during vehicle motion can be used to assess the driving styles and behaviours of drivers, to control vehicle traffic, to detect uncontrolled vehicle behaviour, and to prevent accidents. The measurement of acceleration during vehicle motion on an icy road can be used to warn the driver about changing conditions and the related hazards. This paper presents the results of testing the motion parameters of a Ford Transit adapted for passenger transport in critical traffic conditions. It can contribute to the improvement of road safety. Critical traffic conditions are deemed in the paper as sudden braking, rapid acceleration, and circular vehicle motion at maximum speed maintainable in the given conditions. The vehicle’s acceleration and speed were measured during the tests. The tests were carried out with a TAA linear acceleration sensor and a Correvit S-350 Aqua optoelectronic sensor. The same test runs were conducted on a dry surface, a wet (after rain) surface and a surface covered with a thin, invisible ice layer. The objective of the tests was to determine the impact of invisible road icing, the so-called black ice, on the tested vehicle’s braking, acceleration, and circular motion. It was demonstrated that a virtually invisible ice layer covering the road surface has a substantial impact on the tested vehicle’s motion parameters, thereby affecting traffic safety. It substantially extends the braking and acceleration distances and requires the driver to reduce the vehicle’s speed when performing circular motions. A clear wet surface, representing motion after rain, did not substantially affect the analysed parameters. The obtained results can be used in traffic simulations and to analyse the causes of accidents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors and Systems for Automotive and Road Safety)
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17 pages, 5009 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Volunteers’ Head Displacement with Computer Simulation—Crash Test with Low Speed of 20 km/h
by Damian Frej and Marek Jaśkiewicz
Sensors 2022, 22(24), 9720; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22249720 - 12 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2706
Abstract
Recently, the automotive industry has used simulation programs much more often than experimental research. Computer simulations are more and more often used due to the repeatability of simulation conditions and the possibility of making modifications in simulation objects. Experimental and simulation studies carried [...] Read more.
Recently, the automotive industry has used simulation programs much more often than experimental research. Computer simulations are more and more often used due to the repeatability of simulation conditions and the possibility of making modifications in simulation objects. Experimental and simulation studies carried out are aimed at developing a model of a simulation dummy adapted to both frontal and rear crash tests, taking into account changes in the moment of resistance in individual joints. The main purpose of the article is to reproduce a real crash test at a low speed of 20 km/h in a simulation program. For this purpose, a series of experimental crash tests with the participation of volunteers was carried out, and then a crash test with a dummy was simulated in the MSC ADAMS program. The experimental studies involved 100 volunteers who were divided into three percentile groups (C5, C50, C95). With the help of force sensors and a high-speed camera, crash tests of volunteers were recorded. The collected data from the force sensors made it possible to map the force in the seat belts. For low-speed crash tests, the displacement and acceleration of individual body parts of the dummy and volunteers can be measured using vision systems. The article identified head displacements of volunteers in the TEMA program based on a video analysis of a crash test film with a frequency of up to 2500 frames per second. The displacement of the simulation dummy’s head in the MSC ADAMS program in the considered crash time interval from 0.0 to 0.4 s for all three percentile groups coincided with the head displacement of the volunteers during the experimental crash test. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors and Systems for Automotive and Road Safety)
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17 pages, 13617 KiB  
Article
Estimation of Water Depth on Road Surfaces Using Accelerometric Signals
by Ebrahim Riahi, Wiyao Edjeou, Sébastien Buisson, Manuela Gennesseaux and Minh-Tan Do
Sensors 2022, 22(22), 8940; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22228940 - 18 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2031
Abstract
The paper presents an experimental study conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using accelerometers as an indirect means to estimate water depths on road surfaces. It makes use of the vibration of the vehicle’s wheel arch due to water droplets projected by a [...] Read more.
The paper presents an experimental study conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using accelerometers as an indirect means to estimate water depths on road surfaces. It makes use of the vibration of the vehicle’s wheel arch due to water droplets projected by a tire rolling on a wet road surface. A trailer equipped with a wheel and towed by a van was used. The test setups to spread water on the road surface and before the test wheel, measure the water depth and visualize the water spray are described. The test program, conducted on a test track closed to the traffic, includes three surfaces and two speeds. Visualization of water flows by means of high-speed cameras makes it possible to choose a suitable location for the accelerometers. It turns out that signals provided by the accelerometers are affected by the trailer’s movement; a filtering method has been successfully developed to remove noises. Results show a tight relationship between the mean amplitude of accelerometric signals and actual water depths. Discussions are made in terms of effects of the vehicle speed and the road surface texture. Perspectives for using the developed system to improve passenger safety under autonomous driving conditions are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors and Systems for Automotive and Road Safety)
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22 pages, 996 KiB  
Article
Performance Improvement of a Vehicle Equipped with Active Aerodynamic Surfaces Using Anti-Jerk Preview Control Strategy
by Ejaz Ahmad and Iljoong Youn
Sensors 2022, 22(20), 8057; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22208057 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1739
Abstract
This paper presents a formulation of a preview optimal control strategy for a half-car model equipped with active aerodynamic surfaces. The designed control strategy consists of two parts: a feed-forward controller to deal with the future road disturbances and a feedback controller to [...] Read more.
This paper presents a formulation of a preview optimal control strategy for a half-car model equipped with active aerodynamic surfaces. The designed control strategy consists of two parts: a feed-forward controller to deal with the future road disturbances and a feedback controller to deal with tracking error. An anti-jerk functionality is employed in the design of preview control strategy that can reliably reduce the jerk of control inputs to improve the performance of active aerodynamic surfaces and reduce vehicle body jerk to enhance the ride comfort without degrading road holding capability. The proposed control scheme determines proactive control action against oncoming potential road disturbances to mitigate the effect of deterministically known road disturbances. The performance of proposed anti-jerk optimal control strategy is compared with that of optimal control without considering jerk. Simulation results considering frequency and time domain characteristics are carried out using MATLAB to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme. The frequency domain characteristics are discussed only for the roll inputs, while time domain characteristics are discussed for the corresponding ground velocity inputs of bump and asphalt road, respectively. The results show that using anti-jerk optimal preview control strategy improves the performance of vehicle dynamics by reducing jerk of aerodynamic surfaces and vehicle body jerk simultaneously. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors and Systems for Automotive and Road Safety)
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15 pages, 6229 KiB  
Article
Measuring Roadway Lane Widths Using Connected Vehicle Sensor Data
by Justin A. Mahlberg, Howell Li, Yi-Ting Cheng, Ayman Habib and Darcy M. Bullock
Sensors 2022, 22(19), 7187; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22197187 - 22 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2041
Abstract
The United States has over three trillion vehicle miles of travel annually on over four million miles of public roadways, which require regular maintenance. To maintain and improve these facilities, agencies often temporarily close lanes, reconfigure lane geometry, or completely close the road [...] Read more.
The United States has over three trillion vehicle miles of travel annually on over four million miles of public roadways, which require regular maintenance. To maintain and improve these facilities, agencies often temporarily close lanes, reconfigure lane geometry, or completely close the road depending on the scope of the construction project. Lane widths of less than 11 feet in construction zones can impact highway capacity and crash rates. Crash data can be used to identify locations where the road geometry could be improved. However, this is a manual process that does not scale well. This paper describes findings for using data from onboard sensors in production vehicles for measuring lane widths. Over 200 miles of roadway on US-52, US-41, and I-65 in Indiana were measured using vehicle sensor data and compared with mobile LiDAR point clouds as ground truth and had a root mean square error of approximately 0.24 feet. The novelty of these results is that vehicle sensors can identify when work zones use lane widths substantially narrower than the 11 foot standard at a network level and can be used to aid in the inspection and verification of construction specification conformity. This information would contribute to the construction inspection performed by agencies in a safer, more efficient way. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors and Systems for Automotive and Road Safety)
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19 pages, 6180 KiB  
Article
Modeling of the Influence of Operational Parameters on Tire Lateral Dynamics
by Manuel Alcázar Vargas, Javier Pérez Fernández, Ignacio Sánchez Andrades, Juan A. Cabrera Carrillo and Juan J. Castillo Aguilar
Sensors 2022, 22(17), 6380; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22176380 - 24 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1772
Abstract
Tires play a critical role in vehicle safety. Proper modeling of tire–road interaction is essential for optimal performance of active safety systems. This work studies the influence of temperature, longitudinal vehicle speed, steering frequency, vertical load, and inflation pressure on lateral tire dynamics. [...] Read more.
Tires play a critical role in vehicle safety. Proper modeling of tire–road interaction is essential for optimal performance of active safety systems. This work studies the influence of temperature, longitudinal vehicle speed, steering frequency, vertical load, and inflation pressure on lateral tire dynamics. To this end, a tire test bench that allows the accurate control of these parameters and the measurement of the variables of interest was used. The obtained results made it possible to propose a simple model that allowed the determination of relaxation length as a function of tire vertical load and vehicle linear speed, and the determination of a representative tread temperature. Additionally, a model has been proposed to determine the lateral friction coefficient from the aforementioned temperature. Finally, results also showed that some variables had little influence on the parameters that characterize lateral dynamics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors and Systems for Automotive and Road Safety)
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19 pages, 6705 KiB  
Article
Research on the Circumstances of a Car–Cyclist Collision, Based on the Trajectory of the Cyclist’s Movement after the Collision
by Edgar Sokolovskij and Edvinas Juodka
Sensors 2022, 22(17), 6324; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22176324 - 23 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1482
Abstract
This article examines a simulated collision between a car and a cyclist, assessing the trajectory of the cyclist’s movement after the impact, namely the throwing distances and angles of the cyclist and bicycle. Information about the car and cyclist models used for the [...] Read more.
This article examines a simulated collision between a car and a cyclist, assessing the trajectory of the cyclist’s movement after the impact, namely the throwing distances and angles of the cyclist and bicycle. Information about the car and cyclist models used for the study is provided. Special software PC CRASH 8.1 for the analysis and reconstruction of traffic accidents was used to simulate a car–cyclist collision. Simulations of car–cyclist collisions were carried out, with different speeds for the car and the cyclist, and locations at the time of the impact. The movement of a bicycle after a crash tends to be irregular and is dependent on various parameters that are usually not possible to evaluate. Therefore, the parameters of the movement of the bicycle after the collision (the throwing angle and the distance) usually do not allow determination of the speed of the car before the accident. The movement of the cyclist after impact was more informative for determining the speed of the car before the accident. For example, when there was an angle of 30°, 60°, or 90° between the longitudinal axes of the car and the cyclist, there was a clear dependence between the speed of the car and the cyclist’s throwing distance, and usually also between the speed of the car and the cyclist’s throwing angle. Thus, in such cases, it is possible to determine approximately the initial speed of the car before the collision, based on the trajectory of the cyclist’s movement after the impact, namely his throwing distance and angle. In cases of real traffic accidents, with knowledge of the location of the car–cyclist collision and the position of the cyclist after the traffic accident, the speed of the car before the accident can be determined according to the abovementioned dependencies. Thus, the proposed methodology could be used in the reconstruction and examination of traffic accidents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors and Systems for Automotive and Road Safety)
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22 pages, 1791 KiB  
Article
Evaluating Link Lifetime Prediction to Support Computational Offloading Decision in VANETs
by Paulo Rocha, Alisson Souza, Gilvan Maia, César Mattos, Francisco Airton Silva, Paulo Rego, Tuan Anh Nguyen and Jae-Woo Lee
Sensors 2022, 22(16), 6038; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22166038 - 12 Aug 2022
Viewed by 1451
Abstract
In urban mobility, Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs) provide a variety of intelligent applications. By enhancing automobile traffic management, these technologies enable advancements in safety and help decrease the frequency of accidents. The transportation system can now follow the development and growth of [...] Read more.
In urban mobility, Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs) provide a variety of intelligent applications. By enhancing automobile traffic management, these technologies enable advancements in safety and help decrease the frequency of accidents. The transportation system can now follow the development and growth of cities without sacrificing the quality and organisation of its services thanks to safety apps that include collision alerts, real-time traffic information, and safe driving applications, among others. Applications can occasionally demand a lot of computing power, making their processing impractical for cars with limited onboard processing capacity. Offloading of computation is encouraged by such a restriction. However, because vehicle mobility operations are dynamic, communication times (also known as link lifetimes) between nodes are frequently short. VANET applications and processes are impacted by such communication delays (e.g., the offloading decision when using the Computational Offloading technique). Making an accurate prediction of the link lifespan between vehicles is therefore challenging. The effectiveness of the communication time estimation is currently constrained by the link lifespan prediction methods used in the computational offloading process. This work investigates five machine learning (ML) algorithms to predict the link lifetime between nodes in VANETs in different scenarios. We propose the procedures required to carry out the link lifetime prediction method using existing ML techniques. The tactic creates datasets with the features the models need to learn and be trained. The SVR and XGBoost algorithms that were selected as part of the assessment process were trained. To make the prediction using the trained models, we modified the lifespan prediction function from an offloading approach. To determine the viability of applying link lifespan predictions from the models trained in the road and urban scenarios, we conducted a performance study. The findings indicate that compared to the conventional prediction strategy described in the literature, the suggested link lifetime prediction via regression approaches decreases prediction error rates. An offloading method from the literature is extended by the selected SVR. The task loss and recovery rates might be significantly reduced using the SVR. XGBoost outperformed its ML competitors in task recovery or drop rate by 70% to 80% in an assessed hypothesis compared to an offloading choice technique in the literature. With greater offloading rates from an application on the VANET, this effort is intended to give better efficiency in estimating this data using machine learning in various vehicular settings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors and Systems for Automotive and Road Safety)
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22 pages, 34925 KiB  
Article
Measuring the Influence of Environmental Conditions on Automotive Lidar Sensors
by Clemens Linnhoff, Kristof Hofrichter, Lukas Elster, Philipp Rosenberger and Hermann Winner
Sensors 2022, 22(14), 5266; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22145266 - 14 Jul 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3498
Abstract
Safety validation of automated driving functions is a major challenge that is partly tackled by means of simulation-based testing. The virtual validation approach always entails the modeling of automotive perception sensors and their environment. In the real world, these sensors are exposed to [...] Read more.
Safety validation of automated driving functions is a major challenge that is partly tackled by means of simulation-based testing. The virtual validation approach always entails the modeling of automotive perception sensors and their environment. In the real world, these sensors are exposed to adverse influences by environmental conditions such as rain, fog, snow, etc. Therefore, such influences need to be reflected in the simulation models. In this publication, a novel data set is introduced and analyzed. This data set contains lidar data with synchronized reference measurements of weather conditions from a stationary long-term experiment. Recorded weather conditions comprise fog, rain, snow, and direct sunlight. The data are analyzed by pairing lidar values, such as the number of detections in the atmosphere, with weather parameters such as rain rate in mm/h. This results in expectation values, which can directly be utilized for stochastic modeling or model calibration and validation. The results show vast differences in the number of atmospheric detections, range distribution, and attenuation between the different sensors of the data set. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors and Systems for Automotive and Road Safety)
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21 pages, 3728 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of 1D and 2D Deep Convolutional Neural Networks for Driving Event Recognition
by Álvaro Teixeira Escottá, Wesley Beccaro and Miguel Arjona Ramírez
Sensors 2022, 22(11), 4226; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22114226 - 1 Jun 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3028
Abstract
Driving event detection and driver behavior recognition have been widely explored for many purposes, including detecting distractions, classifying driver actions, detecting kidnappings, pricing vehicle insurance, evaluating eco-driving, and managing shared and leased vehicles. Some systems can recognize the main driving events (e.g., accelerating, [...] Read more.
Driving event detection and driver behavior recognition have been widely explored for many purposes, including detecting distractions, classifying driver actions, detecting kidnappings, pricing vehicle insurance, evaluating eco-driving, and managing shared and leased vehicles. Some systems can recognize the main driving events (e.g., accelerating, braking, and turning) by using in-vehicle devices, such as inertial measurement unit (IMU) sensors. In general, feature extraction is a commonly used technique to obtain robust and meaningful information from the sensor signals to guarantee the effectiveness of the subsequent classification algorithm. However, a general assessment of deep neural networks merits further investigation, particularly regarding end-to-end models based on Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs), which combine two components, namely feature extraction and the classification parts. This paper primarily explores supervised deep-learning models based on 1D and 2D CNNs to classify driving events from the signals of linear acceleration and angular velocity obtained with the IMU sensors of a smartphone placed in the instrument panel of the vehicle. Aggressive and non-aggressive behaviors can be recognized by monitoring driving events, such as accelerating, braking, lane changing, and turning. The experimental results obtained are promising since the best classification model achieved accuracy values of up to 82.40%, and macro- and micro-average F1 scores, respectively, equal to 75.36% and 82.40%, thus, demonstrating high performance in the classification of driving events. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors and Systems for Automotive and Road Safety)
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16 pages, 4035 KiB  
Article
C-ITS Relevant Critical Vehicle-to-Vehicle Accident Scenarios for Accident Analysis
by Maximilian Bauder, Klaus Böhm, Tibor Kubjatko, Lothar Wech and Hans-Georg Schweiger
Sensors 2022, 22(9), 3562; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22093562 - 7 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1695
Abstract
The relevance of scientific investigations, whether simulative or empirical, is strongly related to the environment used and the scenarios associated with it. Within the field of cooperative intelligent transport systems, use-cases are defined to describe the benefits of applications. This has already been [...] Read more.
The relevance of scientific investigations, whether simulative or empirical, is strongly related to the environment used and the scenarios associated with it. Within the field of cooperative intelligent transport systems, use-cases are defined to describe the benefits of applications. This has already been conducted in the available safety-relevant Day 1 applications longitudinal and intersection collision risk warning through the respective technical specifications. However, the relevance of traffic scenarios is always a function of accident severity and frequency of a retrospective consideration of accident databases. In this study, vehicle-to-vehicle scenarios with high frequency and/or severe personal injuries are therefore determined with the help of the CISS database and linked to the use-cases of the safety-relevant Day 1 applications. The relevance of the scenarios thus results on the one hand from the classical parameters of retrospective accident analysis and on the other hand from the coverage by the named vehicle-to-x applications. As a result, accident scenarios with oncoming vehicles are the most relevant scenarios for investigations with cooperative intelligent transport systems. In addition, high coverage of the most critical scenarios within the use-cases of longitudinal and intersection collision risk warning is already apparent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors and Systems for Automotive and Road Safety)
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17 pages, 3477 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Driver’s Reaction Time Measured in Driving Simulator
by Kristián Čulík, Alica Kalašová and Vladimíra Štefancová
Sensors 2022, 22(9), 3542; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22093542 - 6 May 2022
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 3212
Abstract
This article evaluates the driver’s reaction times in a driving simulator environment. The research focused mainly on young drivers under the age of 26, who cause many accidents. Each participating driver provided basic information later used for mathematical-statistical analysis. The main advantage of [...] Read more.
This article evaluates the driver’s reaction times in a driving simulator environment. The research focused mainly on young drivers under the age of 26, who cause many accidents. Each participating driver provided basic information later used for mathematical-statistical analysis. The main advantage of driving simulators is limitless usage. It is possible to simulate situations that would be unacceptable in real road traffic. Therefore, this study is also able to examine drunk driving. The main goal of the article is to evaluate if gender, practice, or alcohol significantly affected the reaction time of 30 drivers. We also focused on drinking before driving for a smaller number of the drivers; ten of them performed driving under the influence of alcohol. For these mathematical-statistical purposes, we used a one-sample t-test, a paired-samples t-test, an independent-sample t-test, and a correlation analysis together with the assessment of its statistical significance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors and Systems for Automotive and Road Safety)
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32 pages, 4822 KiB  
Article
Smart Roads for Autonomous Accident Detection and Warnings
by Abdul Mateen, Muhammad Zahid Hanif, Narayan Khatri, Sihyung Lee and Seung Yeob Nam
Sensors 2022, 22(6), 2077; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22062077 - 8 Mar 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 10292
Abstract
An increasing number of vehicles on the roads increases the risk of accidents. In bad weather (e.g., heavy rainfall, strong winds, storms, and fog), this risk almost doubles due to bad visibility as well as road conditions. If an accident happens, especially in [...] Read more.
An increasing number of vehicles on the roads increases the risk of accidents. In bad weather (e.g., heavy rainfall, strong winds, storms, and fog), this risk almost doubles due to bad visibility as well as road conditions. If an accident happens, especially in bad weather, it is important to inform approaching vehicles about it. Otherwise, there might be another accident, i.e., a multiple-vehicle collision (MVC). If the Emergency Operations Center (EOC) is not informed in a timely fashion about the incident, fatalities might increase because they do not receive immediate first aid. Detecting humans or animals would undoubtedly provide us with a better answer for reducing human fatalities in traffic accidents. In this research, an accident alert light and sound (AALS) system is proposed for auto accident detection and alerts with all types of vehicles. No changes are required in non-equipped vehicles (nEVs) and EVs because the system is installed on the roadside. The idea behind this research is to make smart roads (SRs) instead of equipping each vehicle with a separate system. Wireless communication is needed only when an accident is detected. This study is based on different sensors that are used to build SRs to detect accidents. Pre-saved locations are used to reduce the time needed to find the accident’s location without the help of a global positioning system (GPS). Additionally, the proposed framework for the AALS also reduces the risk of MVCs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors and Systems for Automotive and Road Safety)
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17 pages, 2497 KiB  
Article
Influence of Engine Electronic Management Fault Simulation on Vehicle Operation
by Branislav Šarkan, Michal Loman, František Synák, Michal Richtář and Mirosław Gidlewski
Sensors 2022, 22(5), 2054; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22052054 - 7 Mar 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2611
Abstract
The preparation of the fuel mixture of a conventional internal combustion engine is currently controlled exclusively electronically. In order for the electrical management of an internal combustion engine to function properly, it is necessary that all its electronic components work flawlessly and fulfill [...] Read more.
The preparation of the fuel mixture of a conventional internal combustion engine is currently controlled exclusively electronically. In order for the electrical management of an internal combustion engine to function properly, it is necessary that all its electronic components work flawlessly and fulfill their role. Failure of these electronic components can cause incorrect fuel mixture preparation and also affect driving safety. Due to the effect of individual failures, it has a negative impact on road safety and also negatively affects other participants. The task of the research is to investigate the effect of the failure of electronic engine components on the selected operating characteristics of a vehicle. The purpose of this article is to specify the extent to which a failure of an electronic engine component may affect the operation of a road vehicle. Eight failures of electronic systems (sensors and actuators) were simulated on a specific vehicle, with a petrol internal combustion engine. Measurements were performed in laboratory conditions, the purpose of which was to quantify the change in the operating characteristics of the vehicle between the faulty and fault-free state. The vehicle performance parameters and the production of selected exhaust emission components were determined for selected vehicle operating characteristics. The results show that in the normal operation of vehicles, there are situations where a failure in the electronic system of the engine has a significant impact on its operating characteristics and, at the same time, some of these failures are not identifiable by the vehicle operator. The findings of the publication can be used in the drafting of legislation, in the field of production and operation of road vehicles, and also in the mathematical modeling of the production of gaseous emissions by road transport. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors and Systems for Automotive and Road Safety)
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14 pages, 6420 KiB  
Article
Influence of a Passenger Position Seating on Recline Seat on a Head Injury during a Frontal Crash
by Aleksander Górniak, Jędrzej Matla, Wanda Górniak, Monika Magdziak-Tokłowicz, Konrad Krakowian, Maciej Zawiślak, Radosław Włostowski and Jacek Cebula
Sensors 2022, 22(5), 2003; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22052003 - 4 Mar 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2600
Abstract
Presently, most passive safety tests are performed with a precisely specified seat position and carefully seated ATD (anthropomorphic test device) dummies. Facing the development of autonomous vehicles, as well as the need for safety verification during crashes with various seat positions such research [...] Read more.
Presently, most passive safety tests are performed with a precisely specified seat position and carefully seated ATD (anthropomorphic test device) dummies. Facing the development of autonomous vehicles, as well as the need for safety verification during crashes with various seat positions such research is even more urgently needed. Apart from the numerical environment, the existing testing equipment is not validated to perform such an investigation. For example, ATDs are not validated for nonstandard seatback positions, and the most accurate method of such research is volunteer tests. The study presented here was performed on a sled test rig utilizing a 50cc Hybrid III dummy according to a full factorial experiment. In addition, input factors were selected in order to verify a safe test condition for surrogate testing. The measured value was head acceleration, which was used for calculation of a head injury criterion. What was found was an optimal seat angle −117°—at which the head injury criteria had the lowest represented value. Moreover, preliminary body dynamics showed a danger of whiplash occurrence for occupants in a fully-reclined seat. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors and Systems for Automotive and Road Safety)
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15 pages, 6253 KiB  
Article
Research and Analysis of the Propagation of Vertical Vibrations in the Arrangement of a Vehicle Seat—A Child’s Seat
by Andrzej Zuska, Damian Frej, Jerzy Jackowski and Marcin Żmuda
Sensors 2021, 21(24), 8230; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21248230 - 9 Dec 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2907
Abstract
This paper deals with the issues of the impact of vertical vibrations on a child seated in a child seat during a journey. Its purpose was to assess the impact of fastening the child seats and road conditions on the level of vibrations [...] Read more.
This paper deals with the issues of the impact of vertical vibrations on a child seated in a child seat during a journey. Its purpose was to assess the impact of fastening the child seats and road conditions on the level of vibrations recorded on child seats. The paper describes the tested child seats, the methodology of the tests and the test apparatus included in the measuring track. The tests were carried out in real road conditions where the child seats were located on the rear seat of a passenger vehicle. One was attached with standard seat belts, and the other with the ISOFIX base. When driving on roads with three types of surface, the following vertical accelerations were measured: seat of the child seats, the rear seat of the vehicle and the ISOfix base. The recorded accelerations were first analyzed in the time domain and then in the frequency domain. Three indexes (r.m.s, rmq and VDV) were used to assess the vibration comfort. Research has shown that the classic method of fastening a child seat with standard seat belts is more advantageous in terms of vibration comfort. Calculated indicators confirmed the negative impact of separating the child seat from the rear seat of the vehicle using the IQ ISOFIX base. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors and Systems for Automotive and Road Safety)
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Review

Jump to: Research

40 pages, 1274 KiB  
Review
Survey of Cooperative Advanced Driver Assistance Systems: From a Holistic and Systemic Vision
by Juan Felipe González-Saavedra, Miguel Figueroa, Sandra Céspedes and Samuel Montejo-Sánchez
Sensors 2022, 22(8), 3040; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22083040 - 15 Apr 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 6006
Abstract
The design of cooperative advanced driver assistance systems (C-ADAS) involves a holistic and systemic vision that considers the bidirectional interaction among three main elements: the driver, the vehicle, and the surrounding environment. The evolution of these systems reflects this need. In this work, [...] Read more.
The design of cooperative advanced driver assistance systems (C-ADAS) involves a holistic and systemic vision that considers the bidirectional interaction among three main elements: the driver, the vehicle, and the surrounding environment. The evolution of these systems reflects this need. In this work, we present a survey of C-ADAS and describe a conceptual architecture that includes the driver, vehicle, and environment and their bidirectional interactions. We address the remote operation of this C-ADAS based on the Internet of vehicles (IoV) paradigm, as well as the involved enabling technologies. We describe the state of the art and the research challenges present in the development of C-ADAS. Finally, to quantify the performance of C-ADAS, we describe the principal evaluation mechanisms and performance metrics employed in these systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors and Systems for Automotive and Road Safety)
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23 pages, 8349 KiB  
Review
Review and Analysis of Technical Designs of Rear Underrun Protective Devices (RUPDs) in Terms of Regulatory Compliance
by Mirosław Gidlewski, Jerzy Jackowski and Paweł Posuniak
Sensors 2022, 22(7), 2645; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22072645 - 30 Mar 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 4454
Abstract
The Rear Underrun Protective Device (RUPD) is a basic means to prevent a passenger car from running under the rear of a motor truck (also referred to as heavy goods vehicle or HGV) or a trailer in the case of a rear-end collision [...] Read more.
The Rear Underrun Protective Device (RUPD) is a basic means to prevent a passenger car from running under the rear of a motor truck (also referred to as heavy goods vehicle or HGV) or a trailer in the case of a rear-end collision and thus to reduce deformations of the car’s passenger compartment (“survival space”). In many publications dealing with such devices, the increasing of RUPD stiffness by applying innovative design solutions or using high-strength materials has been considered; in some designs, additional RUPD components are introduced to absorb the impact energy. In this paper, a review of the RUPD designs is presented and some of them are analyzed, where their characteristics that are essential for the compliance with normative market requirements are indicated. Results of the authors’ research on the selection of an energy absorber incorporated in the rear impact guard bar of an HGV are presented as well. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors and Systems for Automotive and Road Safety)
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