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Investigation of Volcanic Activity Using Potential and Deformation Fields Retrieved from Proximal and Remote Sensing Techniques

A special issue of Remote Sensing (ISSN 2072-4292). This special issue belongs to the section "Earth Observation for Emergency Management".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2023) | Viewed by 6064

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Institute for Electromagnetic Sensing of the Environment (IREA-CNR), Via Diocleziano, 328, 80124 Naples, Italy
Interests: remote and proximal sensing; InSAR data; finite element modelling; deformation field; potential field; multiscale analysis
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, dell'Ambiente e delle Risorse (DiSTAR) Università "Federico II" di Napoli, 80126 Naples, Italy
Interests: geodesy; time-lapse gravimetry; Earth tides; GNSS; ground deformation monitoring; GNSS tropospheric delay; space geodesy
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Istituto Nazionale Di Geofisica E Vulcanologia, 605, 00143 Rome, Italy
Interests: volcanology; geodesy and gravimetry; volcano seismology; heat flow; tectonics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Active volcanic areas are fed by plumbing systems, transporting magma from the Earth's mantle and crust towards the surface through a complex network of conduits. The temporal and spatial evolution of volcanic activity generally depend on the thermodynamics of the feeding system and its interaction with the embedding-rocks mechanical heterogeneities and pre-existing structural discontinuities. This interaction generates a complex pattern of deep and shallow geophysical signals which can be detected from volcano monitoring networks and employed for investigating the complexity of the volcano system. In the last several decades, remote sensing techniques have made important contributions to the knowledge of volcanic systems and their structural evolution. Significant advances have come from the integration of remote and proximal sensing techniques, and from the development of new techniques related to the analysis of potential (e.g., gravity and magnetic) and ground deformation fields. The modelling of geophysical datasets has enabled the imaging of volcano structure and the identification of the crustal regions of magma and fluid accumulation. To date, these studies have all contributed to a better understanding of the physical processes governing the emplacement and evolution of magma reservoirs and volcano dynamics.

This Special Issue aims to collect studies focusing on the understanding of several aspects of volcano systems, from their physical characterization to monitoring their temporal evolution through multi-platform geodetic and inter-disciplinary data and their modelling.

Dr. Raffaele Castaldo
Prof. Dr. Umberto Riccardi
Dr. Stefano Carlino
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • volcano plumbing systems
  • geophysical methods
  • geodetic monitoring
  • analytical and FE modelling
  • data integration

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

22 pages, 16212 KiB  
Article
DInSAR Data Reveal an Intriguing Contemporaneous Onset of Deep Deflation below Vesuvio and the Ongoing Campi Flegrei Uplift
by Antonella Amoruso and Luca Crescentini
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(12), 3038; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15123038 - 10 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1220
Abstract
Campi Flegrei and Vesuvio volcanoes are only about 25 km apart, located on opposite sides of the densely inhabited area of Naples (Italy). Since neighbouring volcanoes may influence each other’s activity, it is of great interest to identify signs of any mutual interaction [...] Read more.
Campi Flegrei and Vesuvio volcanoes are only about 25 km apart, located on opposite sides of the densely inhabited area of Naples (Italy). Since neighbouring volcanoes may influence each other’s activity, it is of great interest to identify signs of any mutual interaction between Campi Flegrei and Vesuvio, or at least note coincidences in their recent deformation dynamics. After a large uplift, Campi Flegrei was generally subsiding from 1985 to 2001, while it has been uplifting—probably driven by deep magma inflation—at an accelerating rate since then. Here, we analysed the ground displacement in the whole Vesuvian area and its surroundings around the early 2000s using 1993–2010 ERS/ENVISAT ascending- and descending-orbit line-of-sight displacements obtained through the Small BAseline Subset Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry technique. Although ground deformation is slow—a few millimetres per year—Empirical Orthogonal Function analysis shows a sudden trend change around 2001. Pre-2001 velocity maps confirm previously published results: subsidence mainly occurred inside the caldera rim—probably because of the sliding and compaction of young incoherent materials—and in a few spots around 10 km from the summital crater; eastward displacement occurred in a lobe east of Vesuvio, and westward displacement occurred in a lobe west of Vesuvio, as in the case of the spreading of the volcanic edifice and/or extensional tectonics. We attribute the subsidence spots to the previous high local number of new buildings per year. Post-2002 velocity maps provide evidence of a very different scenario: general subsidence in the whole Vesuvian area, westward displacement in a lobe east of Vesuvio, and eastward displacement in a lobe west of Vesuvio. This last arrangement of the ground displacement field is made even clearer by subtracting the post-2002 velocity from the pre-2001 value. The results of our analyses are consistent with the deflation of a deep pressurised source. Additionally, Vesuvio’s deep seismicity decreased at the beginning of 2002. The coincidence between the transition from deflation to inflation at Campi Flegrei and the onset of deflation below Vesuvio may suggest the possible transfer of magma and/or magmatic fluids between the two plumbing systems. Full article
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30 pages, 19069 KiB  
Article
Insights into the Magmatic Feeding System of the 2021 Eruption at Cumbre Vieja (La Palma, Canary Islands) Inferred from Gravity Data Modeling
by Fuensanta G. Montesinos, Sergio Sainz-Maza, David Gómez-Ortiz, José Arnoso, Isabel Blanco-Montenegro, Maite Benavent, Emilio Vélez, Nieves Sánchez and Tomás Martín-Crespo
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(7), 1936; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15071936 - 4 Apr 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3041
Abstract
This study used spatiotemporal land gravity data to investigate the 2021 eruption that occurred in the Cumbre Vieja volcano (La Palma, Canary Islands). First, we produced a density model by inverting the local gravity field using data collected in July 2005 and July [...] Read more.
This study used spatiotemporal land gravity data to investigate the 2021 eruption that occurred in the Cumbre Vieja volcano (La Palma, Canary Islands). First, we produced a density model by inverting the local gravity field using data collected in July 2005 and July 2021. This model revealed a low-density body beneath the western flank of the volcano that explains a highly fractured and altered structure related to the active hydrothermal system. Then, we retrieved changes in gravity and GNSS vertical displacements from repeated measurements made in a local network before (July 2021) and after (January 2022) the eruption. After correcting the vertical surface displacements, the gravity changes produced by mass variation during the eruptive process were used to build a forward model of the magmatic feeding system consisting of dikes and sills based on an initial model defined by the paths of the earthquake hypocenters preceding the eruption. Our study provides a final model of the magma plumbing system, which establishes a spatiotemporal framework tracing the path of magma ascent from the crust–mantle boundary to the surface from 11–19 September 2021, where the shallowest magma path was strongly influenced by the low-density body identified in the inversion process. Full article
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19 pages, 4138 KiB  
Article
New Advances of the Multiscale Approach for the Analyses of InSAR Ground Measurements: The Yellowstone Caldera Case-Study
by Andrea Barone, Antonio Pepe, Pietro Tizzani, Maurizio Fedi and Raffaele Castaldo
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(21), 5328; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14215328 - 25 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1142
Abstract
In this study, we describe new advances in the multiscale methodology to allow a more realistic interpretation of volcanic deformation fields by investigating geometrically irregular bodies and multi-source scenarios. We propose an integrated approach to be applied to InSAR measurements, employing the Multiridge [...] Read more.
In this study, we describe new advances in the multiscale methodology to allow a more realistic interpretation of volcanic deformation fields by investigating geometrically irregular bodies and multi-source scenarios. We propose an integrated approach to be applied to InSAR measurements, employing the Multiridge and ScalFun methods and the Total Horizontal Derivative (THD) technique: this strategy provides unconstrained information on the source geometrical parameters, such as the depth, position, shape, and horizontal extent. To do this, we start from conditions where the biharmonic deformation field satisfies Laplace’s equation and homogeneity law. We test the use of the multiscale procedures to model single and multisource scenarios with irregular geometries by retrieving satisfactory results for a set of simulated sources. Finally, we employ the proposed approach to the 2004–2009 uplift episode at the Yellowstone Caldera (U.S.) measured by ENVISAT InSAR to provide information about the volcanic plumbing system. Our results indicate a single ~50×20 km2 extended source lying beneath the caldera at around 10 km b.s.l. (depth to the center), which is shallower below both the resurgent domes (6–7 km b.s.l. depth to the top). Full article
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