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Special Issue "Advances in Water Resource Monitoring and Modelling: Water Quantity and Quality Issues"

A special issue of Resources (ISSN 2079-9276).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 28 February 2023 | Viewed by 15037

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Diego Copetti
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
CNR-Water Research Institute, 20861 Brugherio (MB), Italy
Interests: applied ecology; water quality; biogeochemistry; environmental monitoring and modelling; management of water resources; climate change impact on surface waters; sustainability; ecosystem services
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Advances in environmental monitoring and modelling can help in the management of water resources. The availability of water is being put at risk by pressures acting at both the local (e.g., nutrient/pollutant loads) and the global (e.g., climate change) scale. The increasing pressure on water resources can be either quantitative or qualitative threats. Monitoring of the water resource thus has to cover both of these aspects. In recent years, there has been an increase in data availability, including both in situ and remote-sensing data. If, on the one hand, the availability of these big datasets is increasing our knowledge on aquifers, on the other hand, the management of these data implies the development of advanced tools to validate, store and process these data. The use of advanced mathematical and statistical models is a central aspect of this rapidly evolving field of research. Models, in fact, are fundamental tools for predicting water availability and quality, in relation to different potential uses (e.g., irrigational, drinking supply), and under both local and global stresses. This Special Issue deals with advances in all of the different fields of research related to monitoring and modelling water research, including: in situ sensor and sensor network development, advances in remote sensing data acquisition, data storage and validation, statistical and process-based model implementation. Contributions dealing with methods to merge modelled and measured data (e.g., data assimilation techniques) or data driven computational methods (e.g., machine learning) are also welcome.

Dr. Diego Copetti
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Resources is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • sensors
  • sensors network
  • remote sensing
  • process based models
  • statistical models
  • machine learning methods
  • data assimilation techniques
  • water quantity
  • water quality
  • water management
  • sustainability
  • Long term trends
  • Integrated analitical approaches

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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Article
Forecasting Monthly River Flows in Ukraine under Different Climatic Conditions
Resources 2022, 11(12), 111; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources11120111 - 30 Nov 2022
Viewed by 127
Abstract
River-flow forecasts are important for the management and planning of water resources and their rational use. The present study, based on direct multistep-ahead forecasting with multiple time series specific to the XGBoost algorithm, estimates the long-term changes and forecast monthly flows of selected [...] Read more.
River-flow forecasts are important for the management and planning of water resources and their rational use. The present study, based on direct multistep-ahead forecasting with multiple time series specific to the XGBoost algorithm, estimates the long-term changes and forecast monthly flows of selected rivers in Ukraine. In a new, applied approach, a single multioutput model was proposed that forecasts over both short- and long-term horizons using grouped or hierarchical data series. Three forecast stages were considered: using train and test subsets, using a model with train-test data, and training with all data. The historical period included the measurements of the monthly flows, precipitation, and air temperature in the period 1961–2020. The forecast horizons of 12, 60, and 120 months into the future were selected for this dataset, i.e., December 2021, December 2025, and December 2030. The research was conducted for diverse hydrological systems: the Prut, a mountain river; the Styr, an upland river; and the Sula, a lowland river in relation to the variability and forecasts of precipitation and air temperature. The results of the analyses showed a varying degree of sensitivity among rivers to changes in precipitation and air temperature and different projections for future time horizons of 12, 60, and 120 months. For all studied rivers, variable dynamics of flow was observed in the years 1961–2020, yet with a clearly marked decrease in monthly flows during in the final, 2010–2020 decade. The last decade of low flows on the Prut and Styr rivers was preceded by their noticeable increase in the earlier decade (2000–2010). In the case of the Sula River, a continuous decrease in monthly flows has been observed since the end of the 1990s, with a global minimum in the decade 2010–2020. Two patterns were obtained in the forecasts: a decrease in flow for the rivers Prut (6%) and the Styr (12–14%), accompanied by a decrease in precipitation and an increase in air temperature until 2030, and for the Sula River, an increase in flow (16–23%), with a slight increase in precipitation and an increase in air temperature. The predicted changes in the flows of the Prut, the Styr, and the Sula rivers correspond to forecasts in other regions of Ukraine and Europe. The performance of the models over a variety of available datasets over time was assessed and hyperparameters, which minimize the forecast error over the relevant forecast horizons, were selected. The obtained RMSE parameter values indicate high variability in hydrological and meteorological data in the catchment areas and not very good fit of retrospective data regardless of the selected horizon length. The advantages of this model, which was used in the work for forecasting monthly river flows in Ukraine, include modelling multiple time series simultaneously with a single model, the simplicity of the modelling, potentially more-robust results because of pooling data across time series, and solving the “cold start” problem when few data points were available for a given time series. The model, because of its universality, can be used in forecasting hydrological and meteorological parameters in other catchments, irrespective of their geographic location. Full article
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Article
Predicting Ice Phenomena in a River Using the Artificial Neural Network and Extreme Gradient Boosting
Resources 2022, 11(2), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources11020012 - 26 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1359
Abstract
Forecasting ice phenomena in river systems is of great importance because these phenomena are a fundamental part of the hydrological regime. Due to the stochasticity of ice phenomena, their prediction is a difficult process, especially when data sets are sparse or incomplete. In [...] Read more.
Forecasting ice phenomena in river systems is of great importance because these phenomena are a fundamental part of the hydrological regime. Due to the stochasticity of ice phenomena, their prediction is a difficult process, especially when data sets are sparse or incomplete. In this study, two machine learning models—Multilayer Perceptron Neural Network (MLPNN) and Extreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost)—were developed to predict ice phenomena in the Warta River in Poland in a temperate climate zone. Observational data from eight river gauges during the period 1983–2013 were used. The performance of the model was evaluated using four model fit measures. The results showed that the choice of input variables influenced the accuracy of the developed models. The most important predictors were the nature of phenomena on the day before an observation, as well as water and air temperatures; river flow and water level were less important for predicting the formation of ice phenomena. The modeling results showed that both MLPNN and XGBoost provided promising results for the prediction of ice phenomena. The research results of the present study could also be useful for predicting ice phenomena in other regions. Full article
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Article
Changes in Terrestrial Evaporation across Poland over the Past Four Decades Dominated by Increases in Summer Months
Resources 2022, 11(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources11010006 - 12 Jan 2022
Viewed by 1858
Abstract
Given the importance of terrestrial evaporation (ET) for the water cycle, a fundamental understanding of the water quantity involved in this process is required. As recent observations reveal a widespread ET intensification across the world, it is important to evaluate regional ET variability. [...] Read more.
Given the importance of terrestrial evaporation (ET) for the water cycle, a fundamental understanding of the water quantity involved in this process is required. As recent observations reveal a widespread ET intensification across the world, it is important to evaluate regional ET variability. The specific objectives of this study are the following: (1) to assess annual and monthly ET trends across Poland, and (2) to reveal seasons and regions with significant ET changes. This study uses the ET estimates acquired from the Global Land Evaporation Amsterdam Model (GLEAM) dataset allowing for multi-year analysis (1980–2020). The Mann–Kendall test and the Sen’s slope were applied to estimate the significance and magnitude of the trends. The results show that a rising temperature, along with small precipitation increase, led to the accelerated ET of 1.36 mm/y. This was revealed by increased transpiration and interception loss not compensated by a decrease in bare soil evaporation and sublimation. The wide-spread higher water consumption especially occurred during the summer months of June, July, and August. Comparing the two subperiods of 1980–2020, it was found that in 2007–2020, the annual ET increased by 7% compared to the reference period of 1980–2006. These results can serve as an important reference for formulating a water resources management strategy in Poland. Full article
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Article
Economic Indicators in Water and Wastewater Sector Contributing to a Circular Economy (CE)
Resources 2021, 10(12), 129; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources10120129 - 16 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1806
Abstract
Protection and sustainable management of water was indicated as one of the strategic tasks in the process of transformation towards a circular economy (CE) in the European Union (EU), therefore, the water and wastewater sector plays an important role in this process. At [...] Read more.
Protection and sustainable management of water was indicated as one of the strategic tasks in the process of transformation towards a circular economy (CE) in the European Union (EU), therefore, the water and wastewater sector plays an important role in this process. At the same time, the European Commission (EC) strongly underlined the importance of the possibility to assess the transformation process toward the CE, and developed a set of CE indicators that are available on the Eurostat website. However, these indicators have limited ability to assess the transformation progress in the water and wastewater sector. This paper presents a set of indicators for assessing the economic progress of transformation towards the CE in this sector. The proposed economic CE indicators were grouped into the following actions of the CE model in the water and wastewater sector: reduction, reclamation (removal), reuse, recycling, recovery and landfilling. The selection of specific indicators was based on a systematic review of the literature presenting economic indicators developed by international organisations and researchers (covering different thematic areas, scopes and potential applications). The selected economic CE indicators were assigned to three groups of the cash flow: income (revenues, expenses), costs, and investment financing. The proposed CE indicators can be used by water supply and sewage companies (i.e., supplying water to the public and wastewater treatment plants, and companies that use water in their production processes) to assess the level of the transformation toward the CE at a microeconomic level. An important aspect of future application and usage of the proposed set of CE economic indicators is the collection and processing of data needed for their reporting. The proposed set of CE economic indicators refers to information that are reported by the companies to prove its revenues, costs and investment outlays, and are collected by companies anyway. The proposed set of economic CE indicators is flexible, allowing the adaptation of indicators and areas of interest to maintain effectiveness throughout the transition period from linear to the CE model. Full article
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Article
Toxicity of Antiretrovirals on the Sea Urchin Echinometra lucunter and Its Predicted Environmental Concentration in Seawater from Santos Bay (Brazilian Coastal Zone)
Resources 2021, 10(11), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources10110114 - 09 Nov 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1948
Abstract
Antiretrovirals (ARVs) have been detected in aquatic ecosystems throughout the world; however, studies focused on assessing their ecotoxicological effects on marine aquatic organisms are still rare. In the present study, the predicted environmental concentration (PEC) of 13 ARVs was estimated for [...] Read more.
Antiretrovirals (ARVs) have been detected in aquatic ecosystems throughout the world; however, studies focused on assessing their ecotoxicological effects on marine aquatic organisms are still rare. In the present study, the predicted environmental concentration (PEC) of 13 ARVs was estimated for surface seawater from Santos Bay, Brazil, according to the European Medicines Agency (EMEA) guidelines. The results indicated that all ARVs need to be assessed for their ecological effects, considering that they all exceeded the EMEA guideline limits (PEC > 0.01 µg L−1). In this sense, three ARVs (namely atazanavir, nevirapine and efavirenz) were selected for the acute and chronic tests with sea urchin (Echinometra lucunter). Furthermore, the Environmental Risk Assessment (ERA) for these three ARVs was also performed by calculating the risk quotient. The acute and chronic toxicity results showed inhibitory concentrations (IC) for the fertilization (IC50; 1 h; range: 11.46–84.61 mg L−1) and for the embryo–larval development (IC50; 42 h; range: 0.52–0.97 mg L−1) of the sea urchin, respectively. Moreover, the ERA showed that these three ARVs are potentially hazardous for aquatic life in Santos Bay, raising concerns about the continuous introduction of ARVs in aquatic ecosystems. The data presented may contribute to the provision of subsidies for the development of monitoring public policies that aim to reduce the introduction of ARVs into the aquatic environment. Full article
Article
Influence of Hydrologic Alteration on Sediment, Dissolved Load and Nutrient Downstream Transfer Continuity in a River: Example Lower Brda River Cascade Dams (Poland)
Resources 2021, 10(7), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources10070070 - 01 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1751
Abstract
Hydrologic alternation of river systems is an essential factor of human activity. Cascade-dammed waters are characterized by the disturbed outflow of material from the catchment. Changes in sediment, dissolved load and nutrient balance are among the base indicators of water resource monitoring. This [...] Read more.
Hydrologic alternation of river systems is an essential factor of human activity. Cascade-dammed waters are characterized by the disturbed outflow of material from the catchment. Changes in sediment, dissolved load and nutrient balance are among the base indicators of water resource monitoring. This research was based on the use of hydrological and water quality data (1984–2017) and the Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration (IHA) method to determine the influence of river regime changes on downstream transfer continuity of sediments and nutrients in the example of the Lower Brda river cascade dams (Poland). Two types of regimes were used: hydropeaking (1984–2000) and run–of–river (2001–2017). Using the IHA method and water quality data, a qualitative and quantitative relationship were demonstrated between changes of regime operation and sediment and nutrient balance. The use of sites above and below the cascade made it possible to determine sediment, dissolved load, and nutrient trapping and removing processes. Studies have shown that changes in operation regime influenced the supply chain and continuity of sediment and nutrient transport in cascade-dammed rivers. The conducted research showed that sustainable management of sediment and nutrient in the alternated catchment helps achieve good ecological status of the water. Full article
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Article
Risk Assessment of Lack of Water Supply Using the Hydraulic Model of the Water Supply
Resources 2021, 10(5), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources10050043 - 05 May 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1546
Abstract
Modern management of water supply systems is based on a preventive strategy consisting of the prevention of failures and crisis situations. Water pipe failures resulting in a lack of water supply for a long period pose a threat to the water consumers safety. [...] Read more.
Modern management of water supply systems is based on a preventive strategy consisting of the prevention of failures and crisis situations. Water pipe failures resulting in a lack of water supply for a long period pose a threat to the water consumers safety. The aim of the work was to present the methodology and develop a risk map of lack of water supply to consumers. The article presents a failures simulation of the main pipes transporting treated water from the water treatment plant to the city carried out using the EPANET 2.0. software. The simulation results made it possible to determine the consequences of failures by determining the number of inhabitants (consumers) affected with lack of water supply as a result of failure of the main pipes near the water treatment plant WTP which, together with the failure rate, were used to prepare risk maps of lack of water supply. The developed method was presented on the water supply network located in Central and Eastern Europe. It was found that the highest risk of lack of water supply is related to the failure of the M3 main pipe, which transports water to the eastern and north-eastern parts of the city. It is recommended to modernize the M3 main pipe, which will reduce the number of failures resulting in a lack of water supply. Full article
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Article
An Approach to Analysing Water Consumers’ Acceptance of Risk-Reduction Costs
Resources 2020, 9(11), 132; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources9110132 - 06 Nov 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1302
Abstract
The proper operation of a water supply system (WSS) requires constant investment. The priority is to provide residents with high quality potable water, in the required quantity and pressure, in accordance with the applicable regulations. The paper presents an assessment of the potential [...] Read more.
The proper operation of a water supply system (WSS) requires constant investment. The priority is to provide residents with high quality potable water, in the required quantity and pressure, in accordance with the applicable regulations. The paper presents an assessment of the potential inherent operational risk of a WSS in support of the risk-based investment management process. It is of high importance to invest in the operational safety as it concerns both producers and consumers. The investment engenders additional costs that should partially be supported by the consumers. Thus, the paper presents a methodology to analyse consumers’ readiness to accept water supply services’ additional costs. The proposed methods may underpin a comprehensive program for risk-based investment management and operational decision-making. The case study and the approach in this article concern one particular regional WSS, based on information collected from water consumers. The assessment suggests a willingness to tolerate additional costs in view of enhancing the performance of the water supply services. Full article
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Review

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Review
Application of New Hyperspectral Sensors in the Remote Sensing of Aquatic Ecosystem Health: Exploiting PRISMA and DESIS for Four Italian Lakes
Resources 2022, 11(2), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources11020008 - 19 Jan 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2010
Abstract
The monitoring of water bio-physical parameters and the management of aquatic ecosystems are crucial to cope with the current state of inland water degradation. Not only does water quality monitoring support management decision making, it also provides vital insights to better understand changing [...] Read more.
The monitoring of water bio-physical parameters and the management of aquatic ecosystems are crucial to cope with the current state of inland water degradation. Not only does water quality monitoring support management decision making, it also provides vital insights to better understand changing structural and functional lake processes. Remote sensing has been widely recognized as an essential integrating technique for water quality monitoring, thanks to its capabilities to utilize both historical archive data for thousands of lakes as well as near-real time observations at multiple scales. To date, most of the applications developed for inland water have been based on multispectral and mid to coarse spatial resolution satellites, while a new generation of spaceborne imaging spectroscopy is now available, and future missions are under development. This review aims to present the exploitation of data gathered from two currently orbiting hyperspectral sensors (i.e., PRISMA and DESIS) to retrieve water quality parameters across different aquatic ecosystems, encompassing deep clear lakes and river dammed reservoirs. Full article
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