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Special Issue "Optical Sensors Using Microstructured and Photonics Crystal Fibers"

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Physical Sensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Stefano Selleri

Università degli Studi di Parma, Department of Engineering and Architecture, Parma, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +39 0521 905763
Fax: +39 0521 905758
Interests: optical fibers; photonic crystal fibers; microstructured fibers; optical amplifiers; fiber lasers; fiber based sensors and biosensors; numerical methods
Guest Editor
Dr. Tarun Kumar Gangopadhyay

CSIR-Central Glass & Ceramic Research Institute, India
Website | E-Mail
Interests: optical fibers; photonic crystal fibers; microstructured fibers; optical amplifiers; fiber lasers; fiber based sensors and biosensors; numerical methods; side polished fiber application; fiber ring loop resonator

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Abstract: This Special Issue aims to highlight advances in the design, modelling, development and testing of fiber sensors based on microstructured and Photonic Crystal Fibers (PCFs). Optical fiber sensors had always high demand in both industrial, as well as domestic, applications because of their sensitivity, compact size, lightweight, immunity to electromagnetic fields, possibility to use in high voltages applications and to monitor huge areas. The usage of microstructured fibers and PCFs, because of their air hole arrangement, has further increased the research fields and new types of sensors that use the fiber as sample microchannel have been proposed, for example for biosensing, gas sensing and pollution sensing applications.

The focus of this Special Issue will be on novel applications of modern fiber sensors, from the single probe to the topology of more complicated sensing systems and also on the fabrication level underlying the development of speciality fibers for particular applications.

We hope that this issue will provide a useful reference and that it will encourage further research on novel technologies and sensing devices.

In this Special Issue, selected topics include, but are not limited to:

  • Basics of sensors with PCFs and microstructured fibers
  • Materials and fabrication technology of fiber sensors
  • Fiber based sensors and biosensors
  • Numerical methods applied to fiber sensors
  • Fiber based interferometric sensors
  • Fiber ring resonator sensors
  • Application of PCFs and microstructured fibers in physical and chemical sensor
  • Advanced fiber sensor characterization techniques
  • Supercontinuum sources using PCFs and microstructured fibers
Prof. Dr. Stefano Selleri
Dr. Tarun Kumar Gangopadhyay
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Optical fibers
  • PCFs and microstructured fibers
  • Fiber fabrication technology
  • Fiber sensors fabrication technology
  • Biosensors
  • Numerical methods
  • Interferometric sensors
  • Physical and chemical sensors
  • Characterization techniques
  • Fiber loop resonator
  • Fiber polishing

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle
All-Fiber CO2 Sensor Using Hollow Core PCF Operating in the 2 µm Region
Sensors 2018, 18(12), 4393; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18124393
Received: 30 October 2018 / Revised: 3 December 2018 / Accepted: 5 December 2018 / Published: 12 December 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2631 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A realistic implementation of an all-fiber CO2 sensor, using 74 cm of hollow core photonic crystal fiber (HC-PCF) as the cavity for light/gas interaction, has been implemented. It is based on CO2 absorbance in the 2 µm region. The working range [...] Read more.
A realistic implementation of an all-fiber CO2 sensor, using 74 cm of hollow core photonic crystal fiber (HC-PCF) as the cavity for light/gas interaction, has been implemented. It is based on CO2 absorbance in the 2 µm region. The working range is from 2% to 100% CO2 concentration at 1 atm total pressure and the response time obtained was 10 min. Depending on the concentration level, the sensor operates at one of three different wavelengths (2003.5 nm, 1997.0 nm and 1954.5 nm) to maintain a high sensitivity across all the working range. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Sensors Using Microstructured and Photonics Crystal Fibers)
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Open AccessArticle
Development of Dispersion-Optimized Photonic Crystal Fibers Based on Heavy Metal Oxide Glasses for Broadband Infrared Supercontinuum Generation with Fiber Lasers
Sensors 2018, 18(12), 4127; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18124127
Received: 31 October 2018 / Revised: 20 November 2018 / Accepted: 22 November 2018 / Published: 25 November 2018
PDF Full-text (7107 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this work a photonic crystal fiber made of a heavy metal oxide glass with optimized dispersion profile is proposed for supercontinuum generation in a broad range of wavelengths in the near-infrared, when pumped by a mode-locked fiber-based laser. The fiber is modelled [...] Read more.
In this work a photonic crystal fiber made of a heavy metal oxide glass with optimized dispersion profile is proposed for supercontinuum generation in a broad range of wavelengths in the near-infrared, when pumped by a mode-locked fiber-based laser. The fiber is modelled and optimal geometrical parameters are selected to achieve flat and low dispersion in the anomalous regime. Supercontinuum generation in the range of 0.76–2.40 µm, within the dynamics of 30 dB, when pumped at 1.56 µm with 400 fs–long pulses and an average power 660 mW is possible. The applicability of such fibers is also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Sensors Using Microstructured and Photonics Crystal Fibers)
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of High Sensitivity Photonic Crystal Fiber Sensor Based on Surface Plasmon Resonance of Refractive Indexes of Liquids
Sensors 2018, 18(9), 2922; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18092922
Received: 7 August 2018 / Revised: 30 August 2018 / Accepted: 31 August 2018 / Published: 3 September 2018
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2682 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A photonic crystal fiber (PCF) sensor based on gold nanowires able to detect changes in surface plasmon resonance (SPR) was proposed and numerically investigated through the finite element method. To facilitate real-time detection, the analyte in this sensor was located outside the optical [...] Read more.
A photonic crystal fiber (PCF) sensor based on gold nanowires able to detect changes in surface plasmon resonance (SPR) was proposed and numerically investigated through the finite element method. To facilitate real-time detection, the analyte in this sensor was located outside the optical fiber. The effects of diameters of both air hole and gold wires on the sensing characteristics of the sensor were discussed. The sensor was designed to detect liquids with refractive indexes ranging between 1.33 and 1.36. The numerical simulations indicated that sensor structure improved its functionality. The maximum spectral sensitivity reached 9200 nm/RIU over the entire refractive index range. The average spectral sensitivity was estimated to be 5933 nm/RIU, and corresponded to a sensor resolution of 2.81 × 10−6 RIU. These findings look very promising for future use in detection of liquid. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Sensors Using Microstructured and Photonics Crystal Fibers)
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Open AccessArticle
Simultaneous Measurement of Curvature, Strain and Temperature Using a Twin-Core Photonic Crystal Fiber-Based Sensor
Sensors 2018, 18(7), 2145; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18072145
Received: 18 May 2018 / Revised: 23 June 2018 / Accepted: 25 June 2018 / Published: 3 July 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4232 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A novel twin-core photonic crystal fiber-based sensor for simultaneous measurement of curvature, strain and temperature is proposed. The fiber sensor is constructed by splicing the homemade twin-core photonic crystal fiber between two segments of single mode fiber. Affected by the coupling between two [...] Read more.
A novel twin-core photonic crystal fiber-based sensor for simultaneous measurement of curvature, strain and temperature is proposed. The fiber sensor is constructed by splicing the homemade twin-core photonic crystal fiber between two segments of single mode fiber. Affected by the coupling between two cores, the transmission spectrum of the fiber sensor has different wavelength responses to curvature, strain, and temperature. The maximal sensitivities to curvature, strain and temperature are 10.89 nm/m−1, 1.24 pm/με and 73.9 pm/°C, respectively. Simultaneous measurement of curvature, strain and temperature can be achieved by monitoring the wavelength shifts of selected valleys in the transmission spectrum. Contrast experiment based on traditional twin-core fiber is carried out. Experimental results demonstrate that twin-core photonic crystal fiber-based sensor has higher sensitivity and better linearity than traditional twin-core fiber-based sensor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Sensors Using Microstructured and Photonics Crystal Fibers)
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Open AccessArticle
Manufacturing a Long-Period Grating with Periodic Thermal Diffusion Technology on High-NA Fiber and Its Application as a High-Temperature Sensor
Sensors 2018, 18(5), 1475; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18051475
Received: 10 April 2018 / Revised: 6 May 2018 / Accepted: 7 May 2018 / Published: 8 May 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3348 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We demonstrated a kind of long-period fiber grating (LPFG), which is manufactured with a thermal diffusion treatment. The LPFG was inscribed on an ultrahigh-numerical-aperture (UHNA) fiber, highly doped with Ge and P, which was able to easily diffuse at high temperatures within a [...] Read more.
We demonstrated a kind of long-period fiber grating (LPFG), which is manufactured with a thermal diffusion treatment. The LPFG was inscribed on an ultrahigh-numerical-aperture (UHNA) fiber, highly doped with Ge and P, which was able to easily diffuse at high temperatures within a few seconds. We analyzed how the elements diffused at a high temperature over 1300 °C in the UHNA fiber. Then we developed a periodically heated technology with a CO2 laser, which was able to cause the diffusion of the elements to constitute the modulations of an LPFG. With this technology, there is little damage to the outer structure of the fiber, which is different from the traditional LPFG, as it is periodically tapered. Since the LPFG itself was manufactured under high temperature, it can withstand higher temperatures than traditional LPFGs. Furthermore, the LPFG presents a higher sensitivity to high temperature due to the large amount of Ge doping, which is approximately 100 pm/°C. In addition, the LPFG shows insensitivity to the changing of the environment’s refractive index and strain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Sensors Using Microstructured and Photonics Crystal Fibers)
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Open AccessArticle
All-Optical Photoacoustic Sensors for Steel Rebar Corrosion Monitoring
Sensors 2018, 18(5), 1353; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18051353
Received: 3 April 2018 / Revised: 21 April 2018 / Accepted: 25 April 2018 / Published: 27 April 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (6511 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This article presents an application of an active all-optical photoacoustic sensing system with four elements for steel rebar corrosion monitoring. The sensor utilized a photoacoustic mechanism of gold nanocomposites to generate 8 MHz broadband ultrasound pulses in 0.4 mm compact space. A nanosecond [...] Read more.
This article presents an application of an active all-optical photoacoustic sensing system with four elements for steel rebar corrosion monitoring. The sensor utilized a photoacoustic mechanism of gold nanocomposites to generate 8 MHz broadband ultrasound pulses in 0.4 mm compact space. A nanosecond 532 nm pulsed laser and 400 μm multimode fiber were employed to incite an ultrasound reaction. The fiber Bragg gratings were used as distributed ultrasound detectors. Accelerated corrosion testing was applied to four sections of a single steel rebar with four different corrosion degrees. Our results demonstrated that the mass loss of steel rebar displayed an exponential growth with ultrasound frequency shifts. The sensitivity of the sensing system was such that 0.175 MHz central frequency reduction corresponded to 0.02 g mass loss of steel rebar corrosion. It was proved that the all-optical photoacoustic sensing system can actively evaluate the corrosion of steel rebar via ultrasound spectrum. This multipoint all-optical photoacoustic method is promising for embedment into a concrete structure for distributed corrosion monitoring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Sensors Using Microstructured and Photonics Crystal Fibers)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview
Advances on Photonic Crystal Fiber Sensors and Applications
Sensors 2019, 19(8), 1892; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19081892
Received: 29 March 2019 / Revised: 16 April 2019 / Accepted: 19 April 2019 / Published: 21 April 2019
PDF Full-text (7855 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this review paper some recent advances on optical sensors based on photonic crystal fibres are reported. The different strategies successfully applied in order to obtain feasible and reliable monitoring systems in several application fields, including medicine, biology, environment sustainability, communications systems are [...] Read more.
In this review paper some recent advances on optical sensors based on photonic crystal fibres are reported. The different strategies successfully applied in order to obtain feasible and reliable monitoring systems in several application fields, including medicine, biology, environment sustainability, communications systems are highlighted. Emphasis is given to the exploitation of integrated systems and/or single elements based on photonic crystal fibers employing Bragg gratings (FBGs), long period gratings (LPGs), interferometers, plasmon propagation, off-set spliced fibers, evanescent field and hollow core geometries. Examples of recent optical fiber sensors for the measurement of strain, temperature, displacement, air flow, pressure, liquid-level, magnetic field, and hydrocarbon detection are briefly described. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Sensors Using Microstructured and Photonics Crystal Fibers)
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Open AccessReview
Prospects of Photonic Crystal Fiber as Physical Sensor: An Overview
Sensors 2019, 19(3), 464; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19030464
Received: 27 November 2018 / Revised: 11 December 2018 / Accepted: 11 December 2018 / Published: 23 January 2019
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (14832 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Photonic crystal fiber sensors have potential application in environmental monitoring, industry, biomedicine, food preservation, and many more. These sensors work based on advanced and flexible phototonic crystal fiber (PCF) structures, controlled light propagation for the measurement of amplitude, phase, polarization and wavelength of [...] Read more.
Photonic crystal fiber sensors have potential application in environmental monitoring, industry, biomedicine, food preservation, and many more. These sensors work based on advanced and flexible phototonic crystal fiber (PCF) structures, controlled light propagation for the measurement of amplitude, phase, polarization and wavelength of spectrum, and PCF-incorporated interferometry techniques. In this article various PCF-based physical sensors are summarized with the advancement of time based on reported works. Some physical PCF sensors are discussed based on solid core as well as hollow core structures, dual core fibers, liquid infiltrated structures, metal coated fibers, grating incorporated fibers. With the advancement of sensing technology the possibilities of temperature, pressure, strain, twist, curvature, electromagnetic field, and refractive index sensing are discussed. Also, limitations as well as possible solutions and future hopes are outlined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Sensors Using Microstructured and Photonics Crystal Fibers)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Infiltrated Photonic Crystal Fibers for Sensing Applications
Sensors 2018, 18(12), 4263; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18124263
Received: 31 October 2018 / Revised: 22 November 2018 / Accepted: 28 November 2018 / Published: 4 December 2018
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (3137 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) are a special class of optical fibers with a periodic arrangement of microstructured holes located in the fiber’s cladding. Light confinement is achieved by means of either index-guiding, or the photonic bandgap effect in a low-index core. Ever since [...] Read more.
Photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) are a special class of optical fibers with a periodic arrangement of microstructured holes located in the fiber’s cladding. Light confinement is achieved by means of either index-guiding, or the photonic bandgap effect in a low-index core. Ever since PCFs were first demonstrated in 1995, their special characteristics, such as potentially high birefringence, very small or high nonlinearity, low propagation losses, and controllable dispersion parameters, have rendered them unique for many applications, such as sensors, high-power pulse transmission, and biomedical studies. When the holes of PCFs are filled with solids, liquids or gases, unprecedented opportunities for applications emerge. These include, but are not limited in, supercontinuum generation, propulsion of atoms through a hollow fiber core, fiber-loaded Bose–Einstein condensates, as well as enhanced sensing and measurement devices. For this reason, infiltrated PCF have been the focus of intensive research in recent years. In this review, the fundamentals and fabrication of PCF infiltrated with different materials are discussed. In addition, potential applications of infiltrated PCF sensors are reviewed, identifying the challenges and limitations to scale up and commercialize this novel technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Sensors Using Microstructured and Photonics Crystal Fibers)
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