Novel Aspects of COVID-19 after a Four-Year Pandemic

A special issue of Reports (ISSN 2571-841X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2023) | Viewed by 17767

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Respiratory Medicine, Sendai City Hospital, Sendai 982-8502, Miyagi, Japan
Interests: HIV; infection
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In these four years, more than 691 million people have been infected with SARS-CoV-2 and among them, more than 6 million people have died. The latest technology has been introduced and major advantages have been made in diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. In this Special Issue, we will publish novel aspects of COVID-19 after a four-year pandemic as follows.

  1. Development of diagnosis methods.
  2. Therapeutic effects of new agents.
  3. Improvements in monitoring and management of patients.
  4. Characteristics of breakthrough infection.
  5. Sequelae of COVID-19 infections.
  6. Development of a vaccine against COVID-19 infection.
  7. Disasters caused by COVID-19 infection.

Prof. Dr. Toshio Hattori
Dr. Yugo Ashino
Guest Editors

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Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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9 pages, 574 KiB  
Article
The Effects of Behavioral Restrictions on the Spread of COVID-19
by Kenji Sasaki, Yoichi Ikeda and Takashi Nakano
Reports 2022, 5(4), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/reports5040037 - 20 Sep 2022
Viewed by 2095
Abstract
Several measures, including behavioral restrictions for individuals, have been taken throughout the world to control the spread of COVID-19. The aim of these measures is to prevent infected persons from coming into contact with susceptible persons. Since the behavioral restrictions for all citizens, [...] Read more.
Several measures, including behavioral restrictions for individuals, have been taken throughout the world to control the spread of COVID-19. The aim of these measures is to prevent infected persons from coming into contact with susceptible persons. Since the behavioral restrictions for all citizens, such as city-wide lockdowns, were directly linked to the stagnation of economic activities, the assessment of such measures is crucial. In order to evaluate the effects of behavioral restrictions, we employed the broken-link model to compare the situation of COVID-19 in Shanghai, where a lockdown was implemented from March to June 2022, with the situation in Taiwan, where the spread of COVID-19 has been well controlled so far. The results show that the small link-connection probability was achieved by the substantial isolation of infected persons, including the lockdown measures. Although the strict measures for behavioral restrictions were effective to reduce the total number infected people, the daily reported cases per one million people followed the curve evaluated by the broken-link model. This result considers that infections are unavoidable for the population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Aspects of COVID-19 after a Four-Year Pandemic)
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Review

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25 pages, 831 KiB  
Review
COVID-19-Omics Report: From Individual Omics Approaches to Precision Medicine
by Irina Vlasova-St. Louis, Daniel Fang, Yara Amer and Hesham Mohei
Reports 2023, 6(4), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/reports6040045 - 22 Sep 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2517
Abstract
During the COVID-19 pandemic, it became apparent that precision medicine relies heavily on biological multi-omics discoveries. High throughput omics technologies, such as host genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, epigenomics, metabolomics/lipidomics, and microbiomics, have become an integral part of precision diagnostics. The large number of data [...] Read more.
During the COVID-19 pandemic, it became apparent that precision medicine relies heavily on biological multi-omics discoveries. High throughput omics technologies, such as host genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, epigenomics, metabolomics/lipidomics, and microbiomics, have become an integral part of precision diagnostics. The large number of data generated by omics technologies allows for the identification of vulnerable demographic populations that are susceptible to poor disease outcomes. Additionally, these data help to pinpoint the omics-based biomarkers that are currently driving advancements in precision and preventive medicine, such as early diagnosis and disease prognosis, individualized treatments, and vaccination. This report summarizes COVID-19-omic studies, highlights the results of completed and ongoing omics investigations in individuals who have experienced severe disease outcomes, and examines the impact that repurposed/novel antiviral drugs, targeted immunotherapeutics, and vaccines have had on individual and public health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Aspects of COVID-19 after a Four-Year Pandemic)
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9 pages, 574 KiB  
Review
Isolated Central Nervous System Vasculitides in COVID-19: A Systematic Review of Case Reports and Series
by Domizia Vecchio, Francesca Moretto, Samuel Padelli, Francesca Grossi, Roberto Cantello and Rosanna Vaschetto
Reports 2022, 5(3), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/reports5030036 - 6 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2316
Abstract
Cerebral vasculitides, both isolated or in systemic disorders, could be triggered by infections, and few cases have been associated to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study searched for publications in Pubmed, EMBASE, and Cochrane library databases for case reports and series of isolated [...] Read more.
Cerebral vasculitides, both isolated or in systemic disorders, could be triggered by infections, and few cases have been associated to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study searched for publications in Pubmed, EMBASE, and Cochrane library databases for case reports and series of isolated central nervous system (CNS) vasculitides triggered by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2. We included 12 studies (published from June 2020 to July 2022) and collected 39 adult patients (5/39 pathologically or radiologically proven, 34/39 suggestive for primary CNS vasculitis or PCNSV). All cases had a positive real-time polymerase chain reaction on a nasopharyngeal swab or a respiratory tract specimen. About the 85% of the included cases were males, and disease onset occurred later than 50 years old in all but three subjects. In total, 33/39 patients presented severe COVID-19 pneumonia, frequently requiring intensive care unit care. The most common neurological features were headache, obnubilation, and coma. PCNSV was suspected mainly on radiological findings, whereas the cerebrospinal fluid analysis was minimally altered. Magnetic resonance imaging showed vessel wall enhancement in 32/39 cases, generally with the concomitant presence of microbleeds, subarachnoid haemorrhages, and/or multiple ischemic lesions. Despite the severe respiratory and neurological disease course, most cases (93%) improved spontaneously or after a course of high-dose intravenous steroids with no need for immunosuppression. In conclusion, PCNSV could rarely relate to COVID-19 and independently from pulmonary disease severity. Adults with COVID-19-related PCNSV could have a favourable prognosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Aspects of COVID-19 after a Four-Year Pandemic)
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Other

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8 pages, 6193 KiB  
Case Report
Acute Aortic Stent Graft Thrombosis in Patient with Recent COVID-19 Infection
by Antonio Marzano, Jihad Jabbour, Vincenzo Brizzi, Enrico Sbarigia and Simone Cuozzo
Reports 2024, 7(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/reports7010004 - 12 Jan 2024
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Abstract
Although COVID-19 primarily affects the respiratory system, it can have various effects on other organs, including the cardiovascular system. COVID-19 can lead to a prothrombotic status, promoting blood clotting, which can potentially affect native vessels and implanted devices. The exact mechanisms through which [...] Read more.
Although COVID-19 primarily affects the respiratory system, it can have various effects on other organs, including the cardiovascular system. COVID-19 can lead to a prothrombotic status, promoting blood clotting, which can potentially affect native vessels and implanted devices. The exact mechanisms through which it leads to increased clotting are not yet fully understood but may involve inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and a hyperactive immune response. In the present report, we describe a case of acute aortic stent graft thrombosis four days after the resolution of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The patient required emergent explantation of the stent graft after the failure of endovascular bailout procedures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Aspects of COVID-19 after a Four-Year Pandemic)
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4 pages, 614 KiB  
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Abnormalities in Regional Cerebral Blood Flow Due to Headache in a COVID-19 Infected Patient Observed on 99mTC-ECD Brain SPECT/CT
by Ya-Chun Chu, Shin-Tsu Chang, Hung-Yen Chan, Daniel Hueng-Yuan Shen and Hung-Pin Chan
Reports 2023, 6(4), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/reports6040058 - 4 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1517
Abstract
A 31-year-old man was diagnosed with a COVID-19 infection, presenting with a diffuse headache and an uneven sensation of fullness, despite having no prior systemic diseases. 99mTc-ECD Brain SPECT/CT revealed a marked decrease in blood perfusion in the cerebral cortices, predominantly in the [...] Read more.
A 31-year-old man was diagnosed with a COVID-19 infection, presenting with a diffuse headache and an uneven sensation of fullness, despite having no prior systemic diseases. 99mTc-ECD Brain SPECT/CT revealed a marked decrease in blood perfusion in the cerebral cortices, predominantly in the frontal region and involving the olfactory sulcus. In contrast, there was increased perfusion in the occipital lobe and asymmetrical perfusion in the cerebellum. This case highlights changes in regional blood flow perfusion that might affect the functional connectivity of the pain matrix, leading to the onset of headaches and associated underlying mechanisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Aspects of COVID-19 after a Four-Year Pandemic)
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18 pages, 898 KiB  
Case Report
Enhanced Gait Recovery in Chronic Post-COVID-19 Stroke: The Role of Combined Physical Rehabilitation
by Hunor Pál Fodor, Hunor Dávid, Attila Czont, Ildikó Miklóssy, Kálmán-Csongor Orbán, Gyöngyi Tar, Abony Fodor, Zita Kovács, Beáta Albert and Pál Salamon
Reports 2023, 6(4), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/reports6040051 - 20 Oct 2023
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Abstract
Background: Rehabilitation programs applied in cases of COVID-19-related stroke should counteract not only the effects of the stroke but also the effects of long-term COVID-19. As the molecular processes underlying these cases are still not fully understood, and evidence-based clinical outcomes are scarcely [...] Read more.
Background: Rehabilitation programs applied in cases of COVID-19-related stroke should counteract not only the effects of the stroke but also the effects of long-term COVID-19. As the molecular processes underlying these cases are still not fully understood, and evidence-based clinical outcomes are scarcely documented, there is a valid need to gather information and develop rehabilitation strategies for these patients. The risks, already clarified in the case of stroke, need to be assessed taking into account the coincidence of the two diseases. Endothelial injuries and emboli that develop after the hypercoagulable state of COVID-19 may take longer to heal, and complications may occur during exercise. This case study attempts to determine what the rehabilitation of a COVID-19-related stroke patient should include. The participant was a 64-year-old male with ischemic right middle cerebral artery stroke, left-side hemiplegia, and middle cerebral artery stenosis, and the CT showed a well-defined area of hypoattenuation in the basal ganglia territory involving the right lentiform nucleus, the anterior and posterior limbs of the internal capsule, and the dorsal part of the external capsule. His NIHSS score was 14, and he registered 15 points on the Barthel index. The patient had a COVID-19 infection two weeks before the stroke event. Methods: Conventional physical therapy was combined with adaptive ballistic strength training, a high-intensity interval training regimen, and manual treatment for myofascial release throughout the chronic recovery phase. Our primary goals were gait rehabilitation, muscle strengthening, weakness management, as well as spasticity reduction, while three different rehabilitation approaches were adopted in a single rehabilitation program to improve the outcome and long-term functional recovery of the patient. Results: The patient progressed in almost every aspect of the assessment criteria. This combined approach’s main success was improved gait speed, gait quality, and improved cardiovascular fitness. Take-away message: In the case of a stroke caused by COVID-19, where the endothelium cells are compromised, HIIT may be questionable due to the poor vascular condition. Based on our results, the low-volume HIIT approach proved appropriate and effective. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Aspects of COVID-19 after a Four-Year Pandemic)
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10 pages, 2881 KiB  
Case Report
Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria: A Case Report in a Pandemic Environment
by Vanda Peixoto, Ana Carneiro, Fernanda Trigo, Mónica Vieira and Cristina Prudêncio
Reports 2023, 6(3), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/reports6030042 - 8 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1764
Abstract
Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a clonal, rare, complement-mediated hemolytic anemia. PNH can be associated with marrow failure and thrombophilia. We present a clinical report of splenic vein thrombosis in a patient with classic PNH. A 41-year-old male with classic PNH, naïve to [...] Read more.
Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a clonal, rare, complement-mediated hemolytic anemia. PNH can be associated with marrow failure and thrombophilia. We present a clinical report of splenic vein thrombosis in a patient with classic PNH. A 41-year-old male with classic PNH, naïve to complement inhibitor therapy, developed splenic vein thrombosis as a major adverse effect after vaccination protocol to prevent meningococcal disease. We also report anticoagulant and eculizumab treatment outcomes. In PNH patients, vaccination should be monitored to prevent major outcome events, like vaccine-induced thrombosis. Eculizumab proves effective for treating intravascular hemolysis and preventing more thrombotic events. The potential protective role of eculizumab on controlling complement activity and consequent inflammation may help the patient to not experience breakthrough hemolysis when infected with SARS-CoV-2. Extravascular hemolysis remains present, but new molecules are being studied to inhibit proximal complement and there is a good health prospective for PNH patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Aspects of COVID-19 after a Four-Year Pandemic)
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7 pages, 1126 KiB  
Case Report
A Possible New Diagnostic Method for Early Diagnosis of Cryptococcus Infection in Lymphoma Patient Co-Infected with SARS-CoV-2
by Manuela Colosimo, Salvatore Nisticò, Francesco Quintieri, Annamaria De Luca, Pasquale Minchella and Luca Gallelli
Reports 2023, 6(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/reports6010011 - 1 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1578
Abstract
A Cryptococcus subspecies, neoformans, represents the most pathogenic infection for humans, particularly in immunocompromised hosts (e.g., cancer patients, drug users). In the present study, we described a 67-year old woman with non-Hodgkin lymphoma who developed an infectious disease sustained by Cryptococcus neoformans. [...] Read more.
A Cryptococcus subspecies, neoformans, represents the most pathogenic infection for humans, particularly in immunocompromised hosts (e.g., cancer patients, drug users). In the present study, we described a 67-year old woman with non-Hodgkin lymphoma who developed an infectious disease sustained by Cryptococcus neoformans. Biochemical data documented a decrease in lymphocytes count while clinical evaluation was suggestive on meningeal infection. The microbiological analysis of the serum, using a dilution pattern through the CrAg lateral flow assay (Immy, Norman, OK 73069, USA) detected the antigen of Cryptococcus (dilution 1/1280), and a treatment with liposomal amphotericin B (3 mg/kg id) plus flucytosine (100 mg/kg per day orally in four divided doses) were started, showing an improvement of symptoms. This case report suggests that an antigen dilution can be used to perform a rapid diagnosis and to quickly start the pharmacological treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Aspects of COVID-19 after a Four-Year Pandemic)
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6 pages, 517 KiB  
Brief Report
Good Immunogenicity of Delayed Second Dose of BNT162b2 Vaccine in Individuals with Acute Allergic-like Reactions after the First Dose
by Kazuhiro Araki, Nobuaki Shimizu, Misa Iijima, Hisashi Hosaka and Yasuhiro Yanagita
Reports 2022, 5(4), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/reports5040048 - 1 Dec 2022
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Abstract
We assessed SARS-CoV-2 anti-spike immunoglobulin G (anti-S-IgG) levels among healthcare workers (HCWs) after BNT162b2 vaccination. The anti-S-IgG titers of study participants were measured every three months, a week before, and three weeks after each vaccination. This study compared the short-term immune response to [...] Read more.
We assessed SARS-CoV-2 anti-spike immunoglobulin G (anti-S-IgG) levels among healthcare workers (HCWs) after BNT162b2 vaccination. The anti-S-IgG titers of study participants were measured every three months, a week before, and three weeks after each vaccination. This study compared the short-term immune response to the second vaccination in four HCWs who received the first two doses six months apart (due to acute allergic-like adverse events after the first dose), with that of six HCWs who received the first two doses three weeks apart, according to the standard schedule. The four HCWs who experienced acute allergic-like adverse events after the first vaccination took antihistamines before the second vaccination. None of them experienced an allergic-like reaction after the second vaccination, and the short-term immune response to the second vaccination was similar in both groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Aspects of COVID-19 after a Four-Year Pandemic)
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