Case Reports in Infectious Diseases 2020

A special issue of Reports (ISSN 2571-841X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2021) | Viewed by 18011

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Guest Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Humans all around the world are suffering from the COVID-19 pandemic. This viral disease has shown high mortality in older adults. This infectious disease, which could cause another Great Depression, is a disaster. Furthermore, intense natural disasters such as strong typhoons, floods, and landslides have been on the rise worldwide. At the same time, risks linked to natural disasters, including global warming, population growth, and detrimental human activities, have also increased sharply in recent years. Zoonoses such as COVID-19 are also spreading all over the world due to environmental changes that have emerged in regions impacted by deforestation or with limited resources. Therefore, there is an urgent need for easy, quick, and accurate diagnostics of infectious diseases. In this Issue, we describe cases of infectious diseases that are occurring globally in order to understand the true face of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases. The development of biomarkers or POCT for rapid diagnosis are also welcome to this Special Issue.

Prof. Dr. Toshio Hattori
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • coronavirus
  • HIV
  • tuberculosis
  • tropical infectious diseases
  • POCT

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Published Papers (7 papers)

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Review

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9 pages, 241 KiB  
Review
The Role of Pro-Adrenomedullin as a Marker of Severe Bacterial Infection in Children: A Review
by Silvia Garazzino, Elena Altieri and Marco Denina
Reports 2019, 2(3), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/reports2030017 - 8 Jul 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3098
Abstract
Sepsis is still related to high mortality and hospitalization rates in the paediatric population despite medical progress. Prompt recognition of sepsis and consequent initiation of an appropriate treatment are essential elements in securing a positive outcome in adults and children. In such scenario, [...] Read more.
Sepsis is still related to high mortality and hospitalization rates in the paediatric population despite medical progress. Prompt recognition of sepsis and consequent initiation of an appropriate treatment are essential elements in securing a positive outcome in adults and children. In such scenario, various biomarkers have been studied to support the clinician in the diagnosis of severe infections, in the identification of patients at risk of progression towards sepsis as well as in the evaluation of the response to treatment. In children, the performance of C-reactive protein and procalcitonin has been largely investigated, whereas data on newer biomarkers of sepsis are scant. The aim of the present review is to summarise the available data on the use of pro-adrenomedullin in the paediatric age. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Case Reports in Infectious Diseases)

Other

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6 pages, 994 KiB  
Case Report
Immunological Response to SARS-CoV-2 Is Sustained by Vitamin D: A Case Presentation of One-Year Follow-Up
by Filippo Luciani, Maria Cristina Caroleo, Roberto Cannataro, Davida Mirra, Bruno D’Agostino, Luca Gallelli and Erika Cione
Reports 2021, 4(2), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/reports4020018 - 17 Jun 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2317
Abstract
Vitamin D is necessary for normal bone development and conservation. Moreover, it has extraskeletal effects, which play a pivotal role as a modulator of innate and adaptive immune responses. Many studies have highlighted the beneficial effect of vitamin D in protecting against acute [...] Read more.
Vitamin D is necessary for normal bone development and conservation. Moreover, it has extraskeletal effects, which play a pivotal role as a modulator of innate and adaptive immune responses. Many studies have highlighted the beneficial effect of vitamin D in protecting against acute respiratory viral infection, including COVID-19. Within this context, we described the effect of vitamin D supplementation in the immunological response to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Long-term IgG SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses were assessed in a cohort of twenty-two subjects diagnosed with COVID-19 by chemiluminescence assay (CLIA). Among them, a 61-year-old nurse undergoing vitamin D therapy showed a positive IgG response against SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid over nine months after infection, suggesting vitamin D played a role in modulating early antibody response against SARS-CoV-2. This result provides evidence of a positive effect of vitamin D on the decrease of functional humoral immunity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Case Reports in Infectious Diseases 2020)
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4 pages, 671 KiB  
Case Report
Rapid Clinical and Radiological Improvement in a Patient with Severe COVID-19 Infection Treated with Convalescent Plasma
by Stephen Malnick, Waleed Ghannam, Adam Abu Sharb and Pavel Alin
Reports 2021, 4(2), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/reports4020015 - 19 May 2021
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Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic has affected more than 100 million people worldwide. One of the major presentations is pneumonia. Patients are classified as severe when they have an arterial oxygen saturation of less than 94% on breathing room air. We present a case of [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic has affected more than 100 million people worldwide. One of the major presentations is pneumonia. Patients are classified as severe when they have an arterial oxygen saturation of less than 94% on breathing room air. We present a case of a healthy 29-year-old man who had severe COVID-19 pneumonia and responded dramatically to two doses of convalescent plasma. This case underlines the importance of administering the plasma in the first few days of the disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Case Reports in Infectious Diseases 2020)
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6 pages, 37085 KiB  
Case Report
Reactive Infectious Mucosal Eruptions (RIME) Secondary to Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection
by Frederik Færgemann Lau, Andreas Ronit, Nina Weis and Anni Winckelmann
Reports 2021, 4(2), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/reports4020011 - 10 May 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 6609
Abstract
Reactive infectious mucosal eruptions (RIME) following Chlamydia pneumoniae infection is a rare and poorly understood clinical presentation that can pose a diagnostic challenge. We report the case of a previously healthy 21-year old male with a cough, fever, numerous penile and mouth ulcers, [...] Read more.
Reactive infectious mucosal eruptions (RIME) following Chlamydia pneumoniae infection is a rare and poorly understood clinical presentation that can pose a diagnostic challenge. We report the case of a previously healthy 21-year old male with a cough, fever, numerous penile and mouth ulcers, and severe conjunctivitis. Several differential diagnoses, including Herpes simplex infection, were considered before Chlamydia pneumoniae was established as the causative agent. The patient’s condition improved following treatment with clarithromycin and prednisolone tablets, and he had almost fully recovered at follow-up 10 days after discharge. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Case Reports in Infectious Diseases 2020)
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8 pages, 980 KiB  
Case Report
Successful Treatment of a COVID-19 Case with Pneumonia and Renal Injury Using Tocilizumab
by Yugo Ashino, Haorile Chagan-Yasutan, Masumitsu Hatta, Yoichi Shirato, Yorihiko Kyogoku, Hanae Komuro and Toshio Hattori
Reports 2020, 3(4), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/reports3040029 - 13 Oct 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3135
Abstract
A 49-year-old male Japanese patient was admitted to our hospital under the diagnosis of COVID-19 pneumonia. For 5 days before admission, he had experienced various symptoms, including high fever, watery diarrhea, dyspnea, and cough, and he tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome [...] Read more.
A 49-year-old male Japanese patient was admitted to our hospital under the diagnosis of COVID-19 pneumonia. For 5 days before admission, he had experienced various symptoms, including high fever, watery diarrhea, dyspnea, and cough, and he tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) nucleic acid. The patient is a smoker who was on medication for hypertension. A chest computed tomography scan showed bilateral multiple patchy ground-glass opacities. Despite being treated with several therapeutic agents, he still exhibited dyspnea (oxygen saturation [SpO2] in ambient air: 88%), a high fever (axillary temperature: 39 °C), and high blood pressure (148/98 mmHg). Because laboratory data revealed high levels of C-reactive protein (CRP; 2.10 mg/dL) and urinary β2-microglobulin (B2M; 33,683 µg/mL), the anti-interleukin-6 receptor antibody tocilizumab (TCZ; 400 mg) was administered intravenously. One day after injection, he was afebrile. Four days after the TCZ injection, his CRP level dropped to 0.27 mg/dL, B2M level decreased to 3817 µg/mL, and viral load became low. No adverse drug reaction due to TCZ was observed. The patient was discharged 15 days after admission. The early administration of TCZ in this patient prevented the pneumonia and kidney injury caused by COVID-19 from progressing to hyperinflammation syndrome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Case Reports in Infectious Diseases 2020)
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5 pages, 743 KiB  
Case Report
SARS-CoV-2 Translocate from Nasopharyngeal to Bronchoalveolar Site: A Case Presentation
by Filippo Luciani, Erika Cione, Maria Cristina Caroleo, Manuela Colosimo, Alfredo Zanolini, Antonio Barca, Stefano Cosimo, Pino Pasqua and Luca Gallelli
Reports 2020, 3(3), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/reports3030023 - 26 Aug 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2310
Abstract
The nasopharyngeal swab is commonly used for the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Since the swab is performed in this site, of course, it cannot detect the presence of the virus in other tissue districts such as the lung, brain, or bowel. In the [...] Read more.
The nasopharyngeal swab is commonly used for the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Since the swab is performed in this site, of course, it cannot detect the presence of the virus in other tissue districts such as the lung, brain, or bowel. In the present case report, the nasopharyngeal swab was negative twice. From this, the patient discontinued antiviral therapy. Nasopharyngeal swabs were maintained negative until five days later, when we recorded a severe impairment of the patient’s clinical condition. At this time, the bronchoalveolar lavage was positive for SARS-CoV-2. The purpose of the case herein described is to suggest paying attention to the nasopharyngeal swab result. A negative detection in nasopharyngeal swab could not be indicative of COVID-19 recovery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Case Reports in Infectious Diseases 2020)
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6 pages, 738 KiB  
Case Report
Rapid Decline of IFN-γ Spot-Forming Cells in Pleural Lymphocytes during Treatment in a Patient with Suspected Tuberculosis Pleurisy
by Osamu Usami, Haorile Chagan Yasutan, Toshio Hattori and Yugo Ashino
Reports 2019, 2(4), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/reports2040027 - 18 Nov 2019
Viewed by 2651
Abstract
A differential diagnosis of tuberculosis pleurisy is often difficult. A 48-year-old Japanese man with no previous medical history visited the outpatient department for dyspnea and fever. His chest-XP and laboratory findings, especially high C-reactive protein levels, indicated pleuritis with pleural effusion. Pleural lymphocytes [...] Read more.
A differential diagnosis of tuberculosis pleurisy is often difficult. A 48-year-old Japanese man with no previous medical history visited the outpatient department for dyspnea and fever. His chest-XP and laboratory findings, especially high C-reactive protein levels, indicated pleuritis with pleural effusion. Pleural lymphocytes showed high numbers of spot forming responses in interferon gamma release assay (IGRA). Pleural effusion contained high levels of adenosine deaminase and hyaluronic acid, but no Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) antigen was detected by culture or polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Although the infectious agent was not detected, the clinical and laboratory findings strongly suggested that he was suffering from tuberculosis pleurisy. After treatment with anti-TB drugs, a rapid decline of spot-forming cells (SFCs) of pleural lymphocyte was observed, despite persistently high levels of other biomarkers and increased pleural lymphocytes. This case demonstrates that an IGRA of pleural lymphocytes would be useful for therapeutic diagnosis for TB pleurisy suspected for TB. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Case Reports in Infectious Diseases)
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