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IoT Multi Sensors

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Physical Sensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2023) | Viewed by 60070

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Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Computers, Electronics and Automation Department, Stefan cel Mare University of Suceava, 720229 Suceava, Romania
Interests: wireless sensors networks; LPWAN; Low-Power Wide-Area Network; machine learning; large scale high-density WSN; LoRaWAN; SigFox
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Co-Guest Editor
Computers, Electronics and Automation Department, Stefan cel Mare University of Suceava, 720229 Suceava, Romania
Interests: antenna design; Internet of Things; wireless sensor networks

E-Mail Website
Co-Guest Editor
Computers, Electronics and Automation Department, Stefan cel Mare University of Suceava, 720229 Suceava, Romania
Interests: Internet of Things; wireless sensor networks; LPWAN; RFID; antenna design
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In recent years, we have witnessed continuous discussion about the Internet of Things (IoT) concept, which involves connecting the various objects that surround us in everyday life to the Internet.

In order to cope with the new challenges and IoT applications, Low-Power Wide-Area Networks (LPWANs) have been created. The IoT concept is currently the focus of the entire academic community.

The main purpose of the IoT concept, which is closely related to the Smart City topic, is to increase quality of life by contributing to the efficient use of resources and environment protection. IoT technologies are sufficiently enhanced to enable the development of integrated solutions for multi-sensors design.

This Special Issue will focus on state-of-the-art technologies, the latest findings, and current challenges in IoT with emphasis on healthcare, transportation, antenna design and disease detection.

We shall solicit papers that cover numerous topics of interest that include, but are not limited to:

  • IoT communication protocols;
  • LPWAN for IoT (Sigfox, LoRa, etc.);
  • Antenna design for IoT applications;
  • Large-scale, high-density IoT networks and architectures;
  • IoT applications and multi-sensors for transportation and traffic control;
  • IoT convergence for Smart Health;
  • Machine-learning/deep-learning algorithms for sensing IoT;
  • Machine-learning-based healthcare applications and disease detection;
  • Applications and examples of use.

The Special Issue topic is in the scope of MDPI’s Sensors journal and offers researchers the possibility of publishing their high-quality research related to the IoT concept on multi-sensor technology integration. The scope of the Special Issue is well constructed and it will be a success with a high number of published papers.

Dr. Alexandru Lavric
Guest Editor

Dr. Liliana Anchidin
Dr. Adrian I. Petrariu
Co-Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • IoT
  • LoRa
  • multi sensors
  • LPWAN
  • machine learning
  • antenna design

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Published Papers (21 papers)

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23 pages, 6292 KiB  
Article
Comparative Analysis of Power Consumption between MQTT and HTTP Protocols in an IoT Platform Designed and Implemented for Remote Real-Time Monitoring of Long-Term Cold Chain Transport Operations
by Heriberto J. Jara Ochoa, Raul Peña, Yoel Ledo Mezquita, Enrique Gonzalez and Sergio Camacho-Leon
Sensors 2023, 23(10), 4896; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23104896 - 19 May 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2291
Abstract
IoT platforms for the transportation industry are portable with limited battery life and need real-time and long-term monitoring operations. Since MQTT and HTTP are widely used as the main communication protocols in the IoT, it is imperative to analyze their power consumption to [...] Read more.
IoT platforms for the transportation industry are portable with limited battery life and need real-time and long-term monitoring operations. Since MQTT and HTTP are widely used as the main communication protocols in the IoT, it is imperative to analyze their power consumption to provide quantitative results that help maximize battery life in IoT transportation systems. Although is well known that MQTT consumes less power than HTTP, a comparative analysis of their power consumption with long-time tests and different conditions has not yet been conducted. In this sense, a design and validation of an electronic cost-efficient platform system for remote real-time monitoring is proposed using a NodeMCU module, in which experimentation is carried out for HTTP and MQTT with different QoS levels to make a comparison and demonstrate the differences in power consumption. Furthermore, we characterize the behavior of the batteries in the systems and compare the theoretical analysis with real long-time test results. The experimentation using the MQTT protocol with QoS 0 and 1 was successful, resulting in power savings of 6.03% and 8.33%, respectively, compared with HTTP, demonstrating many more hours in the duration of the batteries, which could be very useful in technological solutions for the transport industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IoT Multi Sensors)
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16 pages, 1672 KiB  
Article
Massive Data Storage Solution for IoT Devices Using Blockchain Technologies
by Alexandru A. Maftei, Alexandru Lavric, Adrian I. Petrariu and Valentin Popa
Sensors 2023, 23(3), 1570; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23031570 - 01 Feb 2023
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2917
Abstract
The Internet of Things (IoT) concept involves connecting devices to the internet and forming a network of objects that can collect information from the environment without human intervention. Although the IoT concept offers some advantages, it also has some issues that are associated [...] Read more.
The Internet of Things (IoT) concept involves connecting devices to the internet and forming a network of objects that can collect information from the environment without human intervention. Although the IoT concept offers some advantages, it also has some issues that are associated with cyber security risks, such as the lack of detection of malicious wireless sensor network (WSN) nodes, lack of fault tolerance, weak authorization, and authentication of nodes, and the insecure management of received data from IoT devices. Considering the cybersecurity issues of IoT devices, there is an urgent need of finding new solutions that can increase the security level of WSNs. One issue that needs attention is the secure management and data storage for IoT devices. Most of the current solutions are based on systems that operate in a centralized manner, ecosystems that are easy to tamper with and provide no records regarding the traceability of the data collected from the sensors. In this paper, we propose an architecture based on blockchain technology for securing and managing data collected from IoT devices. By implementing blockchain technology, we provide a distributed data storage architecture, thus eliminating the need for a centralized network topology using blockchain advantages such as immutability, decentralization, distributivity, enhanced security, transparency, instant traceability, and increased efficiency through automation. From the obtained results, the proposed architecture ensures a high level of performance and can be used as a scalable, massive data storage solution for IoT devices using blockchain technologies. New WSN communication protocols can be easily enrolled in our data storage blockchain architecture without the need for retrofitting, as our system does not depend on any specific communication protocol and can be applied to any IoT application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IoT Multi Sensors)
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14 pages, 13884 KiB  
Article
The Design and Development of a Microstrip Antenna for Internet of Things Applications
by Liliana Anchidin, Alexandru Lavric, Partemie-Marian Mutescu, Adrian I. Petrariu and Valentin Popa
Sensors 2023, 23(3), 1062; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23031062 - 17 Jan 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3297
Abstract
The Internet of Things (IoT) has become a part of modern life where it is used for data acquisition and long-range wireless communications. Regardless of the IoT application profile, every wireless communication transmission is enabled by highly efficient antennas. The role of the [...] Read more.
The Internet of Things (IoT) has become a part of modern life where it is used for data acquisition and long-range wireless communications. Regardless of the IoT application profile, every wireless communication transmission is enabled by highly efficient antennas. The role of the antenna is thus very important and must not be neglected. Considering the high demand of IoT applications, there is a constant need to improve antenna technologies, including new antenna designs, in order to increase the performance level of WSNs (Wireless Sensor Networks) and enhance their efficiency by enabling a long range and a low error-rate communication link. This paper proposes a new antenna design that is able to increase the performance level of IoT applications by means of an original design. The antenna was designed, simulated, tested, and evaluated in a real operating scenario. From the obtained results, it ensured a high level of performance and can be used in IoT applications specific to the 868 MHz frequency band.By inserting two notches along x axis, we find an optimal structure of the microstrip patch antenna with a reflection coefficient of −34.3 dB and a bandwidth of 20 MHz. After testing the designed novel antenna in real IoT operating conditions, we concluded that the proposed antenna can increase the performance level of IoT wireless communications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IoT Multi Sensors)
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16 pages, 2636 KiB  
Article
A Secure Long-Range Transceiver for Monitoring and Storing IoT Data in the Cloud: Design and Performance Study
by Nurul I. Sarkar, Asish Thomas Kavitha and Md Jahan Ali
Sensors 2022, 22(21), 8380; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22218380 - 01 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2219
Abstract
Due to the high demand for Internet of Things (IoT) and real-time data monitoring and control applications in recent years, the long-range (LoRa) communication protocols leverage technology to provide inter-cluster communications in an effective manner. A secure LoRa system is required to monitor [...] Read more.
Due to the high demand for Internet of Things (IoT) and real-time data monitoring and control applications in recent years, the long-range (LoRa) communication protocols leverage technology to provide inter-cluster communications in an effective manner. A secure LoRa system is required to monitor and store IoT data in the cloud. This paper aims to report on the design, analysis, and performance evaluation of a low-cost LoRa transceiver interface unit (433 MHz band) for the real-time monitoring and storing of IoT sensor data in the cloud. We designed and analyzed a low-cost LoRa transceiver interface unit consisting of a LoRa communication module and Wi-Fi module in the laboratory. The system was built (prototype) using radially available hardware devices from the local electronics shops at about USD 150. The transmitter can securely exchange IoT sensor data to the receiver node at about 10 km using a LoRa Wi-Fi module. The receiver node accumulates the sensor data and stores it in the cloud for processing. The performance of the proposed LoRa transceiver was evaluated by field experiments in which two transmitter nodes were deployed on the rooftop of Auckland University of Technology’s Tower building on city campus (New Zealand), and the receiver node was deployed in Liston Park, which was located 10 km away from the University Tower building. The manual incident field tests examined the accuracy of the sensor data, and the system achieved a data accuracy of about 99%. The reaction time of the transmitter nodes was determined by the data accumulation of sensor nodes within 2–20 s. Results show that the system is robust and can be used to effectively link city and suburban park communities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IoT Multi Sensors)
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21 pages, 2055 KiB  
Article
Leveraging IoT-Aware Technologies and AI Techniques for Real-Time Critical Healthcare Applications
by Angela-Tafadzwa Shumba, Teodoro Montanaro, Ilaria Sergi, Luca Fachechi, Massimo De Vittorio and Luigi Patrono
Sensors 2022, 22(19), 7675; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22197675 - 10 Oct 2022
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 3687
Abstract
Personalised healthcare has seen significant improvements due to the introduction of health monitoring technologies that allow wearable devices to unintrusively monitor physiological parameters such as heart health, blood pressure, sleep patterns, and blood glucose levels, among others. Additionally, utilising advanced sensing technologies based [...] Read more.
Personalised healthcare has seen significant improvements due to the introduction of health monitoring technologies that allow wearable devices to unintrusively monitor physiological parameters such as heart health, blood pressure, sleep patterns, and blood glucose levels, among others. Additionally, utilising advanced sensing technologies based on flexible and innovative biocompatible materials in wearable devices allows high accuracy and precision measurement of biological signals. Furthermore, applying real-time Machine Learning algorithms to highly accurate physiological parameters allows precise identification of unusual patterns in the data to provide health event predictions and warnings for timely intervention. However, in the predominantly adopted architectures, health event predictions based on Machine Learning are typically obtained by leveraging Cloud infrastructures characterised by shortcomings such as delayed response times and privacy issues. Fortunately, recent works highlight that a new paradigm based on Edge Computing technologies and on-device Artificial Intelligence significantly improve the latency and privacy issues. Applying this new paradigm to personalised healthcare architectures can significantly improve their efficiency and efficacy. Therefore, this paper reviews existing IoT healthcare architectures that utilise wearable devices and subsequently presents a scalable and modular system architecture to leverage emerging technologies to solve identified shortcomings. The defined architecture includes ultrathin, skin-compatible, flexible, high precision piezoelectric sensors, low-cost communication technologies, on-device intelligence, Edge Intelligence, and Edge Computing technologies. To provide development guidelines and define a consistent reference architecture for improved scalable wearable IoT-based critical healthcare architectures, this manuscript outlines the essential functional and non-functional requirements based on deductions from existing architectures and emerging technology trends. The presented system architecture can be applied to many scenarios, including ambient assisted living, where continuous surveillance and issuance of timely warnings can afford independence to the elderly and chronically ill. We conclude that the distribution and modularity of architecture layers, local AI-based elaboration, and data packaging consistency are the more essential functional requirements for critical healthcare application use cases. We also identify fast response time, utility, comfort, and low cost as the essential non-functional requirements for the defined system architecture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IoT Multi Sensors)
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17 pages, 37264 KiB  
Article
A Historical Twist on Long-Range Wireless: Building a 103 km Multi-Hop Network Replicating Claude Chappe’s Telegraph
by Mina Rady, Jonathan Muñoz, Razanne Abu-Aisheh, Mališa Vučinić, José Astorga Tobar, Alfonso Cortes, Quentin Lampin, Dominique Barthel and Thomas Watteyne
Sensors 2022, 22(19), 7586; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22197586 - 06 Oct 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2215
Abstract
In 1794, French Engineer Claude Chappe coordinated the deployment of a network of dozens of optical semaphores. These formed “strings” that were hundreds of kilometers long, allowing for nationwide telegraphy. The Chappe telegraph inspired future developments of long-range telecommunications using electrical telegraphs and, [...] Read more.
In 1794, French Engineer Claude Chappe coordinated the deployment of a network of dozens of optical semaphores. These formed “strings” that were hundreds of kilometers long, allowing for nationwide telegraphy. The Chappe telegraph inspired future developments of long-range telecommunications using electrical telegraphs and, later, digital telecommunication. Long-range wireless networks are used today for the Internet of Things (IoT), including industrial, agricultural, and urban applications. The long-range radio technology used today offers approximately 10 km of range. Long-range IoT solutions use “star” topology: all devices need to be within range of a gateway device. This limits the area covered by one such network to roughly a disk of a 10 km radius. In this article, we demonstrate a 103 km low-power wireless multi-hop network by combining long-range IoT radio technology with Claude Chappe’s vision. We placed 11 battery-powered devices at the former locations of the Chappe telegraph towers, hanging under helium balloons. We ran a proprietary protocol stack on these devices so they formed a 10-hop multi-hop network: devices forwarded the frames from the “previous” device in the chain. This is, to our knowledge, the longest low power multi-hop wireless network built to date, demonstrating the potential of combining long-range radio technology with multi-hop technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IoT Multi Sensors)
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18 pages, 5804 KiB  
Article
ParcEMon: IoT Platform for Real-Time Parcel Level Last-Mile Delivery Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reporting and Management
by Ali Yavari, Hamid Bagha, Harindu Korala, Irfan Mirza, Hussein Dia, Paul Scifleet, Jason Sargent and Mahnaz Shafiei
Sensors 2022, 22(19), 7380; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22197380 - 28 Sep 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2611
Abstract
Transport is Australia’s third-largest source of greenhouse gases accounting for around 17% of emissions. In recent times, and particularly as a result of the global pandemic, the rapid growth within the e-commerce sector has contributed to last-mile delivery becoming one of the main [...] Read more.
Transport is Australia’s third-largest source of greenhouse gases accounting for around 17% of emissions. In recent times, and particularly as a result of the global pandemic, the rapid growth within the e-commerce sector has contributed to last-mile delivery becoming one of the main emission sources. Delivery vehicles operating at the last-mile travel long routes to deliver to customers an array of consignment parcels in varying numbers and weights, and therefore these vehicles play a major role in increasing emissions and air pollutants. The work reported in this paper aims to address these challenges by developing an IoT platform to measure and report on real-world last-mile delivery emissions. Such evaluations help to understand the factors contributing to freight emissions so that appropriate mitigation measures are implemented. Unlike previous research that was completed in controlled laboratory settings, the data collected in this research were from a delivery vehicle under real-world traffic and driving conditions. The IoT platform was tested to provide contextualised reporting by taking into account three main contexts including vehicle, environment and driving behaviours. This approach to data collection enabled the analysis of parcel level emissions and correlation of the vehicle characteristics, road conditions, ambient temperature and other environmental factors and driving behaviour that have an impact on emissions. The raw data collected from the sensors were analysed in real-time in the IoT platform, and the results showed a trade-off between parcel weight and total distance travelled which must be considered when selecting the best delivery order for reducing emissions. Overall, the study demonstrated the feasibility of the IoT platform in collecting the desired levels of data and providing detailed analysis of emissions at the parcel level. This type of micro-level understanding provides an important knowledge base for the enhancement of delivery processes and reduction of last-mile delivery emissions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IoT Multi Sensors)
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19 pages, 2815 KiB  
Article
Cost-Efficient Coverage of Wastewater Networks by IoT Monitoring Devices
by Arkadiusz Sikorski, Fernando Solano Donado and Stanisław Kozdrowski
Sensors 2022, 22(18), 6854; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22186854 - 10 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1245
Abstract
Wireless sensor networks are fundamental for technologies related to the Internet of Things. This technology has been constantly evolving in recent times. In this paper, we consider the problem of minimising the cost function of covering a sewer network. The cost function includes [...] Read more.
Wireless sensor networks are fundamental for technologies related to the Internet of Things. This technology has been constantly evolving in recent times. In this paper, we consider the problem of minimising the cost function of covering a sewer network. The cost function includes the acquisition and installation of electronic components such as sensors, batteries, and the devices on which these components are installed. The problem of sensor coverage in the sewer network or a part of it is presented in the form of a mixed-integer programming model. This method guarantees that we obtain an optimal solution to this problem. A model was proposed that can take into account either only partial or complete coverage of the considered sewer network. The CPLEX solver was used to solve this problem. The study was carried out for a practically relevant network under selected scenarios determined by artificial and realistic datasets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IoT Multi Sensors)
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25 pages, 24924 KiB  
Article
Self-Sovereignty Identity Management Model for Smart Healthcare System
by Pinky Bai, Sushil Kumar, Geetika Aggarwal, Mufti Mahmud, Omprakash Kaiwartya and Jaime Lloret
Sensors 2022, 22(13), 4714; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22134714 - 22 Jun 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2919
Abstract
An identity management system is essential in any organisation to provide quality services to each authenticated user. The smart healthcare system should use reliable identity management to ensure timely service to authorised users. Traditional healthcare uses a paper-based identity system which is converted [...] Read more.
An identity management system is essential in any organisation to provide quality services to each authenticated user. The smart healthcare system should use reliable identity management to ensure timely service to authorised users. Traditional healthcare uses a paper-based identity system which is converted into centralised identity management in a smart healthcare system. Centralised identity management has security issues such as denial of service attacks, single-point failure, information breaches of patients, and many privacy issues. Decentralisedidentity management can be a robust solution to these security and privacy issues. We proposed a Self-Sovereign identity management system for the smart healthcare system (SSI-SHS), which manages the identity of each stakeholder, including medical devices or sensors, in a decentralisedmanner in the Internet of Medical Things (IoMT) Environment. The proposed system gives the user complete control of their data at each point. Further, we analysed the proposed identity management system against Allen and Cameron’s identity management guidelines. We also present the performance analysis of SSI as compared to the state-of-the-art techniques. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IoT Multi Sensors)
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34 pages, 4146 KiB  
Article
Planning and Optimization of Software-Defined and Virtualized IoT Gateway Deployment for Smart Campuses
by Divino Ferreira, Jr., João Lucas Oliveira, Carlos Santos , Tércio Filho, Maria Ribeiro, Leandro Alexandre Freitas, Waldir Moreira and Antonio Oliveira-Jr
Sensors 2022, 22(13), 4710; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22134710 - 22 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1905
Abstract
The Internet of Things (IoT) is based on objects or “things” that have the ability to communicate and transfer data. Due to the large number of connected objects and devices, there has been a rapid growth in the amount of data that are [...] Read more.
The Internet of Things (IoT) is based on objects or “things” that have the ability to communicate and transfer data. Due to the large number of connected objects and devices, there has been a rapid growth in the amount of data that are transferred over the Internet. To support this increase, the heterogeneity of devices and their geographical distributions, there is a need for IoT gateways that can cope with this demand. The SOFTWAY4IoT project, which was funded by the National Education and Research Network (RNP), has developed a software-defined and virtualized IoT gateway that supports multiple wireless communication technologies and fog/cloud environment integration. In this work, we propose a planning method that uses optimization models for the deployment of IoT gateways in smart campuses. The presented models aimed to quantify the minimum number of IoT gateways that is necessary to cover the desired area and their positions and to distribute IoT devices to the respective gateways. For this purpose, the communication technology range and the data link consumption were defined as the parameters for the optimization models. Three models are presented, which use LoRa, Wi-Fi, and BLE communication technologies. The gateway deployment problem was solved in two steps: first, the gateways were quantified using a linear programming model; second, the gateway positions and the distribution of IoT devices were calculated using the classical K-means clustering algorithm and the metaheuristic particle swarm optimization. Case studies and experiments were conducted at the Samambaia Campus of the Federal University of Goiás as an example. Finally, an analysis of the three models was performed, using metrics such as the silhouette coefficient. Non-parametric hypothesis tests were also applied to the performed experiments to verify that the proposed models did not produce results using the same population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IoT Multi Sensors)
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21 pages, 4008 KiB  
Article
IoT-Based Multi-Sensor Healthcare Architectures and a Lightweight-Based Privacy Scheme
by Vassileios Aivaliotis, Kyriaki Tsantikidou and Nicolas Sklavos
Sensors 2022, 22(11), 4269; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22114269 - 03 Jun 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 4087
Abstract
Health 4.0 is a new promising addition to the healthcare industry that innovatively includes the Internet of Things (IoT) and its heterogeneous devices and sensors. The result is the creation of numerous smart health applications that can be more effective, reliable, scalable and [...] Read more.
Health 4.0 is a new promising addition to the healthcare industry that innovatively includes the Internet of Things (IoT) and its heterogeneous devices and sensors. The result is the creation of numerous smart health applications that can be more effective, reliable, scalable and cost-efficient while facilitating people with their everyday life and health conditions. Nevertheless, without proper guidance, the employment of IoT-based health systems can be complicated, especially with regard to security challenges such susceptible application displays. An appropriate comprehension of the structure and the security demands of IoT-based multi-sensor systems and healthcare infrastructures must first be achieved. Furthermore, new architectures that provide lightweight, easily implementable and efficient approaches must be introduced. In this paper, an overview of IoT integration within the healthcare domain as well as a methodical analysis of efficient smart health frameworks, which mainly employ multiple resource and energy-constrained devices and sensors, will be presented. An additional concern of this paper will be the security requirements of these key IoT components and especially of their wireless communications. As a solution, a lightweight-based security scheme, which utilizes the lightweight cryptographic primitive LEAIoT, will be introduced. The proposed hardware-based design displays exceptional results compared to the original CPU-based implementation, with a 99.9% increase in key generation speed and 96.2% increase in encryption/decryption speed. Finally, because of its lightweight and flexible implementation and high-speed keys’ setup, it can compete with other common hardware-based cryptography architectures, where it achieves lower hardware utilization up to 87.9% with the lowest frequency and average throughput. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IoT Multi Sensors)
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17 pages, 2199 KiB  
Article
Green Communication in Internet of Things: A Hybrid Bio-Inspired Intelligent Approach
by Manoj Kumar, Sushil Kumar, Pankaj Kumar Kashyap, Geetika Aggarwal, Rajkumar Singh Rathore, Omprakash Kaiwartya and Jaime Lloret
Sensors 2022, 22(10), 3910; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22103910 - 21 May 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2195
Abstract
Clustering is a promising technique for optimizing energy consumption in sensor-enabled Internet of Things (IoT) networks. Uneven distribution of cluster heads (CHs) across the network, repeatedly choosing the same IoT nodes as CHs and identifying cluster heads in the communication range of other [...] Read more.
Clustering is a promising technique for optimizing energy consumption in sensor-enabled Internet of Things (IoT) networks. Uneven distribution of cluster heads (CHs) across the network, repeatedly choosing the same IoT nodes as CHs and identifying cluster heads in the communication range of other CHs are the major problems leading to higher energy consumption in IoT networks. In this paper, using fuzzy logic, bio-inspired chicken swarm optimization (CSO) and a genetic algorithm, an optimal cluster formation is presented as a Hybrid Intelligent Optimization Algorithm (HIOA) to minimize overall energy consumption in an IoT network. In HIOA, the key idea for formation of IoT nodes as clusters depends on finding chromosomes having a minimum value fitness function with relevant network parameters. The fitness function includes minimization of inter- and intra-cluster distance to reduce the interface and minimum energy consumption over communication per round. The hierarchical order classification of CSO utilizes the crossover and mutation operation of the genetic approach to increase the population diversity that ultimately solves the uneven distribution of CHs and turnout to be balanced network load. The proposed HIOA algorithm is simulated over MATLAB2019A and its performance over CSO parameters is analyzed, and it is found that the best fitness value of the proposed algorithm HIOA is obtained though setting up the parameters popsize=60, number of rooster Nr=0.3, number of hen’s Nh=0.6 and swarm updating frequency θ=10. Further, comparative results proved that HIOA is more effective than traditional bio-inspired algorithms in terms of node death percentage, average residual energy and network lifetime by 12%, 19% and 23%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IoT Multi Sensors)
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20 pages, 543 KiB  
Article
Cable Monitoring Using Broadband Power Line Communication
by Lukas Benesl, Petr Mlynek, Michal Ptacek, Vaclav Vycital, Jiri Misurec, Jan Slacik, Martin Rusz and Petr Musil
Sensors 2022, 22(8), 3019; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22083019 - 14 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2566
Abstract
Power line communication (PLC) is considered one of the possible communication technologies for applications in the field of smart metering, smart substations, smart homes, and recently for the management of renewable resources or micro grid control. This article deals with the use of [...] Read more.
Power line communication (PLC) is considered one of the possible communication technologies for applications in the field of smart metering, smart substations, smart homes, and recently for the management of renewable resources or micro grid control. This article deals with the use of PLC technology to determine the technical condition of the cable. This coefficient can help distribution system operators (DSO) to assess the condition of their cable routes. In this way, possible cable breakdowns and subsequent power outages can be prevented. The resulting methodology for calculating the coefficient is presented in two specific examples of routes, in which a significant benefit for DSO’s can be found. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IoT Multi Sensors)
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19 pages, 4299 KiB  
Article
Fast Constant-Time Modular Inversion over Fp Resistant to Simple Power Analysis Attacks for IoT Applications
by Anissa Sghaier, Medien Zeghid, Chiraz Massoud, Hassan Yousif Ahmed, Abdellah Chehri and Mohsen Machhout
Sensors 2022, 22(7), 2535; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22072535 - 25 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1888
Abstract
The advent of the Internet of Things (IoT) has enabled millions of potential new uses for consumers and businesses. However, with these new uses emerge some of the more pronounced risks in the connected object domain. Finite fields play a crucial role in [...] Read more.
The advent of the Internet of Things (IoT) has enabled millions of potential new uses for consumers and businesses. However, with these new uses emerge some of the more pronounced risks in the connected object domain. Finite fields play a crucial role in many public-key cryptographic algorithms (PKCs), which are used extensively for the security and privacy of IoT devices, consumer electronic equipment, and software systems. Given that inversion is the most sensitive and costly finite field arithmetic operation in PKCs, this paper proposes a new, fast, constant-time inverter over prime fields Fp based on the traditional Binary Extended Euclidean (BEE) algorithm. A modified BEE algorithm (MBEEA) resistant to simple power analysis attacks (SPA) is presented, and the design performance area-delay over Fp is explored. Furthermore, the BEE algorithm, modular addition, and subtraction are revisited to optimize and balance the MBEEA signal flow and resource utilization efficiency. The proposed MBEEA architecture was implemented and tested on Xilinx FPGA Virtex #5, #6, and #7 devices. Our implementation over Fp (length of p = 256 bits) with 2035 slices achieved one modular inversion in only 1.12 μs on Virtex-7. Finally, we conducted a thorough comparison and performance analysis to demonstrate that the proposed design outperforms the competing designs, i.e., has a lower area-delay product (ADP) than the reported inverters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IoT Multi Sensors)
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26 pages, 2751 KiB  
Article
An Ultra-Low-Cost RCL-Meter
by Pedro M. C. Inácio, Rui Guerra and Peter Stallinga
Sensors 2022, 22(6), 2227; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22062227 - 14 Mar 2022
Viewed by 2132
Abstract
An ultra-low-cost RCL meter, aimed at IoT applications, was developed, and was used to measure electrical components based on standard techniques without the need of additional electronics beyond the AVR® micro-controller hardware itself and high-level routines. The models and pseudo-routines required to [...] Read more.
An ultra-low-cost RCL meter, aimed at IoT applications, was developed, and was used to measure electrical components based on standard techniques without the need of additional electronics beyond the AVR® micro-controller hardware itself and high-level routines. The models and pseudo-routines required to measure admittance parameters are described, and a benchmark between the ATmega328P and ATmega32U4 AVR® micro-controllers was performed to validate the resistance and capacitance measurements. Both ATmega328P and ATmega32U4 micro-controllers could measure isolated resistances from 0.5 Ω to 80 MΩ and capacitances from 100 fF to 4.7 mF. Inductance measurements are estimated at between 0.2 mH to 1.5 H. The accuracy and range of the measurements of series and parallel RC networks are demonstrated. The relative accuracy (ar) and relative precision (pr) of the measurements were quantified. For the resistance measurements, typically ar, pr < 10% in the interval 100 Ω–100 MΩ. For the capacitance, measured in one of the modes (fast mode), ar < 20% and pr < 5% in the range 100 fF–10 nF, while for the other mode (transient mode), typically ar < 20% in the range 10 nF–10 mF and pr < 5% for 100 pF–10 mF. ar falls below 5% in some sub-ranges. The combination of the two capacitance modes allows for measurements in the range 100 fF–10 mF (11 orders of magnitude) with ar < 20%. Possible applications include the sensing of impedimetric sensor arrays targeted for wearable and in-body bioelectronics, smart agriculture, and smart cities, while complying with small form factor and low cost. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IoT Multi Sensors)
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20 pages, 1116 KiB  
Article
Blockchain Based Authentication and Cluster Head Selection Using DDR-LEACH in Internet of Sensor Things
by Sana Amjad, Shahid Abbas, Zain Abubaker, Mohammed H. Alsharif, Abu Jahid and Nadeem Javaid
Sensors 2022, 22(5), 1972; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22051972 - 02 Mar 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3490
Abstract
This paper proposes a blockchain-based node authentication model for the Internet of sensor things (IoST). The nodes in the network are authenticated based on their credentials to make the network free from malicious nodes. In IoST, sensor nodes gather the information from the [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a blockchain-based node authentication model for the Internet of sensor things (IoST). The nodes in the network are authenticated based on their credentials to make the network free from malicious nodes. In IoST, sensor nodes gather the information from the environment and send it to the cluster heads (CHs) for additional processing. CHs aggregate the sensed information. Therefore, their energy rapidly depletes due to extra workload. To solve this issue, we proposed distance, degree, and residual energy-based low-energy adaptive clustering hierarchy (DDR-LEACH) protocol. DDR-LEACH is used to replace CHs with the ordinary nodes based on maximum residual energy, degree, and minimum distance from BS. Furthermore, storing a huge amount of data in the blockchain is very costly. To tackle this issue, an external data storage, named as interplanetary file system (IPFS), is used. Furthermore, for ensuring data security in IPFS, AES 128-bit is used, which performs better than the existing encryption schemes. Moreover, a huge computational cost is required using a proof of work consensus mechanism to validate transactions. To solve this issue, proof of authority (PoA) consensus mechanism is used in the proposed model. The simulation results are carried out, which show the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed system model. The DDR-LEACH is compared with LEACH and the simulation results show that DDR-LEACH outperforms LEACH in terms of energy consumption, throughput, and improvement in network lifetime with CH selection mechanism. Moreover, transaction cost is computed, which is reduced by PoA during data storage on IPFS and service provisioning. Furthermore, the time is calculated in the comparison of AES 128-bit scheme with existing scheme. The formal security analysis is performed to check the effectiveness of smart contract against attacks. Additionally, two different attacks, MITM and Sybil, are induced in our system to show our system model’s resilience against cyber attacks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IoT Multi Sensors)
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21 pages, 5778 KiB  
Article
Novel Scoring for Energy-Efficient Routing in Multi-Sensored Networks
by Wooseong Kim, Muhammad Muneer Umar, Shafiullah Khan and Muhammad Altaf Khan
Sensors 2022, 22(4), 1673; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22041673 - 21 Feb 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2114
Abstract
The seamless operation of inter-connected smart devices in Internet of Things (IoT) wireless sensor networks (WSNs) requires consistently available end-to-end routes. However, the sensor nodes that rely on a very limited power source tend to cause disconnection in multi-hop routes due to power [...] Read more.
The seamless operation of inter-connected smart devices in Internet of Things (IoT) wireless sensor networks (WSNs) requires consistently available end-to-end routes. However, the sensor nodes that rely on a very limited power source tend to cause disconnection in multi-hop routes due to power shortages in the WSNs, which eventually results in the inefficiency of the overall IoT network. In addition, the density of the available sensor nodes affects the existence of feasible routes and the level of path multiplicity in the WSNs. Therefore, an efficient routing mechanism is expected to extend the lifetime of the WSNs by adaptively selecting the best routes for the data transfer between interconnected IoT devices. In this work, we propose a novel routing mechanism to balance the energy consumption among all the nodes and elongate the WSN lifetime, which introduces a score value assigned to each node along a path as the combination of evaluation metrics. Specifically, the scoring scheme considers the information of the node density at a certain area and the node energy levels in order to represent the importance of individual nodes in the routes. Furthermore, our routing mechanism allows for incorporating non-cooperative nodes. The simulation results show that the proposed work gives comparatively better results than some other experimented protocols. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IoT Multi Sensors)
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16 pages, 5214 KiB  
Article
Internet of Things Concept in the Context of the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Multi-Sensor Application Design
by Alexandru Lavric, Adrian I. Petrariu, Partemie-Marian Mutescu, Eugen Coca and Valentin Popa
Sensors 2022, 22(2), 503; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22020503 - 10 Jan 2022
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 3610
Abstract
In this paper, we present the design, development and implementation of an integrated system for the management of COVID-19 patient, using the LoRaWAN communication infrastructure. Our system offers certain advantages when compared to other similar solutions, allowing remote symptom and health monitoring that [...] Read more.
In this paper, we present the design, development and implementation of an integrated system for the management of COVID-19 patient, using the LoRaWAN communication infrastructure. Our system offers certain advantages when compared to other similar solutions, allowing remote symptom and health monitoring that can be applied to isolated or quarantined people, without any external interaction with the patient. The IoT wearable device can monitor parameters of health condition like pulse, blood oxygen saturation, and body temperature, as well as the current location. To test the performance of the proposed system, two persons under quarantine were monitored, for a complete 14-day standard quarantine time interval. Based on the data transmitted to the monitoring center, the medical staff decided, after several days of monitoring, when the measured values were outside of the normal parameters, to do an RT-PCR test for one of the two persons, confirming the SARS-CoV2 virus infection. We have to emphasize the high degree of scalability of the proposed solution that can oversee a large number of patients at the same time, thanks to the LoRaWAN communication protocol used. This solution can be successfully implemented by local authorities to increase monitoring capabilities, also saving lives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IoT Multi Sensors)
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16 pages, 5867 KiB  
Article
Large-Scale Internet of Things Multi-Sensor Measurement Node for Smart Grid Enhancement
by Adrian I. Petrariu, Eugen Coca and Alexandru Lavric
Sensors 2021, 21(23), 8093; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21238093 - 03 Dec 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2798
Abstract
Electric power infrastructure has revolutionized our world and our way of living has completely changed. The necessary amount of energy is increasing faster than we realize. In these conditions, the grid is forced to run against its limitations, resulting in more frequent blackouts. [...] Read more.
Electric power infrastructure has revolutionized our world and our way of living has completely changed. The necessary amount of energy is increasing faster than we realize. In these conditions, the grid is forced to run against its limitations, resulting in more frequent blackouts. Thus, urgent solutions need to be found to meet this greater and greater energy demand. By using the internet of things infrastructure, we can remotely manage distribution points, receiving data that can predict any future failure points on the grid. In this work, we present the design of a fully reconfigurable wireless sensor node that can sense the smart grid environment. The proposed prototype uses a modular developed hardware platform that can be easily integrated into the smart grid concept in a scalable manner and collects data using the LoRaWAN communication protocol. The designed architecture was tested for a period of 6 months, revealing the feasibility and scalability of the system, and opening new directions in the remote failure prediction of low voltage/medium voltage switchgears on the electric grid. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IoT Multi Sensors)
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10 pages, 2854 KiB  
Communication
Antenna Impedance Matching Using Deep Learning
by Jae Hee Kim and Jinkyu Bang
Sensors 2021, 21(20), 6766; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21206766 - 12 Oct 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3746
Abstract
We propose a deep neural network (DNN) to determine the matching circuit parameters for antenna impedance matching. The DNN determines the element values of the matching circuit without requiring a mathematical description of matching methods, and it approximates feasible solutions even for unimplementable [...] Read more.
We propose a deep neural network (DNN) to determine the matching circuit parameters for antenna impedance matching. The DNN determines the element values of the matching circuit without requiring a mathematical description of matching methods, and it approximates feasible solutions even for unimplementable inputs. For matching, the magnitude and phase of impedance should be known in general. In contrast, the element values of the matching circuit can be determined only using the impedance magnitude using the proposed DNN. A gamma-matching circuit consisting of a series capacitor and a parallel capacitor was applied to a conventional inverted-F antenna for impedance matching. For learning, the magnitude of input impedance S11 of the antenna was extracted according to the element values of the matching circuit. A total of 377 training samples and 66 validation samples were obtained. The DNN was then constructed considering the magnitude of impedance S11 as the input and the element values of the matching circuit as the output. During training, the loss converged as the number of epochs increased. In addition, the desired matching values for unlearned square and triangular waves were obtained during testing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IoT Multi Sensors)
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Review

Jump to: Research

18 pages, 1007 KiB  
Review
A Smarter Health through the Internet of Surgical Things
by Francesk Mulita, Georgios-Ioannis Verras, Christos-Nikolaos Anagnostopoulos and Konstantinos Kotis
Sensors 2022, 22(12), 4577; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22124577 - 17 Jun 2022
Cited by 34 | Viewed by 2614
Abstract
(1) Background: In the last few years, technological developments in the surgical field have been rapid and are continuously evolving. One of the most revolutionizing breakthroughs was the introduction of the IoT concept within surgical practice. Our systematic review aims to summarize the [...] Read more.
(1) Background: In the last few years, technological developments in the surgical field have been rapid and are continuously evolving. One of the most revolutionizing breakthroughs was the introduction of the IoT concept within surgical practice. Our systematic review aims to summarize the most important studies evaluating the IoT concept within surgical practice, focusing on Telesurgery and surgical Telementoring. (2) Methods: We conducted a systematic review of the current literature, focusing on the Internet of Surgical Things in Telesurgery and Telementoring. Forty-eight (48) studies were included in this review. As secondary research questions, we also included brief overviews of the use of IoT in image-guided surgery, and patient Telemonitoring, by systematically analyzing fourteen (14) and nineteen (19) studies, respectively. (3) Results: Data from 219 patients and 757 healthcare professionals were quantitively analyzed. Study designs were primarily observational or based on model development. Palpable advantages from the IoT incorporation mainly include less surgical hours, accessibility to high quality treatment, and safer and more effective surgical education. Despite the described technological advances, and proposed benefits of the systems presented, there are still identifiable gaps in the literature that need to be further explored in a systematic manner. (4) Conclusions: The use of the IoT concept within the surgery domain is a widely incorporated but less investigated concept. Advantages have become palpable over the past decade, yet further research is warranted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IoT Multi Sensors)
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