sensors-logo

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Bragg Grating Sensors

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Physical Sensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2022) | Viewed by 18700

Special Issue Editors


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Photonics Research Labs, Polytechnic University of Valencia, 46022 Valencia, Spain
Interests: optical signal processing; microwave photonics; fibre sensors
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. School of Engineering and Digital Sciences, Nazarbayev University, 010000 Nur-Sultan, Kazakhstan
2. National Laboratory Astana, Laboratory of Biosensors and Bioinstruments, 010000 Nur-Sultan, Kazakhstan
Interests: optical fiber sensors; optical biosensors; distributed sensors; bioengineering
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

From their initial demonstration and fabrication in the late 80s, the fiber Bragg grating (FBG) technology has gained significant attraction as a sensing platform for physical, electrical, and biochemical detection. Besides, the use of periodic structures in waveguides that exploit diffraction effects have been developed in a similar way. Both “worlds” have unique sensing features and allow straightforward detection techniques, compared to other optic sensing approaches. Through the following decades of Bragg grating sensors, generational improvements have allowed a substantial increase in the performance of sensing networks and an increase in commercial devices as well as emerging applications.

This special issue of Sensors (MDPI) reflects on the rise of Bragg grating sensing technologies, focusing on all the aspects of research and development of Bragg grating-related sensors. The issue emphasizes research and review manuscripts that focus on experimental design, interrogation methods, test and design, and the application of Bragg grating sensors as well as sensors based on Bragg grating variations (such as chirped, tilted, etched, superstructured, aperiodic, subwavelength gratings). We foresee that by providing researchers working on Bragg grating topics with a platform to publish their recent results, we can provide the audience a wide breadth of research works that encompass design, experimental validation, and testing.

Topics of interest include, but are not limited to:

  • Passive sensors: LPG, FBGs, TFBGs, SSFBG, aperiodic, subwavelength gratings
  • Active Sensors: laser/amplifier sensors, frequency comb-based sensors
  • Interrogation techniques for sensors: TDM, WDM, OFDM, OTDR, phase-OTDR, CDMA, MWP, THz and their combinations
  • Fabrication of Bragg grating sensors: waveguides, silica fibers, POF, MCF, MMF, FMF
  • Optical chemical and biological sensors
  • Biomedical optical sensors
  • Micro and nano-engineered sensors
  • Mid- and long-wavelength IR sensors
  • Quantum effects in optical sensing
  • Nanophotonic and plasmonic biosensors
  • Aerospace sensors
  • Sensing for food quality control
  • Civil engineering sensors
  • Health monitoring sensors
  • Environmental and industrial monitoring sensors

Prof. Salvador Sales
Dr. Daniele Tosi
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (6 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

10 pages, 3175 KiB  
Article
Optimization of Cladding Diameter for Refractive Index Sensing in Tilted Fiber Bragg Gratings
by Sanzhar Korganbayev, Marzhan Sypabekova, Aida Amantayeva, Álvaro González-Vila, Christophe Caucheteur, Paola Saccomandi and Daniele Tosi
Sensors 2022, 22(6), 2259; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22062259 - 15 Mar 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2361
Abstract
This work presents an experimental investigation of the effect of chemical etching on the refractive index (RI) sensitivity of tilted fiber Bragg gratings (TFBGs). Hydrofluoric acid (HF) was used stepwise in order to reduce the optical fiber diameter from 125 µm to 13 [...] Read more.
This work presents an experimental investigation of the effect of chemical etching on the refractive index (RI) sensitivity of tilted fiber Bragg gratings (TFBGs). Hydrofluoric acid (HF) was used stepwise in order to reduce the optical fiber diameter from 125 µm to 13 µm. After each etching step, TFBGs were calibrated using two ranges of RI solutions: the first one with high RI variation (from 1.33679 RIU to 1.37078 RIU) and the second with low RI variation (from 1.34722 RIU to 1.34873 RIU). RI sensitivity was analyzed in terms of wavelength shift and intensity change of the grating resonances. The highest amplitude sensitivities obtained are 1008 dB/RIU for the high RI range and 8160 dB/RIU for the low RI range, corresponding to the unetched TFBG. The highest wavelength sensitivities are 38.8 nm/RIU for a fiber diameter of 100 µm for the high RI range, and 156 nm/RIU for a diameter of 40 µm for the small RI range. In addition, the effect of the etching process on the spectral intensity of the cladding modes, their wavelength separation and sensor linearity (R2) were studied as well. As a result, an optimization of the etching process is provided, so that the best trade-off between sensitivity, intensity level, and fiber thickness can be obtained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bragg Grating Sensors)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 3446 KiB  
Article
Pultruded FRP Beams with Embedded Fibre Bragg Grating Optical Sensors for Strain Measurement and Failure Detection
by Daniel Maldonado-Hurtado, Javier Madrigal, Antonio Penades, Rocío Ruiz, Ana Isabel Crespo and Salvador Sales
Sensors 2021, 21(21), 7019; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21217019 - 22 Oct 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1891
Abstract
Composites have added new dimensions to the design and construction of buildings and structures. One of the wider spread composite applications in the construction industry is composite beams or pillars, which can be manufactured through pultrusion processes. These types of construction elements are [...] Read more.
Composites have added new dimensions to the design and construction of buildings and structures. One of the wider spread composite applications in the construction industry is composite beams or pillars, which can be manufactured through pultrusion processes. These types of construction elements are usually used to withstand the weight of large loads, so their integrity must be guaranteed. Due to optical sensors’ advantages over their electrical counterparts—small sizes, low weight, non-conductive, and immunity to electromagnetic interference—and FBGs having an outstanding position among optical fibre sensors—due to their multiplexation capability and relatively easy monitoring—in this study, we propose the integration of FBG sensors for the observation and analysis of the integrity of structures made with composite beams over time. The validation test results showed the successful embedding integration of FBG-based fibre optical sensors in an FRP pultrusion beam and strain transmission up to 7500 µɛ from the composite test piece to the sensor. Additionally, we were able to anticipate the piece failure by the FBG spectrum deformation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bragg Grating Sensors)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 3541 KiB  
Article
Numerical and Experimental Performance Analysis of the Chirped Fiber Bragg Grating Based Abrasion Sensor for the Maintenance Applications in the Industry 4.0
by Konrad Markowski, Kacper Wojakowski, Ernest Pokropek and Michał Marzęcki
Sensors 2020, 20(3), 770; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20030770 - 31 Jan 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3183
Abstract
In this article, an extensive analysis of the performance of the fiber optics-based abrasion sensor that utilizes chirped fiber Bragg grating, is presented. For the response investigation during abrasion, a numerical analysis, based on the transfer matrix method and coupled mode theory, is [...] Read more.
In this article, an extensive analysis of the performance of the fiber optics-based abrasion sensor that utilizes chirped fiber Bragg grating, is presented. For the response investigation during abrasion, a numerical analysis, based on the transfer matrix method and coupled mode theory, is provided. The influence of the SLED source spectral position in respect to the spectral position of the chirped fiber Bragg grating is evaluated together with the influence of the changes of the ambient temperature of the sensor. Experimental verification of the sensor’s performance is provided, together with the proposition of the packaging of the sensor. In the article, a simple, cost-effective and multiplexation-ready concept of the wear or abrasion sensor system is presented and discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bragg Grating Sensors)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 3165 KiB  
Article
Thermal Stability of Type II Modifications by IR Femtosecond Laser in Silica-based Glasses
by Shu-En Wei, Yitao Wang, Heng Yao, Maxime Cavillon, Bertrand Poumellec, Gang-Ding Peng and Matthieu Lancry
Sensors 2020, 20(3), 762; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20030762 - 30 Jan 2020
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 3699
Abstract
Femtosecond (fs) laser written fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) are excellent candidates for ultra-high temperature (>800 °C) monitoring. More specifically, Type II modifications in silicate glass fibers, characterized by the formation of self-organized birefringent nanostructures, are known to exhibit remarkable thermal stability around 1000 [...] Read more.
Femtosecond (fs) laser written fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) are excellent candidates for ultra-high temperature (>800 °C) monitoring. More specifically, Type II modifications in silicate glass fibers, characterized by the formation of self-organized birefringent nanostructures, are known to exhibit remarkable thermal stability around 1000 °C for several hours. However, to date there is no clear understanding on how both laser writing parameters and glass composition impact the overall thermal stability of these fiber-based sensors. In this context, this work investigates thermal stability of Type II modifications in various conventional glass systems (including pure silica glasses with various Cl and OH contents, GeO2-SiO2 binary glasses, TiO2- and B2O3-doped commercial glasses) and with varying laser parameters (writing speed, pulse energy). In order to monitor thermal stability, isochronal annealing experiments (Δt⁓ 30 min, ΔT⁓ 50 °C) up to 1400 °C were performed on the irradiated samples, along with quantitative retardance measurements. Among the findings to highlight, it was established that ppm levels of Cl and OH can drastically reduce thermal stability (by about 200 °C in this study). Moreover, GeO2 doping up to 17 mole% only has a limited impact on thermal stability. Finally, the relationships between glass viscosity, dopants/impurities, and thermal stability, are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bragg Grating Sensors)
Show Figures

Figure 1

8 pages, 2469 KiB  
Article
Observing the Viscous Relaxation Process of Silica Optical Fiber at ~1000 °C Using Regenerated Fiber Bragg Grating
by Zhiru Cui, Jianhui Gong, Chen Wang, Nana Che, Yanshuang Zhao, Quan Chai, Haifeng Qi, Elfed Lewis, Jing Ren, Jianzhong Zhang, Jun Yang, Libo Yuan and Gang-Ding Peng
Sensors 2019, 19(10), 2293; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19102293 - 17 May 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2901
Abstract
A regenerated fiber Bragg grating (RFBG) in silica fiber was used to observe the viscous relaxation process of the host silica fiber at high temperatures of around 1000 °C. Two factors, preannealing time and loaded tension, which affect viscous relaxation, were observed. When [...] Read more.
A regenerated fiber Bragg grating (RFBG) in silica fiber was used to observe the viscous relaxation process of the host silica fiber at high temperatures of around 1000 °C. Two factors, preannealing time and loaded tension, which affect viscous relaxation, were observed. When an RFBG is stretched after a longer preannealing, the measured viscosity of the optical fiber was observed to reach equilibrium faster, which means that preannealing accelerates viscous relaxation. A similar acceleration phenomenon was also observed when a larger load was applied to stretch the optical fiber, although the acceleration effect of loaded tension was not as strong as in the preannealing case. The results play an active role in establishing effective optical-fiber devices for application in high-temperature environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bragg Grating Sensors)
Show Figures

Figure 1

9 pages, 3671 KiB  
Article
Wavelet-Based Demodulation of Multimode Etched Fiber Bragg Grating Refractive Index Sensor
by Takhmina Ayupova, Marzhan Sypabekova, Carlo Molardi, Aliya Bekmurzayeva, Madina Shaimerdenova, Kanat Dukenbayev and Daniele Tosi
Sensors 2019, 19(1), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19010039 - 22 Dec 2018
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3402
Abstract
Etched fiber Bragg grating (EFBG)-based sensors are used as evanescent field sensors for refractive index detection. When the fiber thickness is thin and the refractive index sensitivity increases, the number of propagating modes increases, resulting in a spectral enlargement that complicates the interrogation [...] Read more.
Etched fiber Bragg grating (EFBG)-based sensors are used as evanescent field sensors for refractive index detection. When the fiber thickness is thin and the refractive index sensitivity increases, the number of propagating modes increases, resulting in a spectral enlargement that complicates the interrogation of the sensor. In this work, we present a method to analyze the spectrum of a multimode etched fiber Bragg grating (MMEFBG) in the wavelet domain, which analyzes the amount of spectral density independently from the peak reflectivity value. The proposed interrogation method permits defining the integral of the spectral density as a novel and unconventional estimator. With respect to the conventional estimators based on wavelength shift, this estimator can better exploit the larger amount of information given by the spectral enlargement typical of multimode behavior. Results were obtained by etching an MMEFBG in hydrofluoric acid and using water/sucrose mixtures to evaluate the refractive index sensitivity, validating the interrogation method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bragg Grating Sensors)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop