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Sensing Archaeology in the North: The Use of Non-Destructive Sensing Methods in Archaeology in Scandinavian and North Atlantic Territories

A special issue of Remote Sensing (ISSN 2072-4292). This special issue belongs to the section "Remote Sensing in Geology, Geomorphology and Hydrology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 October 2020) | Viewed by 53860

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Archaeology and Cultural History, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Kalvskinnet Campus, Gunnerushuset, Office A474, Erling Skakkes gate 47B, 7012 Trondheim, Norway
Interests: near-surface geophysics; archaeology; geoarchaeology; soil characterisation; geochemical prospection; remote sensing; monitoring cultural heritage in risk
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
School of Earth & Environmental Sciences, University of St Andrews, Irvine Building, St Andrews KY16 9AL, UK
Interests: application of high resolution geophysical survey techniques for near surface investigations; use of geophysics in a multi-disciplinary team approach to environmental problem solving

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Guest Editor
Department of Archaeology and Cultural History, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Kalvskinnet Campus, Gunnerushuset, Office A178, Erling Skakkes gate 47A, 7012 Trondheim, Norway
Interests: remote sensing; lidar/airborne laserscanning; prehistorical archaeology; cultural heritage management; cultural heritage in forest and outfield areas; archaeological surveys; monitoring; archaeological method development

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Guest Editor
Department of Archaeology and Cultural History, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim, Norway
Interests: photogrammetry; drone surveying; archaeology

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Guest Editor
Department of Archaeology and Cultural History, Norwegian University of Science and Technology-NTNU, Trondheim, Norway
Interests: marine archaeology; underwater cultural heritage management; photogrammetry underwater landscapes; sonar and ROV technology; in situ preservation; environmental monitoring; site formation process

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Guest Editor
Department of Archaeology and Cultural History, Norwegian University of Science and Technology-NTNU, Trondheim, Norway
Interests: geophysical prospection; GIS and digital modelling; Iron Age agrarian settlements; landscape analyses

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Archaeology and Cultural History, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NTNU, Trondheim, Norway
Interests: marine archaeology; underwater robotics; synthetic aperture sonar; underwater hyperspectral imaging; autonomy

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue of Remote Sensing aims to gather original articles and reviews showing the practical application of ground-based, marine and remote sensing methods to investigate archaeological sites in Scandinavia and the North Atlantic.

LiDAR, satellite imagery, ground-based geophysical prospection, or marine geophysics, inter alia, currently stand as powerful methods in archaeology to study sites remotely (i.e., from the ground surface, from the sea, or from the air) in a non-destructive and minimally invasive manner. In the last decade, major technological developments have introduced reduced and more compact sensors; sensor arrays; as well as motorised or robotised ground, aerial, or marine platforms that have, and are still, revolutionising archaeological research. This technological breakthrough has allowed the implementation of extremely fast and high-resolution surveys to discover, explore, and record archaeological sites located either in terrestrial or marine environments.

Many of these sensing technologies have been tested, and some have even been developed in Nordic countries and employed in archaeological research projects. Whilst the status of their adoption as established and routine methods for cultural heritage management-led projects varies from country to country, their use, at least in archaeological research projects, seems to be steadily increasing.

Scandinavian and North Atlantic survey environments can be quite particular (e.g., sites buried under tephra layers in Iceland), but, beyond the similar archaeological legacy, they conceal a number of other characterizing factors, such as the effects of glacially-shaped geologies and landforms, climate, snow cover, permafrost, waterlogged/organic soils, and coastal erosion issues. The particular challenges posed by survey environments in the North and the type of archaeological targets appear to point toward survey strategies based on the integration of a diversity of sensing methods and particular techniques to maximise the information extracted from the sensed data and ensure the success of these studies.

This Special Issue will integrate some of the research presented in the ‘SENSING ARCHAEOLOGY IN THE NORTH’ workshop organised by the ‘TErrestrial, Marine, and Aerial Remote sensing for archaeology’ research group and the Department of Archaeology and cultural History (NTNU). The workshop brought together, for the first time, researchers with interests in applying ground-based, marine, and remote sensing methods to investigate archaeological sites in Scandinavia and the North Atlantic in order to exchange experiences, discuss common and/or specific challenges and solutions, consider opportunities and future directions to further develop sensing methods and strategies to survey archaeological sites in ‘Nordic’ areas, and promote cooperation and future research collaborations.

The Special Issue is also open for contributions from researchers interested in applying sensing methods to explore the archaeology and manage cultural heritage of the North. The goal of the Special Issue is to present research that showcases innovative methodological approaches to prospect and characterise Nordic/North Atlantic archaeological sites. Also, critical approaches assessing the state-of the art on the use of these tools in research and cultural heritage management in different Nordic/North Atlantic countries are highly encouraged to better guide opportunities for integrating remote sensing into future projects.

We invite all prospective authors to share their work.

Dr. Carmen Cuenca-Garcia
Dr. Richard Bates
Assoc. Prof. Ole Risbøl
Mr. Raymond Sauvage
Mr. Fredrik Skoglund
Dr. Arne Stamnes
Dr. Øyvind Ødegård
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Remote Sensing is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • remote sensing
  • near-surface geophysics
  • archaeology
  • marine archaeology
  • archaeological prospection
  • aerial archaeology
  • LiDAR
  • monitoring
  • cultural heritage management
  • photogrammetry
  • GIS
  • UAV/drone mapping
  • underwater robotics
  • synthetic aperture sonar
  • underwater hyperspectral imaging
  • magnetometry
  • earth resistance/resistivity
  • FDEM
  • GPR

Published Papers (9 papers)

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20 pages, 11824 KiB  
Article
Two New Ways of Documenting Miniature Incisions Using a Combination of Image-Based Modelling and Reflectance Transformation Imaging
by Dag-Øyvind E. Solem and Erich Nau
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(10), 1626; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12101626 - 19 May 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3854
Abstract
Digital 3D documentation methods such as Image-Based Modelling (IBM) and laser scanning have become increasingly popular for the recording of entire archaeological sites and landscapes, excavations and single finds during the last decade. However, they have not been applied in any significant degree [...] Read more.
Digital 3D documentation methods such as Image-Based Modelling (IBM) and laser scanning have become increasingly popular for the recording of entire archaeological sites and landscapes, excavations and single finds during the last decade. However, they have not been applied in any significant degree to miniature incisions such as graffiti. In the same period, Reflectance Transformation Imaging (RTI) has become one of the most popular methods used to record and visualize this kind of heritage, though it lacks the benefits of 3D documentation. The aim of this paper is to introduce two new ways of combining IBM and RTI, and to assess these different techniques in relation to factors such as usability, time-efficiency, cost-efficiency and accuracy. A secondary aim is to examine the influence of two different 3D processing software packages on these factors: The widely used MetaShape (MS) and a more expensive option, RealityCapture (RC). The article shows that there is currently no recording technique that is optimal regarding all four aforementioned factors, and the way to record and produce results must be chosen based on a prioritization of these. However, we argue that the techniques combining RTI and IBM might be the overall best ways to record miniature incisions. One of these combinations is time-efficient and relatively cost-efficient, and the results have high usability even though the 3D models generated have low accuracy. The other combination has low time- and cost-efficiency but generates the most detailed 3D models of the techniques tested. In addition to cost-efficiency, the main difference between the 3D software packages tested is that RC is much faster than MS. The accuracy assessment remains inconclusive; while RC generally produces more detailed 3D models than MS, there are also areas of these models where RC creates more noise than MS. Full article
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41 pages, 21018 KiB  
Article
Employment, Utilization, and Development of Airborne Laser Scanning in Fenno-Scandinavian Archaeology—A Review
by Ole Risbøl, Daniel Langhammer, Esben Schlosser Mauritsen and Oula Seitsonen
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(9), 1411; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12091411 - 30 Apr 2020
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 4648
Abstract
This paper gives a presentation of how airborne laser scanning (ALS) has been adopted in archaeology in the North over the period 2005–2019. Almost two decades have passed since ALS first emerged as a potential tool to add to the archaeologist’s toolbox. Soon [...] Read more.
This paper gives a presentation of how airborne laser scanning (ALS) has been adopted in archaeology in the North over the period 2005–2019. Almost two decades have passed since ALS first emerged as a potential tool to add to the archaeologist’s toolbox. Soon after, it attracted the attention of researchers within archaeological communities engaged with remote sensing in the Fenno-Scandinavian region. The first archaeological ALS projects gave immediate good results and led to further use, research, and development through new projects that followed various tracks. The bulk of the research and development focused on studying how well-suited ALS is for identifying, mapping, and documenting archaeological features in outfield land, mainly in forested areas. The poor situation in terms of lack of information on archaeological records in outfield areas has been challenging for research and especially for cultural heritage management for a long period of time. Consequently, an obvious direction was to study how ALS-based mapping of cultural features in forests could help to improve the survey situation. This led to various statistical analyses and studies covering research questions related to for instance effects on detection success of laser pulse density, and the size and shape of the targeted features. Substantial research has also been devoted to the development and assessment of semi-automatic detection of archaeological features based on the use of algorithms. This has been studied as an alternative approach to human desk-based visual analyses and interpretations of ALS data. This approach has considerable potential for detecting sites over large regions such as the vast roadless and unbuilt wilderness regions of northern Fennoscandia, and has proven highly successful. In addition, the current review presents how ALS has been employed for monitoring purposes and for landscape studies, including how it can influence landscape understanding. Finally, the most recent advance within ALS research and development has been discussed: testing of the use of drones for data acquisition. In conclusion, aspects related to the utilization of ALS in archaeological research and cultural heritage management are summarized and discussed, together with thoughts about future perspectives. Full article
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25 pages, 12562 KiB  
Article
The Effectiveness of Large-Scale, High-Resolution Ground-Penetrating Radar Surveys and Trial Trenching for Archaeological Site Evaluations—A Comparative Study from Two Sites in Norway
by Lars Gustavsen, Arne Anderson Stamnes, Silje Elisabeth Fretheim, Lars Erik Gjerpe and Erich Nau
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(9), 1408; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12091408 - 29 Apr 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 5228
Abstract
The use of large-scale, high-resolution ground-penetrating radar surveys has increasingly become a part of Norwegian cultural heritage management as a complementary method to trial trenching surveys to detect and delineate archaeological sites. The aim of this article is to collect, interpret and compare [...] Read more.
The use of large-scale, high-resolution ground-penetrating radar surveys has increasingly become a part of Norwegian cultural heritage management as a complementary method to trial trenching surveys to detect and delineate archaeological sites. The aim of this article is to collect, interpret and compare large-scale, high-resolution ground-penetrating radar (GPR) survey data with results from trial trenching and subsequent large-scale excavations, and to extract descriptive and spatial statistics on detection rates and precision for both evaluation methods. This, in turn, is used to assess the advantages and disadvantages of both conventional, intrusive methods and large-scale GPR surveys. Neither method proved to be flawless, and while the trial trenching had a better overall detection rate, organic and charcoal rich features were nearly just as easily detected by both methods. Similarly, the spatial representability was similar, even though the total detection rates were lower with the GPR. This can be used as an argument in advance of integrating full-coverage GPR results into a site evaluation scheme, preferably in combination with other methods. Overall, these analyses have highlighted drawbacks and possibilities in both methods that are important contributions in understanding how to use them and integrate them in future site evaluations. Full article
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23 pages, 12683 KiB  
Article
Mapping the Historical Shipwreck Figaro in the High Arctic Using Underwater Sensor-Carrying Robots
by Aksel Alstad Mogstad, Øyvind Ødegård, Stein Melvær Nornes, Martin Ludvigsen, Geir Johnsen, Asgeir J. Sørensen and Jørgen Berge
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(6), 997; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12060997 - 19 Mar 2020
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 4894
Abstract
In 2007, a possible wreck site was discovered in Trygghamna, Isfjorden, Svalbard by the Norwegian Hydrographic Service. Using (1) a REMUS 100 autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) equipped with a sidescan sonar (SSS) and (2) a Seabotix LBV 200 mini-remotely operated vehicle (ROV) with [...] Read more.
In 2007, a possible wreck site was discovered in Trygghamna, Isfjorden, Svalbard by the Norwegian Hydrographic Service. Using (1) a REMUS 100 autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) equipped with a sidescan sonar (SSS) and (2) a Seabotix LBV 200 mini-remotely operated vehicle (ROV) with a high-definition (HD) camera, the wreck was in 2015 identified as the Figaro: a floating whalery that sank in 1908. The Figaro is to our knowledge currently the northernmost wreck in the world to be investigated by archaeologists. As the wreck is protected by law as an underwater cultural heritage (UCH) site, only non-intrusive methods could be used during surveys. In this study, we demonstrate how using multiple complementary remote sensing techniques can be advantageous with respect to acquiring a holistic overview of a recently discovered wreck site. In January 2016, the wreck was revisited, and a full photogrammetric survey of the site was conducted with a Sperre Subfighter 7500 medium class ROV. In addition to stereo camera images, HD-video and underwater hyperspectral imagery was also obtained from the wreck site. In terms of data analysis and interpretation, the emphasis was in the current study put on the photogrammetric 3D model and the underwater hyperspectral imagery. The former provided an excellent general overview of the Figaro wreck site, whereas the latter supplied detailed information from a 14.65-m2 sub-area situated on the top of the wreck. By analyzing classified underwater hyperspectral imagery in context with supplementary information from the 3D model, the levels of biofouling associated with different marine archaeological substrate types were assessed. Our findings suggest that strongly protruding archaeological objects support significantly higher levels of biofouling than their surroundings, and consequently that high-density biological assemblages could serve as proxies for identifying human-made artifacts on the seafloor. Full article
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16 pages, 6931 KiB  
Article
Multi-Channel Ground-Penetrating Radar Array Surveys of the Iron Age and Medieval Ringfort Bårby on the Island of Öland, Sweden
by Andreas Viberg, Christer Gustafsson and Anders Andrén
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(2), 227; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12020227 - 09 Jan 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3835
Abstract
As a part of the project “The Big Five”, large-scale multi-channel ground-penetrating radar surveys were carried out at Bårby ringfort (Swedish: borg), Öland, Sweden. The surveys were carried out using a MALÅ Imaging Radar Array (MIRA) system and aimed at mapping possible [...] Read more.
As a part of the project “The Big Five”, large-scale multi-channel ground-penetrating radar surveys were carried out at Bårby ringfort (Swedish: borg), Öland, Sweden. The surveys were carried out using a MALÅ Imaging Radar Array (MIRA) system and aimed at mapping possible buried Iron Age and Medieval remains through the interior in order to better understand the purpose of the fort during its periods of use. An additional goal was to evaluate the impact of earlier farming on the preservation of the archaeological remains. The data provided clear evidence of well-preserved Iron Age and Medieval buildings inside the fort. The size and the pattern of the Iron Age houses suggest close similarities with, for example, the previously excavated fort at Eketorp on Öland. Given the presence of a substantial cultural layer together with a large number of artefacts recovered during a metal detection survey, it is suggested that Bårby borg’s primary function during the Iron Age was as a fortified village. The Medieval houses partly cover some of the Iron Age buildings. They are placed in a U-shape with an open square in the middle facing the edge of a limestone cliff. As in the case of Eketorp, it is suggested that the activities during Medieval times changed, but the precise purpose of the Medieval Bårby settlement is still a question open for debate. Future targeted archaeological investigations are needed in order to better understand its purpose. Rescue excavations may also be necessary, as the western steep cliff ledge is eroding and the well-preserved archaeological remains are at risk of being destroyed. Full article
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18 pages, 8449 KiB  
Article
Geophysical Investigation of the Neolithic Calanais Landscape
by C. Richard. Bates, Martin Bates, Chris Gaffney, Vincent Gaffney and Timothy D. Raub
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(24), 2975; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11242975 - 11 Dec 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 14228
Abstract
The northern and western isles of Scotland have proved fertile ground for archaeological investigation over the last 100 years. However, the nature of the landscape with its rugged coastlines and irregular topography, together with rapid peat growth rates, make for challenging surveying. Commonly, [...] Read more.
The northern and western isles of Scotland have proved fertile ground for archaeological investigation over the last 100 years. However, the nature of the landscape with its rugged coastlines and irregular topography, together with rapid peat growth rates, make for challenging surveying. Commonly, an archaeological monument or series of monuments is identified but little is known about the surrounding areas and, in particular, the palaeo-landscapes within which the monuments are located. This situation is exemplified by the standing stones of Calanais in Lewis. Here, surrounding peat bogs have buried a significant portion of the landscape around which the stones were first erected. This project identifies remote sensing geophysical techniques that are effective in mapping the buried (lost) landscape and thus aid better contextualisation of the stone monuments within it. Further, the project demonstrates the most appropriate techniques for prospecting across these buried landscapes for as yet unidentified stone features associated with the lives of the people who constructed the monuments. Full article
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16 pages, 23299 KiB  
Article
Archaeological Prospection with Motorised Multichannel Ground-Penetrating Radar Arrays on Snow-Covered Areas in Norway
by Manuel Gabler, Immo Trinks, Erich Nau, Alois Hinterleitner, Knut Paasche, Lars Gustavsen, Monica Kristiansen, Christer Tonning, Petra Schneidhofer, Matthias Kucera and Wolfgang Neubauer
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(21), 2485; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11212485 - 24 Oct 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 4647
Abstract
The technical advancements of the past decade have rendered motorised, high-resolution ground-penetrating radar (GPR) investigations increasingly popular for archaeological research and cultural heritage management in Norway. However, the agricultural use of most survey areas limits the time available for fieldwork in spring and [...] Read more.
The technical advancements of the past decade have rendered motorised, high-resolution ground-penetrating radar (GPR) investigations increasingly popular for archaeological research and cultural heritage management in Norway. However, the agricultural use of most survey areas limits the time available for fieldwork in spring and autumn and thus reduces the method’s potential. An extension of the fieldwork period into the winter season would be desirable. The project “Arkeologi i veien?” aimed to develop practical solutions for efficient motorised GPR surveys on snow and to evaluate to what extent the thickness of the snow cover affects data quality. Four sites with known archaeological remains in the ground have been investigated under snowless conditions and with snow cover. The comparative data analysis showed that GPR surveys can result in useful data even on areas covered with one metre of snow. This study shows that different temperatures and resulting variable snow conditions can have a strong effect on the quality of the generated GPR data. The possibility for GPR measurements on snow offers the opportunity to extend fieldwork into the winter period without conflicting with the growing season; however, local weather and snow conditions have to be closely observed in order to obtain useful prospection data. Full article
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14 pages, 4906 KiB  
Article
Investigating the Norse Harbour of Igaliku (Southern Greenland) Using an Integrated System of Side-Scan Sonar and High-Resolution Reflection Seismics
by Dennis Wilken, Tina Wunderlich, Peter Feldens, Joris Coolen, John Preston and Natascha Mehler
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(16), 1889; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11161889 - 13 Aug 2019
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 5096
Abstract
This study presents the results of a marine geophysical survey performed in the Igaliku fjord in southern Greenland in order to understand the harbour setting of the former Norse settlement Garðar (modern Igaliku). The aims of the survey were (a) to reconstruct the [...] Read more.
This study presents the results of a marine geophysical survey performed in the Igaliku fjord in southern Greenland in order to understand the harbour setting of the former Norse settlement Garðar (modern Igaliku). The aims of the survey were (a) to reconstruct the former coastline during the first centuries of the Norse settlement period (c. 11/12th centuries) and (b) to search for archaeological remains on the seabed connected to maritime traffic and trade. In order to approach these goals, we used an integrated marine survey system consisting of a side-scan sonar and a reflection seismic system. The system was designed for lightweight transport, allowing measurements in areas that are logistically difficult to access. The side-scan sonar data revealed no remains of clear archaeological origin. Bathymetric data from seismic seabed reflection and additional Differential GPS height measurements yielded a high-resolution bathymetric map. Based on estimates of Holocene relative sea level change, our bathymetry model was used to reconstruct the shift of the high and low-water line since the early Norse period. The reconstructed coastline shows that a small island, which hosts the ruins of a tentative Norse warehouse at the mouth of the present harbour, was connected to the shore at low tide during the early Norse period. In addition, reflection seismics and side-scan sonar images reveal a sheltered inlet with steep slopes on one side of the island, which may have functioned as a landing bridge used to load ships. We also show that the loss of fertile land due to sea level rise until the end of the Norse settlement was insignificant compared to the available fertile land in the Igaliku fjord and is thus not the reason for the collapse of the colony. Full article
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25 pages, 11681 KiB  
Conference Report
Sensing Archaeology in the North: The Use of Non-Destructive Geophysical and Remote Sensing Methods in Archaeology in Scandinavian and North Atlantic Territories
by Carmen Cuenca-García, Ole Risbøl, C. Richard Bates, Arne Anderson Stamnes, Fredrik Skoglund, Øyvind Ødegård, Andreas Viberg, Satu Koivisto, Mikkel Fuglsang, Manuel Gabler, Esben Schlosser Mauritsen, Wesa Perttola and Dag-Øyvind Solem
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(18), 3102; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12183102 - 22 Sep 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 6395
Abstract
In August 2018, a group of experts working with terrestrial/marine geophysics and remote sensing methods to explore archaeological sites in Denmark, Finland, Norway, Scotland and Sweden gathered together for the first time at the Workshop ‘Sensing Archaeology in The North’. The goal was [...] Read more.
In August 2018, a group of experts working with terrestrial/marine geophysics and remote sensing methods to explore archaeological sites in Denmark, Finland, Norway, Scotland and Sweden gathered together for the first time at the Workshop ‘Sensing Archaeology in The North’. The goal was to exchange experiences, discuss challenges, and consider future directions for further developing these methods and strategies for their use in archaeology. After the event, this special journal issue was arranged to publish papers that are based on the workshop presentations, but also to incorporate work that is produced by other researchers in the field. This paper closes the special issue and further aims to provide current state-of-the-art for the methods represented by the workshop. Here, we introduce the aspects that inspired the organisation of the meeting, a summary of the 12 presentations and eight paper contributions, as well as a discussion about the main outcomes of the workshop roundtables, including the production of two searchable databases (online resources and equipment). We conclude with the position that the ‘North’, together with its unique cultural heritage and thriving research community, is at the forefront of good practice in the application and development of sensing methods in archaeological research and management. However, further method development is required, so we claim the support of funding bodies to back research efforts based on testing/experimental studies to: explore unknown survey environments and identify optimal survey conditions, as well as to monitor the preservation of archaeological remains, especially those that are at risk. It is demonstrated that remote sensing and geophysics not only have an important role in the safeguarding of archaeological sites from development and within prehistorical-historical research, but the methods can be especially useful in recording and monitoring the increased impact of climate change on sites in the North. Full article
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