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Special Issue "The Use of New and/or Improved Materials for Sensing Applications"

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Chemical Sensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2016).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Ki-Hyun Kim
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Guest Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

During the last few decades, there has been enormous progress in research on the synthesis and/or production of new and improved materials (e.g., imprinted polymers (IP), metal organic frameworks (MOF), carbon nanotubes (CNT), quantum dots (QD), metal oxides (MO), and their diverse derivatives). The application of these materials has been extensively directed to meet various sensing goals. The demand for such materials has been continuously increasing, as each of these materials can be synthesized or modified to add more potent selectivity properties for the sensitive detection of target species (e.g., porosity, surface area, pore volume, receptor sites, thermal and chemical stability, selectivity, low toxicity, luminescence nature, and chemical functionality). For instance, the potential for chemosensing by metal organic frameworks (MOFs) has been recognized in light of their useful properties (possible postsynthetic modifications, incorporation of appropriate signal transduction capability, activation of pendent groups, biofunctionalization, and integration with digital devices). This Special Issue will be dedicated to highlight the major advancements in diverse materials for sensing applications of specific targets (chemical species) in various media in relation to material properties (structures, synthesis methods, versatilities, etc.).

Prof. Ki-Hyun Kim
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Materials
  • Sensing
  • Functionality
  • Synthesis
  • Modification

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Gas Sensing Analysis of Ag-Decorated Graphene for Sulfur Hexafluoride Decomposition Products Based on the Density Functional Theory
Sensors 2016, 16(11), 1830; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16111830 - 01 Nov 2016
Cited by 11
Abstract
Detection of decomposition products of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) is one of the best ways to diagnose early latent insulation faults in gas-insulated equipment, and the occurrence of sudden accidents can be avoided effectively by finding early latent faults. Recently, functionalized graphene, [...] Read more.
Detection of decomposition products of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) is one of the best ways to diagnose early latent insulation faults in gas-insulated equipment, and the occurrence of sudden accidents can be avoided effectively by finding early latent faults. Recently, functionalized graphene, a kind of gas sensing material, has been reported to show good application prospects in the gas sensor field. Therefore, calculations were performed to analyze the gas sensing properties of intrinsic graphene (Int-graphene) and functionalized graphene-based material, Ag-decorated graphene (Ag-graphene), for decomposition products of SF6, including SO2F2, SOF2, and SO2, based on density functional theory (DFT). We thoroughly investigated a series of parameters presenting gas-sensing properties of adsorbing process about gas molecule (SO2F2, SOF2, SO2) and double gas molecules (2SO2F2, 2SOF2, 2SO2) on Ag-graphene, including adsorption energy, net charge transfer, electronic state density, and the highest and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital. The results showed that the Ag atom significantly enhances the electrochemical reactivity of graphene, reflected in the change of conductivity during the adsorption process. SO2F2 and SO2 gas molecules on Ag-graphene presented chemisorption, and the adsorption strength was SO2F2 > SO2, while SOF2 absorption on Ag-graphene was physical adsorption. Thus, we concluded that Ag-graphene showed good selectivity and high sensitivity to SO2F2. The results can provide a helpful guide in exploring Ag-graphene material in experiments for monitoring the insulation status of SF6-insulated equipment based on detecting decomposition products of SF6. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Use of New and/or Improved Materials for Sensing Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
A Low Noise CMOS Readout Based on a Polymer-Coated SAW Array for Miniature Electronic Nose
Sensors 2016, 16(11), 1777; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16111777 - 25 Oct 2016
Cited by 4
Abstract
An electronic nose (E-Nose) is one of the applications for surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors. In this paper, we present a low-noise complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) readout application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) based on an SAW sensor array for achieving a miniature E-Nose. The center [...] Read more.
An electronic nose (E-Nose) is one of the applications for surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors. In this paper, we present a low-noise complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) readout application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) based on an SAW sensor array for achieving a miniature E-Nose. The center frequency of the SAW sensors was measured to be approximately 114 MHz. Because of interference between the sensors, we designed a low-noise CMOS frequency readout circuit to enable the SAW sensor to obtain frequency variation. The proposed circuit was fabricated in Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC) 0.18 μm 1P6M CMOS process technology. The total chip size was nearly 1203 × 1203 μm2. The chip was operated at a supply voltage of 1 V for a digital circuit and 1.8 V for an analog circuit. The least measurable difference between frequencies was 4 Hz. The detection limit of the system, when estimated using methanol and ethanol, was 0.1 ppm. Their linearity was in the range of 0.1 to 26,000 ppm. The power consumption levels of the analog and digital circuits were 1.742 mW and 761 μW, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Use of New and/or Improved Materials for Sensing Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Phosphor-Doped Thermal Barrier Coatings Deposited by Air Plasma Spray for In-Depth Temperature Sensing
Sensors 2016, 16(10), 1490; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16101490 - 28 Sep 2016
Cited by 5
Abstract
Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ)-based thermal barrier coating (TBC) has been integrated with thermographic phosphors through air plasma spray (APS) for in-depth; non-contact temperature sensing. This coating consisted of a thin layer of Dy-doped YSZ (about 40 µm) on the bottom and a regular YSZ [...] Read more.
Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ)-based thermal barrier coating (TBC) has been integrated with thermographic phosphors through air plasma spray (APS) for in-depth; non-contact temperature sensing. This coating consisted of a thin layer of Dy-doped YSZ (about 40 µm) on the bottom and a regular YSZ layer with a thickness up to 300 µm on top. A measurement system has been established; which included a portable; low-cost diode laser (405 nm); a photo-multiplier tube (PMT) and the related optics. Coating samples with different topcoat thickness were calibrated in a high-temperature furnace from room temperature to around 900 °C. The results convincingly showed that the current sensor and the measurement system was capable of in-depth temperature sensing over 800 °C with a YSZ top layer up to 300 µm. The topcoat thickness was found to have a strong effect on the luminescent signal level. Therefore; the measurement accuracy at high temperatures was reduced for samples with thick topcoats due to strong light attenuation. However; it seemed that the light transmissivity of YSZ topcoat increased with temperature; which would improve the sensor’s performance at high temperatures. The current sensor and the measurement technology have shown great potential in on-line monitoring of TBC interface temperature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Use of New and/or Improved Materials for Sensing Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Embedded Ceria Nanoparticles in Crosslinked PVA Electrospun Nanofibers as Optical Sensors for Radicals
Sensors 2016, 16(9), 1371; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16091371 - 26 Aug 2016
Cited by 10
Abstract
This work presents a new nanocomposite of cerium oxide (ceria) nanoparticles embedded in electrospun PVA nanofibers for optical sensing of radicals in solutions. Our ceria nanoparticles are synthesized to have O-vacancies which are the receptors for the radicals extracted from peroxide in water [...] Read more.
This work presents a new nanocomposite of cerium oxide (ceria) nanoparticles embedded in electrospun PVA nanofibers for optical sensing of radicals in solutions. Our ceria nanoparticles are synthesized to have O-vacancies which are the receptors for the radicals extracted from peroxide in water solution. Ceria nanoparticles are embedded insitu in PVA solution and then formed as nanofibers using an electrospinning technique. The formed nanocomposite emits visible fluorescent emissions under 430 nm excitation, due to the active ceria nanoparticles with fluorescent Ce3+ ionization states. When the formed nanocomposite is in contact with peroxide solution, the fluorescence emission intensity peak has been found to be reduced with increasing concentration of peroxide or the corresponding radicals through a fluorescence quenching mechanism. The fluorescence intensity peak is found to be reduced to more than 30% of its original value at a peroxide weight concentration up to 27%. This work could be helpful in further applications of radicals sensing using a solid mat through biomedical and environmental monitoring applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Use of New and/or Improved Materials for Sensing Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Electrochemical Sensing toward Trace As(III) Based on Mesoporous MnFe2O4/Au Hybrid Nanospheres Modified Glass Carbon Electrode
Sensors 2016, 16(6), 935; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16060935 - 22 Jun 2016
Cited by 20
Abstract
Au nanoparticles decorated mesoporous MnFe2O4 nanocrystal clusters (MnFe2O4/Au hybrid nanospheres) were used for the electrochemical sensing of As(III) by square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV). Modified on a cheap glass carbon electrode, these MnFe2O [...] Read more.
Au nanoparticles decorated mesoporous MnFe2O4 nanocrystal clusters (MnFe2O4/Au hybrid nanospheres) were used for the electrochemical sensing of As(III) by square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV). Modified on a cheap glass carbon electrode, these MnFe2O4/Au hybrid nanospheres show favorable sensitivity (0.315 μA/ppb) and limit of detection (LOD) (3.37 ppb) toward As(III) under the optimized conditions in 0.1 M NaAc-HAc (pH 5.0) by depositing for 150 s at the deposition potential of −0.9 V. No obvious interference from Cd(II) and Hg(II) was recognized during the detection of As(III). Additionally, the developed electrode displayed good reproducibility, stability, and repeatability, and offered potential practical applicability for electrochemical detection of As(III) in real water samples. The present work provides a potential method for the design of new and cheap sensors in the application of electrochemical determination toward trace As(III) and other toxic metal ions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Use of New and/or Improved Materials for Sensing Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
High Sensitivity pH Sensor Based on Porous Silicon (PSi) Extended Gate Field-Effect Transistor
Sensors 2016, 16(6), 839; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16060839 - 07 Jun 2016
Cited by 38
Abstract
In this study, porous silicon (PSi) was prepared and tested as an extended gate field-effect transistor (EGFET) for pH sensing. The prepared PSi has pore sizes in the range of 500 to 750 nm with a depth of approximately 42 µm. The results [...] Read more.
In this study, porous silicon (PSi) was prepared and tested as an extended gate field-effect transistor (EGFET) for pH sensing. The prepared PSi has pore sizes in the range of 500 to 750 nm with a depth of approximately 42 µm. The results of testing PSi for hydrogen ion sensing in different pH buffer solutions reveal that the PSi has a sensitivity value of 66 mV/pH that is considered a super Nernstian value. The sensor considers stability to be in the pH range of 2 to 12. The hysteresis values of the prepared PSi sensor were approximately 8.2 and 10.5 mV in the low and high pH loop, respectively. The result of this study reveals a promising application of PSi in the field for detecting hydrogen ions in different solutions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Use of New and/or Improved Materials for Sensing Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Sorption and Diffusion of Water Vapor and Carbon Dioxide in Sulfonated Polyaniline as Chemical Sensing Materials
Sensors 2016, 16(5), 606; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16050606 - 27 Apr 2016
Cited by 12
Abstract
A hybrid quantum mechanics (QM)/molecular dynamics (MD) simulation is performed to investigate the effect of an ionizable group (–SO3Na+) on polyaniline as gas sensing materials. Polymers considered for this work include emeraldine base of polyaniline (EB-PANI) and its [...] Read more.
A hybrid quantum mechanics (QM)/molecular dynamics (MD) simulation is performed to investigate the effect of an ionizable group (–SO3Na+) on polyaniline as gas sensing materials. Polymers considered for this work include emeraldine base of polyaniline (EB-PANI) and its derivatives (Na-SPANI (I), (II) and (III)) whose rings are partly monosubstituted by –SO3Na+. The hybrid simulation results show that the adsorption energy, Mulliken charge and band gap of analytes (CO2 and H2O) in polyaniline are relatively sensitive to the position and the amounts of –SO3Na+, and these parameters would affect the sensitivity of Na-SPANI/EB-PANI towards CO2. The sensitivity of Na-SPANI (III)/EB-PANI towards CO2 can be greatly improved by two orders of magnitude, which is in agreement with the experimental study. In addition, we also demonstrate that introducing –SO3Na+ groups at the rings can notably affect the gas transport properties of polyaniline. Comparative studies indicate that the effect of ionizable group on polyaniline as gas sensing materials for the polar gas molecule (H2O) is more significant than that for the nonpolar gas molecule (CO2). These findings contribute in the functionalization-induced variations of the material properties of polyaniline for CO2 sensing and the design of new polyaniline with desired sensing properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Use of New and/or Improved Materials for Sensing Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Cotton Fabric Coated with Conducting Polymers and its Application in Monitoring of Carnivorous Plant Response
Sensors 2016, 16(4), 498; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16040498 - 08 Apr 2016
Cited by 22
Abstract
The paper describes the electrical plant response to mechanical stimulation monitored with the help of conducting polymers deposited on cotton fabric. Cotton fabric was coated with conducting polymers, polyaniline or polypyrrole, in situ during the oxidation of respective monomers in aqueous medium. Thus, [...] Read more.
The paper describes the electrical plant response to mechanical stimulation monitored with the help of conducting polymers deposited on cotton fabric. Cotton fabric was coated with conducting polymers, polyaniline or polypyrrole, in situ during the oxidation of respective monomers in aqueous medium. Thus, modified fabrics were again coated with polypyrrole or polyaniline, respectively, in order to investigate any synergetic effect between both polymers with respect to conductivity and its stability during repeated dry cleaning. The coating was confirmed by infrared spectroscopy. The resulting fabrics have been used as electrodes to collect the electrical response to the stimulation of a Venus flytrap plant. This is a paradigm of the use of conducting polymers in monitoring of plant neurobiology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Use of New and/or Improved Materials for Sensing Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Bismuth Oxide on the Microstructure and Electrical Conductivity of Yttria Stabilized Zirconia
Sensors 2016, 16(3), 369; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16030369 - 14 Mar 2016
Cited by 4
Abstract
Bismuth oxide (Bi2O3)-doped yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) were prepared via the solid state reaction method. X-ray diffraction and electron diffraction spectroscopy results indicate that doping with 2 mol% Bi2O3 and adding 10 mol% yttria result in a [...] Read more.
Bismuth oxide (Bi2O3)-doped yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) were prepared via the solid state reaction method. X-ray diffraction and electron diffraction spectroscopy results indicate that doping with 2 mol% Bi2O3 and adding 10 mol% yttria result in a stable zirconia cubic phase. Adding Bi2O3 as a dopant increases the density of zirconia to above 96%, while reducing its normal sintering temperature by approximately 250 °C. Moreover, electrical impedance analyses show that adding Bi2O3 enhances the conductivity of zirconia, improving its capability as a solid electrolyte for intermediate or even lower temperatures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Use of New and/or Improved Materials for Sensing Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Determination and Visualization of pH Values in Anaerobic Digestion of Water Hyacinth and Rice Straw Mixtures Using Hyperspectral Imaging with Wavelet Transform Denoising and Variable Selection
Sensors 2016, 16(2), 244; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16020244 - 18 Feb 2016
Cited by 15
Abstract
Biomass energy represents a huge supplement for meeting current energy demands. A hyperspectral imaging system covering the spectral range of 874–1734 nm was used to determine the pH value of anaerobic digestion liquid produced by water hyacinth and rice straw mixtures used for [...] Read more.
Biomass energy represents a huge supplement for meeting current energy demands. A hyperspectral imaging system covering the spectral range of 874–1734 nm was used to determine the pH value of anaerobic digestion liquid produced by water hyacinth and rice straw mixtures used for methane production. Wavelet transform (WT) was used to reduce noises of the spectral data. Successive projections algorithm (SPA), random frog (RF) and variable importance in projection (VIP) were used to select 8, 15 and 20 optimal wavelengths for the pH value prediction, respectively. Partial least squares (PLS) and a back propagation neural network (BPNN) were used to build the calibration models on the full spectra and the optimal wavelengths. As a result, BPNN models performed better than the corresponding PLS models, and SPA-BPNN model gave the best performance with a correlation coefficient of prediction (rp) of 0.911 and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 0.0516. The results indicated the feasibility of using hyperspectral imaging to determine pH values during anaerobic digestion. Furthermore, a distribution map of the pH values was achieved by applying the SPA-BPNN model. The results in this study would help to develop an on-line monitoring system for biomass energy producing process by hyperspectral imaging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Use of New and/or Improved Materials for Sensing Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
An Assessment of Three Different In Situ Oxygen Sensors for Monitoring Silage Production and Storage
Sensors 2016, 16(1), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16010091 - 14 Jan 2016
Cited by 5
Abstract
Oxygen (O2) concentration inside the substrate is an important measurement for silage-research and-practical management. In the laboratory gas chromatography is commonly employed for O2 measurement. Among sensor-based techniques, accurate and reliable in situ measurement is rare because of high levels [...] Read more.
Oxygen (O2) concentration inside the substrate is an important measurement for silage-research and-practical management. In the laboratory gas chromatography is commonly employed for O2 measurement. Among sensor-based techniques, accurate and reliable in situ measurement is rare because of high levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) generated by the introduction of O2 in the silage. The presented study focused on assessing three types of commercial O2 sensors, including Clark oxygen electrodes (COE), galvanic oxygen cell (GOC) sensors and the Dräger chip measurement system (DCMS). Laboratory cross calibration of O2 versus CO2 (each 0–15 vol.%) was made for the COE and the GOC sensors. All calibration results verified that O2 measurements for both sensors were insensitive to CO2. For the O2 in situ measurement in silage, all O2 sensors were first tested in two sealed barrels (diameter 35.7 cm; height: 60 cm) to monitor the O2 depletion with respect to the ensiling process (Test-A). The second test (Test-B) simulated the silage unloading process by recording the O2 penetration dynamics in three additional barrels, two covered by dry ice (0.6 kg or 1.2 kg of each) on the top surface and one without. Based on a general comparison of the experimental data, we conclude that each of these in situ sensor monitoring techniques for O2 concentration in silage exhibit individual advantages and limitations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Use of New and/or Improved Materials for Sensing Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Synthesis and Sensing Applications of Fluorescent 3-Cinnamoyl Coumarins
Sensors 2015, 15(12), 31987-31998; https://doi.org/10.3390/s151229902 - 19 Dec 2015
Cited by 6
Abstract
We have synthesized two novel fluorescent 3-(4-diethylaminocinnamoyl) coumarins that exhibit fluorescence quenching upon exposure to a nerve agent simulant, diethylchlorophosphate (DCP), providing a basis for rapid and sensitive DCP chemosensing. Furthermore, these coumarin derivatives display two-photon fluorescence upon illumination with near-infrared laser pulses [...] Read more.
We have synthesized two novel fluorescent 3-(4-diethylaminocinnamoyl) coumarins that exhibit fluorescence quenching upon exposure to a nerve agent simulant, diethylchlorophosphate (DCP), providing a basis for rapid and sensitive DCP chemosensing. Furthermore, these coumarin derivatives display two-photon fluorescence upon illumination with near-infrared laser pulses and their two-photon (TP) absorption cross-section was evaluated. The potential for TP bio-imaging of these compounds was investigated by their cellular uptake in HeLa cells by TP confocal microscopy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Use of New and/or Improved Materials for Sensing Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Formation of High-Purity Indium Oxide Nanoparticles and Their Application to Sensitive Detection of Ammonia
Sensors 2015, 15(12), 31930-31938; https://doi.org/10.3390/s151229895 - 17 Dec 2015
Cited by 7
Abstract
High-purity In2O3 nanoparticles were recovered from scrap indium tin oxide substrates in a stepwise process involving acidic leaching, liquid-liquid extraction with a phosphine oxide extractant, and combustion of the organic phase. The morphological and structural parameters of the recovered nanoparticles [...] Read more.
High-purity In2O3 nanoparticles were recovered from scrap indium tin oxide substrates in a stepwise process involving acidic leaching, liquid-liquid extraction with a phosphine oxide extractant, and combustion of the organic phase. The morphological and structural parameters of the recovered nanoparticles were investigated to support the formation of the desired products. These In2O3 nanoparticles were used for sensitive sensing of ammonia gas using a four-probe electrode device. The proposed sensor offered very quick response time (around 10 s) and highly sensitive detection of ammonia (at a detection limit of 1 ppm). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Use of New and/or Improved Materials for Sensing Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Pore Size and Film Thickness on Gold-Coated Nanoporous Anodic Aluminum Oxide Substrates for Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Sensor
Sensors 2015, 15(12), 29924-29937; https://doi.org/10.3390/s151229778 - 30 Nov 2015
Cited by 17
Abstract
A sensitive surface enhanced Raman scattering chemical sensor is demonstrated by using inexpensive gold-coated nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide substrates. To optimize the performance of the substrates for sensing by the Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) technique, the size of the nanopores is varied from [...] Read more.
A sensitive surface enhanced Raman scattering chemical sensor is demonstrated by using inexpensive gold-coated nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide substrates. To optimize the performance of the substrates for sensing by the Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) technique, the size of the nanopores is varied from 18 nm to 150 nm and the gold film thickness is varied from 30 nm to 120 nm. The sensitivity of gold-coated nanoporous surface enhanced Raman scattering sensor is characterized by detecting low concentrations of Rhodamine 6G laser dye molecules. The morphology of the SERS substrates is characterized by atomic force microscopy. Optical properties of the nanoporous SERS substrates including transmittance, reflectance, and absorbance are also investigated. Relative signal enhancement is plotted for a range of substrate parameters and a detection limit of 10−6 M is established. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Use of New and/or Improved Materials for Sensing Applications)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Recent Progress on Cellulose-Based Electro-Active Paper, Its Hybrid Nanocomposites and Applications
Sensors 2016, 16(8), 1172; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16081172 - 26 Jul 2016
Cited by 28
Abstract
We report on the recent progress and development of research into cellulose-based electro-active paper for bending actuators, bioelectronics devices, and electromechanical transducers. The cellulose electro-active paper is characterized in terms of its biodegradability, chirality, ample chemically modifying capacity, light weight, actuation capability, and [...] Read more.
We report on the recent progress and development of research into cellulose-based electro-active paper for bending actuators, bioelectronics devices, and electromechanical transducers. The cellulose electro-active paper is characterized in terms of its biodegradability, chirality, ample chemically modifying capacity, light weight, actuation capability, and ability to form hybrid nanocomposites. The mechanical, electrical, and chemical characterizations of the cellulose-based electro-active paper and its hybrid composites such as blends or coatings with synthetic polymers, biopolymers, carbon nanotubes, chitosan, and metal oxides, are explained. In addition, the integration of cellulose electro-active paper is highlighted to form various functional devices including but not limited to bending actuators, flexible speaker, strain sensors, energy harvesting transducers, biosensors, chemical sensors and transistors for electronic applications. The frontiers in cellulose paper devices are reviewed together with the strategies and perspectives of cellulose electro-active paper and cellulose nanocomposite research and applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Use of New and/or Improved Materials for Sensing Applications)
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