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Special Issue "Non-destructive Sensors and Machine Learning for Food Safety & Quality Inspection"

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Physical Sensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Vassilis S. Kodogiannis
Website SciProfiles
Guest Editor
University of Westminster, School of Computer Science and Engineering, 115 New Cavendish Street, London W1W 6UW, UK
Interests: neural networks; fuzzy systems; genetic algorithms; hybrid systems; machine learning; image/signal processing; bio-signal analysis; chemometrics; control; non-invasive sensing systems; robotics
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Food is routinely screened to assess quality (such as physical appearance and organoleptic properties) and safety (absence of health threatening pathogens and chemical compounds). These tests are usually carried out in laboratory by skilled personnel, thus resulting in delayed response and high costs for the analysis. No longer restricted to detailed laboratory analyses or simplified implementation in industrial or commercial settings, non-invasive sensing methods can now accommodate non-destructive, comprehensive, high-resolution spectral and image analyses for real-world safety and quality inspection on rapid food-processing lines.

In this context, analytical techniques, such as spectroscopy (UV-Vis, NIR, Raman, NMR, fluorescence, ultrasound, etc.), electronic nose, electronic tongue, nano-sensors and imaging (digital, hyperspectral, multispectral) play a key role. These techniques offer the possibility of simultaneously determining a high number of compounds or features, the so-called “fingerprint,” analyzing samples in a non-destructive, easy, quick, and direct way with minimal sample preparation. The resulting datasets are usually high dimensional and complex, requiring methods of pattern recognition or predictive analysis to extract important information. This special issue welcomes applications, high-quality articles on the application of non-invasive methods and machine learning based techniques to analyse or monitor composition, adulteration, quality and authentication issues in a diverse range of food (such as meats, fish, fruits, vegetables, oil, wines and dairy) products.

Dr. Vassilis S. Kodogiannis
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

Topics of this special issue will include, but are not limited to:

  • Spectroscopic techniques (UV-VIS, NIR, Raman, NMR, fluorescence, etc)
  • Electronic nose and tongue
  • Imaging methods (digital, hyperspectral, etc.)
  • Fusion of multiple sensors applied to Food Analysis
  • Machine learning techniques for Food Quality Inspection
  • Deep learning for Automated Food Inspection
  • Detection of food adulteration using Deep and Ensemble Learning
  • Feature selection and extraction methods to improve classiffication tasks
  • Food authentication, adulteration
  • Food Quality evalution (incl. spoilage, freshness)
  • Food composition

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Open AccessArticle
Estimation Method of Soluble Solid Content in Peach Based on Deep Features of Hyperspectral Imagery
Sensors 2020, 20(18), 5021; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20185021 - 04 Sep 2020
Abstract
Soluble solids content (SSC) is one of the important components for evaluating fruit quality. The rapid development of hyperspectral imagery provides an efficient method for non-destructive detection of SSC. Previous studies have shown that the internal quality evaluation of fruits based on spectral [...] Read more.
Soluble solids content (SSC) is one of the important components for evaluating fruit quality. The rapid development of hyperspectral imagery provides an efficient method for non-destructive detection of SSC. Previous studies have shown that the internal quality evaluation of fruits based on spectral information features achieves better results. However, the lack of comprehensive features limits the accurate estimation of fruit quality. Therefore, the deep learning theory is applied to the estimation of the soluble solid content of peaches, a method for estimating the SSC of fresh peaches based on the deep features of the hyperspectral image fusion information is proposed, and the estimation models of different neural network structures are designed based on the stack autoencoder–random forest (SAE-RF). The results show that the accuracy of the model based on the deep features of the fusion information of hyperspectral imagery is higher than that of the model based on spectral features or image features alone. In addition, the SAE-RF model based on the 1237-650-310-130 network structure has the best prediction effect (R2 = 0.9184, RMSE = 0.6693). Our research shows that the proposed method can improve the estimation accuracy of the soluble solid content of fresh peaches, which provides a theoretical basis for the non-destructive detection of other components of fresh peaches. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Non-Destructive Detection of Bone Fragments Embedded in Meat Using Hyperspectral Reflectance Imaging Technique
Sensors 2020, 20(14), 4038; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20144038 - 21 Jul 2020
Abstract
Meat consumption has shifted from a quantitative to a qualitative growth stage due to improved living standards and economic development. Recently, consumers have paid attention to quality and safety in their decision to purchase meat. However, foreign substances which are not normal food [...] Read more.
Meat consumption has shifted from a quantitative to a qualitative growth stage due to improved living standards and economic development. Recently, consumers have paid attention to quality and safety in their decision to purchase meat. However, foreign substances which are not normal food ingredients are unintentionally incorporated into meat. These should be eliminated as a hazard to quality or safety. It is important to find a fast, non-destructive, and accurate detection technique of foreign substance in the meat processing industry. Hyperspectral imaging technology has been regarded as a novel technology capable of providing large-scale imaging and continuous observation information on agricultural products and food. In this study, we considered the feasibility of the short-wave near infrared (SWIR) hyperspectral reflectance imaging technique to detect bone fragments embedded in chicken meat. De-boned chicken breast samples with thicknesses of 3, 6, and 9-mm and 5 bone fragments with lengths of about 20–30-mm are used for this experiment. The reflectance spectra (in the wavelength range from 987 to 1701-nm) of the 5 bone fragments embedded under the chicken breast fillet are collected. Our results suggested that these hyperspectral imaging technique is able to detect bone fragments in chicken breast, particularly with the use of a subtraction image (corresponding to image at 1153.8-nm and 1480.2-nm). Thus, the SWIR hyperspectral reflectance imaging technique can be potentially used to detect foreign substance embedded in meat. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Accurate Prediction of Sensory Attributes of Cheese Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Based on Artificial Neural Network
Sensors 2020, 20(12), 3566; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20123566 - 24 Jun 2020
Abstract
The acceptance of a food product by the consumer depends, as the most important factor, on its sensory properties. Therefore, it is clear that the food industry needs to know the perceptions of sensory attributes to know the acceptability of a product. There [...] Read more.
The acceptance of a food product by the consumer depends, as the most important factor, on its sensory properties. Therefore, it is clear that the food industry needs to know the perceptions of sensory attributes to know the acceptability of a product. There exist procedures that systematically allows measurement of these property perceptions that are performed by professional panels. However, systematic evaluations of attributes by these tasting panels, which avoid the subjective character for an individual taster, have a high economic, temporal and organizational cost. The process is only applied in a sampled way so that its result cannot be used on a sound and complete quality system. In this paper, we present a method that allows making use of a non-destructive measurement of physical–chemical properties of the target product to obtain an estimation of the sensory description given by QDA-based procedure. More concisely, we propose that through Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), we will obtain a reliable prediction that will relate the near-infrared (NIR) spectrum of a complete set of cheese samples with a complete image of the sensory attributes that describe taste, texture, aspect, smell and other relevant sensations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Non-Destructive Detection of Strawberry Quality Using Multi-Features of Hyperspectral Imaging and Multivariate Methods
Sensors 2020, 20(11), 3074; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20113074 - 29 May 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Soluble solid content (SSC), pH, and vitamin C (VC) are considered as key parameters for strawberry quality. Spectral, color, and textural features from hyperspectral reflectance imaging of 400–1000 nm was to develop the non-destructive detection approaches for SSC, pH, and VC of strawberries [...] Read more.
Soluble solid content (SSC), pH, and vitamin C (VC) are considered as key parameters for strawberry quality. Spectral, color, and textural features from hyperspectral reflectance imaging of 400–1000 nm was to develop the non-destructive detection approaches for SSC, pH, and VC of strawberries by integrating various multivariate methods as partial least-squares regression (PLSR), support vector regression, and locally weighted regression (LWR). SSC, pH, and VC of 120 strawberries were statistically analyzed to facilitate the partitioning of data sets, which helped optimize the model. PLSR, with spectral and color features, obtained the optimal prediction of SSC with determination coefficient of prediction (Rp2) of 0.9370 and the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 0.1145. Through spectral features, the best prediction for pH was obtained by LWR with Rp2 = 0.8493 and RMSEP = 0.0501. Combination of spectral and textural features with PLSR provided the best results of VC with Rp2 = 0.8769 and RMSEP = 0.0279. Competitive adaptive reweighted sampling and uninformative variable elimination (UVE) were used to select important variables from the above features. Based on the important variables, the accuracy of SSC, pH, and VC prediction both gain the promotion. Finally, the distribution maps of SSC, pH, and VC over time were generated, and the change trend of three quality parameters was observed. Thus, the proposed method can nondestructively and accurately determine SSC, pH, and VC of strawberries and is expected to design and construct the simple sensors for the above quality parameters of strawberries. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Classification for Penicillium expansum Spoilage and Defect in Apples by Electronic Nose Combined with Chemometrics
Sensors 2020, 20(7), 2130; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20072130 - 09 Apr 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
It is crucial for the efficacy of the apple storage to apply methods like electronic nose systems for detection and prediction of spoilage or infection by Penicillium expansum. Based on the acquisition of electronic nose signals, selected sensitive feature sensors of spoilage [...] Read more.
It is crucial for the efficacy of the apple storage to apply methods like electronic nose systems for detection and prediction of spoilage or infection by Penicillium expansum. Based on the acquisition of electronic nose signals, selected sensitive feature sensors of spoilage apple and all sensors were analyzed and compared by the recognition effect. Principal component analysis (PCA), principle component analysis-discriminant analysis (PCA-DA), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), partial least squares discriminate analysis (PLS-DA) and K-nearest neighbor (KNN) were used to establish the classification model of apple with different degrees of corruption. PCA-DA has the best prediction, the accuracy of training set and prediction set was 100% and 97.22%, respectively. synergy interval (SI), genetic algorithm (GA) and competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS) are three selection methods used to accurately and quickly extract appropriate feature variables, while constructing a PLS model to predict plaque area. Among them, the PLS model with unique variables was optimized by CARS method, and the best prediction result of the area of the rotten apple was obtained. The best results are as follows: Rc = 0.953, root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC) = 1.28, Rp = 0.972, root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) = 1.01. The results demonstrated that the electronic nose has a potential application in the classification of rotten apples and the quantitative detection of spoilage area. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Cross-Category Tea Polyphenols Evaluation Model Based on Feature Fusion of Electronic Nose and Hyperspectral Imagery
Sensors 2020, 20(1), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20010050 - 20 Dec 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
Tea polyphenols are important ingredients for evaluating tea quality. The rapid development of sensors provides an efficient method for nondestructive detection of tea polyphenols. Previous studies have shown that features obtained from single or multiple sensors yield better results in detecting interior tea [...] Read more.
Tea polyphenols are important ingredients for evaluating tea quality. The rapid development of sensors provides an efficient method for nondestructive detection of tea polyphenols. Previous studies have shown that features obtained from single or multiple sensors yield better results in detecting interior tea quality. However, due to their lack of external features, it is difficult to meet the general evaluation model for the quality of the interior and exterior of tea. In addition, some features do not fully reflect the sensor signals of tea for several categories. Therefore, a feature fusion method based on time and frequency domains from electronic nose (E-nose) and hyperspectral imagery (HSI) is proposed to estimate the polyphenol content of tea for cross-category evaluation. The random forest and the gradient boosting decision tree (GBDT) are used to evaluate the feature importance to obtain the optimized features. Three models based on different features for cross-category tea (black tea, green tea, and yellow tea) were compared, including grid support vector regression (Grid-SVR), random forest (RF), and extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost). The results show that the accuracy of fusion features based on the time and frequency domain from the electronic nose and hyperspectral image system is higher than that of the features from single sensor. Whether based on all original features or optimized features, the performance of XGBoost is the best among the three regression algorithms (R2 = 0.998, RMSE = 0.434). Results indicate that the proposed method in this study can improve the estimation accuracy of tea polyphenol content for cross-category evaluation, which provides a technical basis for predicting other components of tea. Full article
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Open AccessLetter
Wavelength Selection FOR Rapid Identification of Different Particle Size Fractions of Milk Powder Using Hyperspectral Imaging
Sensors 2020, 20(16), 4645; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20164645 - 18 Aug 2020
Abstract
Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) in the spectral range of 400–1000 nm was tested to differentiate three different particle size fractions of milk powder. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was performed to observe the relationship of spectral data and particle size information for various [...] Read more.
Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) in the spectral range of 400–1000 nm was tested to differentiate three different particle size fractions of milk powder. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was performed to observe the relationship of spectral data and particle size information for various samples of instant milk powder. The PLS-DA model on full wavelengths successfully classified the three fractions of milk powder with a coefficient of prediction 0.943. Principal component analysis (PCA) identified each of the milk powder fractions as separate clusters across the first two principal components (PC1 and PC2) and five characteristic wavelengths were recognised by the loading plot of the first three principal components. Weighted regression coefficient (WRC) analysis of the partial least squares model identified 11 important wavelengths. Simplified PLS-DA models were developed from two sets of reduced wavelengths selected by PCA and WRC and showed better performance with predictive correlation coefficients (Rp2) of 0.962 and 0.979, respectively, while PLS-DA with complete spectrum had Rp2 of 0.943. Similarly, classification accuracy of PLS-DA was improved to 92.2% for WRC based predictive model. Calculation time was also reduced to 2.1 and 2.8 s for PCA and WRC based simplified PLS-DA models in comparison to the complete spectrum model that was taking 32.2 s on average to predict the classification of milk powder samples. These results demonstrated that HSI with appropriate data analysis methods could become a potential analyser for non-invasive testing of milk powder in the future. Full article
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Open AccessTechnical Note
Deep Neural Networks for the Classification of Pure and Impure Strawberry Purees
Sensors 2020, 20(4), 1223; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20041223 - 23 Feb 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
In this paper, a comparative study of the effectiveness of deep neural networks (DNNs) in the classification of pure and impure purees is conducted. Three different types of deep neural networks (DNNs)—the Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU), the Long Short Term Memory (LSTM), and [...] Read more.
In this paper, a comparative study of the effectiveness of deep neural networks (DNNs) in the classification of pure and impure purees is conducted. Three different types of deep neural networks (DNNs)—the Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU), the Long Short Term Memory (LSTM), and the temporal convolutional network (TCN)—are employed for the detection of adulteration of strawberry purees. The Strawberry dataset, a time series spectroscopy dataset from the UCR time series classification repository, is utilized to evaluate the performance of different DNNs. Experimental results demonstrate that the TCN is able to obtain a higher classification accuracy than the GRU and LSTM. Moreover, the TCN achieves a new state-of-the-art classification accuracy on the Strawberry dataset. These results indicates the great potential of using the TCN for the detection of adulteration of fruit purees in the future. Full article
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