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Special Issue "Magnetic Sensor Device-Part 1"

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Physical Sensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 November 2015).

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Andreas Hütten Website E-Mail
Bielefeld University, Department of Physics, Thin films & physics of nanostructures, Universitaetsstr. 25, 33615 Bielefeld, Germany
Interests: magnetic thin films and nanoparticles; interaction of magnetic nanoparticles in microfluidics; magnetoresistive sensors; Heusler alloys related to spintronics and shape memory effects

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue, "Magnetic Sensor Device," will motivate leading scientists to give an overview of their current research interests concerning new magnetic sensor concepts realized with thin film technology, nanoparticles or nanostructures. In addition to the physical and chemical aspects, this issue will also identify potential areas of applications, such as in automobiles, information technology, metrology, biotechnology or medicine. Besides purely magnetically functioning systems, combinations of magnetic nano-objects interacting or being driven by other phenomena (e.g., plasmonics, heat transport or microfluidics) will also be highlighted. We decided to focus on two directions, one towards visionary new sensor concepts and one towards already existing sensors emphasizing technical aspects.

This webpage is directed at visionary new sensor concepts.

Prof. Dr. Andreas Hütten
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • new magnetic sensor concepts
  • state-of-the-art magnetorelaxometry
  • magnetophoresis
  • nanoparticular GMR sensors
  • spin caloric transport
  • magnetocaloric
  • wearable magnetic field sensors
  • magnetic sensors for flexible electronics
  • magnetic nanoparticle meet microfluidics

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
SVD-Based Technique for Interference Cancellation and Noise Reduction in NMR Measurement of Time-Dependent Magnetic Fields
Sensors 2016, 16(3), 323; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16030323 - 04 Mar 2016
Cited by 5
Abstract
A nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiment for measurement of time-dependent magnetic fields was introduced. To improve the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) of NMR data, a new method for interference cancellation and noise reduction (ICNR) based on singular value decomposition (SVD) was proposed. The singular [...] Read more.
A nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiment for measurement of time-dependent magnetic fields was introduced. To improve the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) of NMR data, a new method for interference cancellation and noise reduction (ICNR) based on singular value decomposition (SVD) was proposed. The singular values corresponding to the radio frequency interference (RFI) signal were identified in terms of the correlation between the FID data and the reference data, and then the RFI and noise were suppressed by setting the corresponding singular values to zero. The validity of the algorithm was verified by processing the measured NMR data. The results indicated that, this method has a significantly suppression of RFI and random noise, and can well preserve the FID signal. At present, the major limitation of the proposed SVD-based ICNR technique is that the threshold value for interference cancellation needs to be manually selected. Finally, the inversion waveform of the applied alternating magnetic field was given by fitting the processed experimental data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Sensor Device-Part 1)
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Open AccessArticle
Sensitivity Enhancement in Magnetic Sensors Based on Ferroelectric-Bimorphs and Multiferroic Composites
Sensors 2016, 16(2), 262; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16020262 - 20 Feb 2016
Cited by 12
Abstract
Multiferroic composites with ferromagnetic and ferroelectric phases have been studied in recent years for use as sensors of AC and DC magnetic fields. Their operation is based on magneto-electric (ME) coupling between the electric and magnetic subsystems and is mediated by mechanical strain. [...] Read more.
Multiferroic composites with ferromagnetic and ferroelectric phases have been studied in recent years for use as sensors of AC and DC magnetic fields. Their operation is based on magneto-electric (ME) coupling between the electric and magnetic subsystems and is mediated by mechanical strain. Such sensors for AC magnetic fields require a bias magnetic field to achieve pT-sensitivity. Novel magnetic sensors with a permanent magnet proof mass, either on a ferroelectric bimorph or a ferromagnetic-ferroelectric composite, are discussed. In both types, the interaction between the applied AC magnetic field and remnant magnetization of the magnet results in a mechanical strain and a voltage response in the ferroelectric. Our studies have been performed on sensors with a Nd-Fe-B permanent magnet proof mass on (i) a bimorph of oppositely-poled lead zirconate titanate (PZT) platelets and (ii) a layered multiferroic composite of PZT-Metglas-Ni. The sensors have been characterized in terms of sensitivity and equivalent magnetic noise N. Noise N in both type of sensors is on the order of 200 pT/√Hz at 1 Hz, a factor of 10 improvement compared to multiferroic sensors without a proof mass. When the AC magnetic field is applied at the bending resonance for the bimorph, the measured N ≈ 700 pT/√Hz. We discuss models based on magneto-electro-mechanical coupling at low frequency and bending resonance in the sensors and theoretical estimates of ME voltage coefficients are in very good agreement with the data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Sensor Device-Part 1)
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Open AccessArticle
A Novel Method of Multi-Information Acquisition for Electromagnetic Flow Meters
Sensors 2016, 16(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16010025 - 26 Dec 2015
Cited by 3
Abstract
In this paper, a novel method is proposed for multi-information acquisition from the electromagnetic flow meter, using magnetic excitation to measure the fluid velocity and electrochemistry impedance spectroscopy (EIS) for both the fluid quality and the contamination level of the transducer. The impedance [...] Read more.
In this paper, a novel method is proposed for multi-information acquisition from the electromagnetic flow meter, using magnetic excitation to measure the fluid velocity and electrochemistry impedance spectroscopy (EIS) for both the fluid quality and the contamination level of the transducer. The impedance spectra of the transducer are measured with an additional electrical stimulus in series with the electrode measurement loop. The series connection mode instead of the parallel one improves the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the fluid velocity measurement and offers a wide range of impedance measurements by using a sample capacitance. In addition, a multi-frequency synchronous excitation source is synthesized based on the method of dual-base power sequences for fast EIS measurement. The conductivity measurements in the range of 1.7 μS/cm–2 mS/cm showed a relatively high accuracy with a measurement error of 5%, and the electrode adhesion detection on both with coating and no coating showed the ability of the qualitative determination of the electrode adhesion, which validated the feasibility of the multi-information acquisition method for the electromagnetic flow meter (EMFM). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Sensor Device-Part 1)
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Open AccessArticle
GSA-Tuning IPD Control of a Field-Sensed Magnetic Suspension System
Sensors 2015, 15(12), 31781-31793; https://doi.org/10.3390/s151229879 - 16 Dec 2015
Cited by 3
Abstract
The purpose of this paper is to propose a GSA-tuning IPD control technique for magnetic suspension systems. An educational demonstration on a magnetic-field sensed magnetic suspension system is examined for effectiveness. For the magnetic-field sensed magnetic suspension system (FSMSS), the current transducer is [...] Read more.
The purpose of this paper is to propose a GSA-tuning IPD control technique for magnetic suspension systems. An educational demonstration on a magnetic-field sensed magnetic suspension system is examined for effectiveness. For the magnetic-field sensed magnetic suspension system (FSMSS), the current transducer is employed for measuring the electromagnetic coil current, and a Hall effect device is used for detecting the position of the suspended object. To achieve optimal performance, the gravitational search algorithm (GSA) is adopted for tuning the integral-proportional-derivative (IPD) controller. The IPD control includes the specified PD controller and an integrator. The specified PD control is employed for stabilizing the inherently unstable FSMSS, whereas the integral control is utilized for eliminating the steady-state error. The GSA can tune the IPD control parameters to enable optimal FSMSS performance. We achieved excellent results from the simulations and hands-on experiments for the proposed control strategies and structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Sensor Device-Part 1)
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Open AccessArticle
Hybrid Molecular and Spin Dynamics Simulations for Ensembles of Magnetic Nanoparticles for Magnetoresistive Systems
Sensors 2015, 15(11), 28826-28841; https://doi.org/10.3390/s151128826 - 13 Nov 2015
Abstract
The development of magnetoresistive sensors based on magnetic nanoparticles which are immersed in conductive gel matrices requires detailed information about the corresponding magnetoresistive properties in order to obtain optimal sensor sensitivities. Here, crucial parameters are the particle concentration, the viscosity of the gel [...] Read more.
The development of magnetoresistive sensors based on magnetic nanoparticles which are immersed in conductive gel matrices requires detailed information about the corresponding magnetoresistive properties in order to obtain optimal sensor sensitivities. Here, crucial parameters are the particle concentration, the viscosity of the gel matrix and the particle structure. Experimentally, it is not possible to obtain detailed information about the magnetic microstructure, i.e., orientations of the magnetic moments of the particles that define the magnetoresistive properties, however, by using numerical simulations one can study the magnetic microstructure theoretically, although this requires performing classical spin dynamics and molecular dynamics simulations simultaneously. Here, we present such an approach which allows us to calculate the orientation and the trajectory of every single magnetic nanoparticle. This enables us to study not only the static magnetic microstructure, but also the dynamics of the structuring process in the gel matrix itself. With our hybrid approach, arbitrary sensor configurations can be investigated and their magnetoresistive properties can be optimized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Sensor Device-Part 1)
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Open AccessArticle
A Novel Permanent Magnetic Angular Acceleration Sensor
Sensors 2015, 15(7), 16136-16152; https://doi.org/10.3390/s150716136 - 03 Jul 2015
Cited by 8
Abstract
Angular acceleration is an important parameter for status monitoring and fault diagnosis of rotary machinery. Therefore, we developed a novel permanent magnetic angular acceleration sensor, which is without rotation angle limitations and could directly measure the instantaneous angular acceleration of the rotating system. [...] Read more.
Angular acceleration is an important parameter for status monitoring and fault diagnosis of rotary machinery. Therefore, we developed a novel permanent magnetic angular acceleration sensor, which is without rotation angle limitations and could directly measure the instantaneous angular acceleration of the rotating system. The sensor rotor only needs to be coaxially connected with the rotating system, which enables convenient sensor installation. For the cup structure of the sensor rotor, it has a relatively small rotational inertia. Due to the unique mechanical structure of the sensor, the output signal of the sensor can be directed without a slip ring, which avoids signal weakening effect. In this paper, the operating principle of the sensor is described, and simulated using finite element method. The sensitivity of the sensor is calibrated by torsional pendulum and angle sensor, yielding an experimental result of about 0.88 mV/(rad·s−2). Finally, the angular acceleration of the actual rotating system has been tested, using both a single-phase asynchronous motor and a step motor. Experimental result confirms the operating principle of the sensor and indicates that the sensor has good practicability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Sensor Device-Part 1)
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Open AccessArticle
A 3-Axis Miniature Magnetic Sensor Based on a Planar Fluxgate Magnetometer with an Orthogonal Fluxguide
Sensors 2015, 15(6), 14727-14744; https://doi.org/10.3390/s150614727 - 19 Jun 2015
Cited by 15
Abstract
A new class of tri-axial miniature magnetometer consisting of a planar fluxgate structure with an orthogonal ferromagnetic fluxguide centrally situated over the magnetic cores is presented. The magnetic sensor possesses a cruciform ferromagnetic core placed diagonally upon the square excitation coil under which [...] Read more.
A new class of tri-axial miniature magnetometer consisting of a planar fluxgate structure with an orthogonal ferromagnetic fluxguide centrally situated over the magnetic cores is presented. The magnetic sensor possesses a cruciform ferromagnetic core placed diagonally upon the square excitation coil under which two pairs of pick-up coils for in-plane field detection are allocated. Effective principles and analysis of the magnetometer for 3-D field vectors are described and verified by numerically electromagnetic simulation for the excitation and magnetization of the ferromagnetic cores. The sensor is operated by applying the second-harmonic detection technique that can verify V-B relationship and device responsivity. Experimental characterization of the miniature fluxgate device demonstrates satisfactory spatial magnetic field detection results in terms of responsivity and noise spectrum. As a result, at an excitation frequency of 50 kHz, a maximum in-plane responsivity of 122.4 V/T appears and a maximum out-of-plane responsivity of 11.6 V/T is obtained as well. The minimum field noise spectra are found to be 0.11 nT/√Hz and 6.29 nT/√Hz, respectively, in X- and Z-axis at 1 Hz under the same excitation frequency. Compared with the previous tri-axis fluxgate devices, this planar magnetic sensor with an orthogonal fluxguide provides beneficial enhancement in both sensory functionality and manufacturing simplicity. More importantly, this novel device concept is considered highly suitable for the extension to a silicon sensor made by the current CMOS-MEMS technologies, thus emphasizing its emerging applications of field detection in portable industrial electronics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Sensor Device-Part 1)
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Open AccessArticle
Strong Ferromagnetically-Coupled Spin Valve Sensor Devices for Droplet Magnetofluidics
Sensors 2015, 15(6), 12526-12538; https://doi.org/10.3390/s150612526 - 27 May 2015
Cited by 5
Abstract
We report a magnetofluidic device with integrated strong ferromagnetically-coupled and hysteresis-free spin valve sensors for dynamic monitoring of ferrofluid droplets in microfluidics. The strong ferromagnetic coupling between the free layer and the pinned layer of spin valve sensors is achieved by reducing the [...] Read more.
We report a magnetofluidic device with integrated strong ferromagnetically-coupled and hysteresis-free spin valve sensors for dynamic monitoring of ferrofluid droplets in microfluidics. The strong ferromagnetic coupling between the free layer and the pinned layer of spin valve sensors is achieved by reducing the spacer thickness, while the hysteresis of the free layer is eliminated by the interplay between shape anisotropy and the strength of coupling. The increased ferromagnetic coupling field up to the remarkable 70 Oe, which is five-times larger than conventional solutions, brings key advantages for dynamic sensing, e.g., a larger biasing field giving rise to larger detection signals, facilitating the operation of devices without saturation of the sensors. Studies on the fundamental effects of an external magnetic field on the evolution of the shape of droplets, as enabled by the non-visual monitoring capability of the device, provides crucial information for future development of a magnetofluidic device for multiplexed assays. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Sensor Device-Part 1)
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Open AccessArticle
Digital Control Analysis and Design of a Field-Sensed Magnetic Suspension System
Sensors 2015, 15(3), 6174-6195; https://doi.org/10.3390/s150306174 - 13 Mar 2015
Cited by 3
Abstract
Magnetic suspension systems are mechatronic systems and crucial in several engineering applications, such as the levitation of high-speed trains, frictionless bearings, and wind tunnels. Magnetic suspension systems are nonlinear and unstable systems; therefore, they are suitable educational benchmarks for testing various modeling and [...] Read more.
Magnetic suspension systems are mechatronic systems and crucial in several engineering applications, such as the levitation of high-speed trains, frictionless bearings, and wind tunnels. Magnetic suspension systems are nonlinear and unstable systems; therefore, they are suitable educational benchmarks for testing various modeling and control methods. This paper presents the digital modeling and control of magnetic suspension systems. First, the magnetic suspension system is stabilized using a digital proportional-derivative controller. Subsequently, the digital model is identified using recursive algorithms. Finally, a digital mixed linear quadratic regulator (LQR)/H∞ control is adopted to stabilize the magnetic suspension system robustly. Simulation examples and a real-world example are provided to demonstrate the practicality of the study results. In this study, a digital magnetic suspension system model was developed and reviewed. In addition, equivalent state and output feedback controls for magnetic suspension systems were developed. Using this method, the controller design for magnetic suspension systems was simplified, which is the novel contribution of this study. In addition, this paper proposes a complete digital controller design procedure for magnetic suspension systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Sensor Device-Part 1)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Homogeneous Biosensing Based on Magnetic Particle Labels
Sensors 2016, 16(6), 828; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16060828 - 06 Jun 2016
Cited by 30
Abstract
The growing availability of biomarker panels for molecular diagnostics is leading to an increasing need for fast and sensitive biosensing technologies that are applicable to point-of-care testing. In that regard, homogeneous measurement principles are especially relevant as they usually do not require extensive [...] Read more.
The growing availability of biomarker panels for molecular diagnostics is leading to an increasing need for fast and sensitive biosensing technologies that are applicable to point-of-care testing. In that regard, homogeneous measurement principles are especially relevant as they usually do not require extensive sample preparation procedures, thus reducing the total analysis time and maximizing ease-of-use. In this review, we focus on homogeneous biosensors for the in vitro detection of biomarkers. Within this broad range of biosensors, we concentrate on methods that apply magnetic particle labels. The advantage of such methods lies in the added possibility to manipulate the particle labels by applied magnetic fields, which can be exploited, for example, to decrease incubation times or to enhance the signal-to-noise-ratio of the measurement signal by applying frequency-selective detection. In our review, we discriminate the corresponding methods based on the nature of the acquired measurement signal, which can either be based on magnetic or optical detection. The underlying measurement principles of the different techniques are discussed, and biosensing examples for all techniques are reported, thereby demonstrating the broad applicability of homogeneous in vitro biosensing based on magnetic particle label actuation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Sensor Device-Part 1)
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Open AccessReview
Manipulation of Superparamagnetic Beads on Patterned Exchange-Bias Layer Systems for Biosensing Applications
Sensors 2015, 15(11), 28854-28888; https://doi.org/10.3390/s151128854 - 13 Nov 2015
Cited by 22
Abstract
A technology platform based on a remotely controlled and stepwise transport of an array arrangement of superparamagnetic beads (SPB) for efficient molecular uptake, delivery and accumulation in the context of highly specific and sensitive analyte molecule detection for the application in lab-on-a-chip devices [...] Read more.
A technology platform based on a remotely controlled and stepwise transport of an array arrangement of superparamagnetic beads (SPB) for efficient molecular uptake, delivery and accumulation in the context of highly specific and sensitive analyte molecule detection for the application in lab-on-a-chip devices is presented. The near-surface transport of SPBs is realized via the dynamic transformation of the SPBs’ magnetic potential energy landscape above a magnetically stripe patterned Exchange-Bias (EB) thin film layer systems due to the application of sub-mT external magnetic field pulses. In this concept, the SPB velocity is dramatically influenced by the magnitude and gradient of the magnetic field landscape (MFL) above the magnetically stripe patterned EB substrate, the SPB to substrate distance, the magnetic properties of both the SPBs and the EB layer system, respectively, as well as by the properties of the external magnetic field pulses and the surrounding fluid. The focus of this review is laid on the specific MFL design in EB layer systems via light-ion bombardment induced magnetic patterning (IBMP). A numerical approach is introduced for the theoretical description of the MFL in comparison to experimental characterization via scanning Hall probe microscopy. The SPB transport mechanism will be outlined in terms of the dynamic interplay between the EB substrate’s MFL and the pulse scheme of the external magnetic field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Sensor Device-Part 1)
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Open AccessReview
Magnetic Sensors Based on Amorphous Ferromagnetic Materials: A Review
Sensors 2015, 15(11), 28340-28366; https://doi.org/10.3390/s151128340 - 11 Nov 2015
Cited by 33
Abstract
Currently there are many types of sensors that are used in lots of applications. Among these, magnetic sensors are a good alternative for the detection and measurement of different phenomena because they are a “simple” and readily available technology. For the construction of [...] Read more.
Currently there are many types of sensors that are used in lots of applications. Among these, magnetic sensors are a good alternative for the detection and measurement of different phenomena because they are a “simple” and readily available technology. For the construction of such devices there are many magnetic materials available, although amorphous ferromagnetic materials are the most suitable. The existence in the market of these materials allows the production of different kinds of sensors, without requiring expensive manufacture investments for the magnetic cores. Furthermore, these are not fragile materials that require special care, favouring the construction of solid and reliable devices. Another important feature is that these sensors can be developed without electric contact between the measuring device and the sensor, making them especially fit for use in harsh environments. In this review we will look at the main types of developed magnetic sensors. This work presents the state of the art of magnetic sensors based on amorphous ferromagnetic materials used in modern technology: security devices, weapon detection, magnetic maps, car industry, credit cards, etc. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Sensor Device-Part 1)
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