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Special Issue "Semiconductor Materials on Biosensors Application"

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Biosensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (25 November 2017).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Dejian Zhou
Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
School of Chemistry and Astbury Centre for Structural Molecualr Biology, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
Interests: quantum dot; FRET; biosensors; multivalency; nanomedicine; nanoparticles; bioconjugation

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The unique size-dependent optical and electrical properties of semiconductor materials make them powerful tools in broad biosensing and diagnostic applications. In this regard, an effective integration of functional bio-recognition entities with semiconductor materials—so as to harness and enhance the specific biological functions, maximize individual’s bioactivity and develop novel signal amplification and/or transduction strategies—is of key importance. Examples include the development of bioconjugation chemistries, bio-material interfaces, novel assay/signal transduction strategies to improve sensitivity and assay robustness, making them useful for real world applications.

This Special Issue aims to highlight recent advances in the development of novel semiconductor materials, particularly using fluorescence or fluorescence resonance energy transfer based readout strategies, in areas of biosensing and diagnostic applications.

Prof. Dr. Dejian Zhou, FRSC
Guest Editor

Keywords

  • Quantum dot
  • Quantum rod
  • Carbon dot
  • Graphene quantum dot
  • Silicon quantum dot
  • Fluorescence nanoparticle synthesis and characterization

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Detection of Thrombin Based on Fluorescence Energy Transfer between Semiconducting Polymer Dots and BHQ-Labelled Aptamers
Sensors 2018, 18(2), 589; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18020589 - 14 Feb 2018
Cited by 6
Abstract
Carboxyl-functionalized semiconducting polymer dots (Pdots) were synthesized as an energy donor by the nanoprecipitation method. A black hole quenching dye (BHQ-labelled thrombin aptamers) was used as the energy acceptor, and fluorescence resonance energy transfer between the aptamers and Pdots was used for fluorescence [...] Read more.
Carboxyl-functionalized semiconducting polymer dots (Pdots) were synthesized as an energy donor by the nanoprecipitation method. A black hole quenching dye (BHQ-labelled thrombin aptamers) was used as the energy acceptor, and fluorescence resonance energy transfer between the aptamers and Pdots was used for fluorescence quenching of the Pdots. The addition of thrombin restored the fluorescence intensity. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the fluorescence of the system was restored to the maximum when the concentration of thrombin reached 130 nM, with a linear range of 0–50 nM (R2 = 0.990) and a detection limit of 0.33 nM. This sensor was less disturbed by impurities, showing good specificity and signal response to thrombin, with good application in actual samples. The detection of human serum showed good linearity in the range of 0–30 nM (R2 = 0.997), with a detection limit of 0.56 nM and a recovery rate of 96.2–104.1%, indicating that this fluorescence sensor can be used for the detection of thrombin content in human serum. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Semiconductor Materials on Biosensors Application)
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Open AccessArticle
Doping Ag in ZnO Nanorods to Improve the Performance of Related Enzymatic Glucose Sensors
Sensors 2017, 17(10), 2214; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17102214 - 27 Sep 2017
Cited by 11
Abstract
In this paper, the performance of a zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod-based enzymatic glucose sensor was enhanced with silver (Ag)-doped ZnO (ZnO-Ag) nanorods. The effect of the doped Ag on the surface morphologies, wettability, and electron transfer capability of the ZnO-Ag nanorods, as well [...] Read more.
In this paper, the performance of a zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod-based enzymatic glucose sensor was enhanced with silver (Ag)-doped ZnO (ZnO-Ag) nanorods. The effect of the doped Ag on the surface morphologies, wettability, and electron transfer capability of the ZnO-Ag nanorods, as well as the catalytic character of glucose oxidase (GOx) and the performance of the glucose sensor was investigated. The results indicate that the doped Ag slightly weakens the surface roughness and hydrophilicity of the ZnO-Ag nanorods, but remarkably increases their electron transfer ability and enhances the catalytic character of GOx. Consequently, the combined effects of the above influencing factors lead to a notable improvement of the performance of the glucose sensor, that is, the sensitivity increases and the detection limit decreases. The optimal amount of the doped Ag is determined to be 2 mM, and the corresponding glucose sensor exhibits a sensitivity of 3.85 μA/(mM·cm2), detection limit of 1.5 μM, linear range of 1.5 × 10−3–6.5 mM, and Michaelis-Menten constant of 3.87 mM. Moreover, the glucose sensor shows excellent selectivity to urea, ascorbic acid, and uric acid, in addition to displaying good storage stability. These results demonstrate that ZnO-Ag nanorods are promising matrix materials for the construction of other enzymatic biosensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Semiconductor Materials on Biosensors Application)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Aptamer-Modified Semiconductor Quantum Dots for Biosensing Applications
Sensors 2017, 17(8), 1736; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17081736 - 28 Jul 2017
Cited by 11
Abstract
Semiconductor quantum dots have attracted extensive interest in the biosensing area because of their properties, such as narrow and symmetric emission with tunable colors, high quantum yield, high stability and controllable morphology. The introduction of various reactive functional groups on the surface of [...] Read more.
Semiconductor quantum dots have attracted extensive interest in the biosensing area because of their properties, such as narrow and symmetric emission with tunable colors, high quantum yield, high stability and controllable morphology. The introduction of various reactive functional groups on the surface of semiconductor quantum dots allows one to conjugate a spectrum of ligands, antibodies, peptides, or nucleic acids for broader and smarter applications. Among these ligands, aptamers exhibit many advantages including small size, high chemical stability, simple synthesis with high batch-to-batch consistency and convenient modification. More importantly, it is easy to introduce nucleic acid amplification strategies and/or nanomaterials to improve the sensitivity of aptamer-based sensing systems. Therefore, the combination of semiconductor quantum dots and aptamers brings more opportunities in bioanalysis. Here we summarize recent advances on aptamer-functionalized semiconductor quantum dots in biosensing applications. Firstly, we discuss the properties and structure of semiconductor quantum dots and aptamers. Then, the applications of biosensors based on aptamer-modified semiconductor quantum dots by different signal transducing mechanisms, including optical, electrochemical and electrogenerated chemiluminescence approaches, is discussed. Finally, our perspectives on the challenges and opportunities in this promising field are provided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Semiconductor Materials on Biosensors Application)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Emerging Cytokine Biosensors with Optical Detection Modalities and Nanomaterial-Enabled Signal Enhancement
Sensors 2017, 17(2), 428; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17020428 - 22 Feb 2017
Cited by 21
Abstract
Protein biomarkers, especially cytokines, play a pivotal role in the diagnosis and treatment of a wide spectrum of diseases. Therefore, a critical need for advanced cytokine sensors has been rapidly growing and will continue to expand to promote clinical testing, new biomarker development, [...] Read more.
Protein biomarkers, especially cytokines, play a pivotal role in the diagnosis and treatment of a wide spectrum of diseases. Therefore, a critical need for advanced cytokine sensors has been rapidly growing and will continue to expand to promote clinical testing, new biomarker development, and disease studies. In particular, sensors employing transduction principles of various optical modalities have emerged as the most common means of detection. In typical cytokine assays which are based on the binding affinities between the analytes of cytokines and their specific antibodies, optical schemes represent the most widely used mechanisms, with some serving as the gold standard against which all existing and new sensors are benchmarked. With recent advancements in nanoscience and nanotechnology, many of the recently emerging technologies for cytokine detection exploit various forms of nanomaterials for improved sensing capabilities. Nanomaterials have been demonstrated to exhibit exceptional optical properties unique to their reduced dimensionality. Novel sensing approaches based on the newly identified properties of nanomaterials have shown drastically improved performances in both the qualitative and quantitative analyses of cytokines. This article brings together the fundamentals in the literature that are central to different optical modalities developed for cytokine detection. Recent advancements in the applications of novel technologies are also discussed in terms of those that enable highly sensitive and multiplexed cytokine quantification spanning a wide dynamic range. For each highlighted optical technique, its current detection capabilities as well as associated challenges are discussed. Lastly, an outlook for nanomaterial-based cytokine sensors is provided from the perspective of optimizing the technologies for sensitivity and multiplexity as well as promoting widespread adaptations of the emerging optical techniques by lowering high thresholds currently present in the new approaches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Semiconductor Materials on Biosensors Application)
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