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Special Issue "Advances in the Remote Sensing of Terrestrial Evaporation"

A special issue of Remote Sensing (ISSN 2072-4292).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2018)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Matthew McCabe

King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Division of Biological Sciences and Engineering, Water Desalination and Reuse Center, Thuwal, Saudi Arabia
Website | E-Mail
Interests: hydrology; precision agriculture; remote sensing; UAVs; CubeSats
Guest Editor
Prof. Diego Miralles

Department of Forest and Water Management, Ghent University
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +32 9 264 61 35
Interests: dynamics of the global water cycle; impact of climate change on hydrology; use of satellite-based evaporation to identify land–atmospheric feedbacks; characterization of evaporation at the regional scales; hydrological and climatic extremes; impact of hydro-climatic anomalies on vegetation; study of ocean–atmospheric oscillations and their impact on terrestrial hydrology
Guest Editor
Dr. Joshua Fisher

Jet Propulsion Laboratory, M/S 233-305C, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109, USA
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +818 354 0934
Interests: evapotranspiration; vegetation; carbon cycle; remote sensing
Guest Editor
Dr. Thomas Holmes

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt , MD 20771, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: hydrology; remote sensing; water resources; evaporation

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Our capacity to understand and describe the terrestrial carbon, water and energy cycles is strongly dependent on our ability to accurately reproduce the spatial and temporal dynamics of land surface evaporation. Characterizing terrestrial evaporation across multiple scales has been the focus of major research efforts for many decades, especially through the application of remote sensing approaches. Advances in Earth observation technologies, as well as the exploitation of new retrieval and sensing techniques, are providing deeper insights into this critical process.

In this Special Issue, we seek to explore such technological and methodological advances, to provide an overview of the state-of-the-art in estimating evaporation, and also a perspective on outstanding challenges and issues in describing this process. Submissions relevant to this issue might include efforts related, but not limited to, aspects such as:

  • multi-scale/multi-sensor retrieval or fusion efforts
  • new process descriptions, from leaf to canopy scale
  • innovative approaches towards evaluation and assessment
  • improvements in the partitioning of terrestrial evaporation
  • the application of UAVs and Cubesats for high-spatial and temporal retrieval
  • the development of techniques, such as fluorescence and thermal approaches

For this particular Special Issue, we are not soliciting papers that undertake limited scale intercomparison exercises or minor iterations on modeling approaches. Contributions that move beyond our current knowledge by examining new and emerging estimation techniques, as well as those that expand upon current approaches, are particularly encouraged.

We look forward to showcasing your research in this exciting Special Issue.

Prof. Matthew McCabe
Prof. Dr. Diego Miralles
Dr. Joshua Fisher
Dr. Thomas Holmes
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Remote Sensing is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Evaporation
  • Remote Sensing
  • Earth Observation
  • Novel Sensing Platforms

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Advances in the Remote Sensing of Terrestrial Evaporation
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(9), 1138; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11091138
Accepted: 10 May 2019 / Published: 13 May 2019
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Abstract
Characterizing the terrestrial carbon, water, and energy cycles depends strongly on a capacity to accurately reproduce the spatial and temporal dynamics of land surface evaporation. For this, and many other reasons, monitoring terrestrial evaporation across multiple space and time scales has been an [...] Read more.
Characterizing the terrestrial carbon, water, and energy cycles depends strongly on a capacity to accurately reproduce the spatial and temporal dynamics of land surface evaporation. For this, and many other reasons, monitoring terrestrial evaporation across multiple space and time scales has been an area of focused research for a number of decades. Much of this activity has been supported by developments in satellite remote sensing, which have been leveraged to deliver new process insights, model development and methodological improvements. In this Special Issue, published contributions explored a range of research topics directed towards the enhanced estimation of terrestrial evaporation. Here we summarize these cutting-edge efforts and provide an overview of some of the state-of-the-art approaches for retrieving this key variable. Some perspectives on outstanding challenges, issues, and opportunities are also presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in the Remote Sensing of Terrestrial Evaporation)

Research

Jump to: Editorial

Open AccessArticle
Using Very High Resolution Thermal Infrared Imagery for More Accurate Determination of the Impact of Land Cover Differences on Evapotranspiration in an Irrigated Agricultural Area
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(6), 613; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11060613
Received: 8 February 2019 / Revised: 8 March 2019 / Accepted: 8 March 2019 / Published: 13 March 2019
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3860 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Land cover has a strong effect on the evapotranspiration (ET) and the hydrologic cycle. Urbanization alters the land cover affecting the surface energy balance and ET by, for example, urban encroachment in agricultural areas. This study investigates the potential utility of high resolution [...] Read more.
Land cover has a strong effect on the evapotranspiration (ET) and the hydrologic cycle. Urbanization alters the land cover affecting the surface energy balance and ET by, for example, urban encroachment in agricultural areas. This study investigates the potential utility of high resolution ET in determining more accurately the impact of land cover on water use for an agricultural area. The approach was to apply the physically based two-source energy balance (TSEB) model to very high resolution (~8 m) aircraft thermal data and compare the ET pattern and distribution to TSEB output using the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data acquired on 2 August 2012. Modeled flux components were validated using measurements collected from a network of 16 eddy covariance (EC) towers at the study site. The modeled ET using the aircraft data agreed satisfactorily with the flux tower measurements and had better performance than the TSEB model applied to the ASTER data. The percent errors between ET closed by the Bowen ratio (BR) and residual (RE) approaches were 3 and 1%, respectively. It is shown that the high resolution aircraft ET can more accurately determine the change in ET magnitude by having pure pixels of the main land cover types, namely urban, agriculture, and natural vegetation. As a result, the ET histogram exhibits a significant bi-modal distribution which can be used to accurately distinguish the impact on ET from urban versus agricultural land cover areas and potentially monitor the effect on ET over a landscape due to small changes in land cover. At the coarser 90 m resolution of ASTER, the TSEB ET estimates are more often a combination of urban and agricultural land cover ET near the urban-agriculture land cover boundaries. As a result, the bi-modal distribution in ET is almost nonexistent. This study demonstrates the potential utility of high resolution ET mapping for more accurately determining the magnitude of the ET differences between cropland and urban land cover. It also suggests that, with high resolution thermal imagery, TSEB is a potential tool for monitoring the impact on ET due to relatively small changes in land cover as a result of urban expansion. Such a tool would be useful for watershed management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in the Remote Sensing of Terrestrial Evaporation)
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Open AccessArticle
Impact of the Revisit of Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing Observations on Evapotranspiration Uncertainty—A Sensitivity Study Using AmeriFlux Data
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(5), 573; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11050573
Received: 30 December 2018 / Revised: 20 February 2019 / Accepted: 4 March 2019 / Published: 8 March 2019
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (7118 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Thermal infrared remote sensing observations have been widely used to provide useful information on surface energy and water stress for estimating evapotranspiration (ET). However, the revisit time of current high spatial resolution (<100 m) thermal infrared remote sensing systems, sixteen days for Landsat [...] Read more.
Thermal infrared remote sensing observations have been widely used to provide useful information on surface energy and water stress for estimating evapotranspiration (ET). However, the revisit time of current high spatial resolution (<100 m) thermal infrared remote sensing systems, sixteen days for Landsat for example, can be insufficient to reliably derive ET information for water resources management. We used in situ ET measurements from multiple Ameriflux sites to (1) evaluate different scaling methods that are commonly used to derive daytime ET estimates from time-of-day observations; and (2) quantify the impact of different revisit times on ET estimates at monthly and seasonal time scales. The scaling method based on a constant evaporative ratio between ET and the top-of-atmosphere solar radiation provided slightly better results than methods using the available energy, the surface solar radiation or the potential ET as scaling reference fluxes. On average, revisit time periods of 2, 4, 8 and 16 days resulted in ET uncertainties of 0.37, 0.55, 0.73 and 0.90 mm per day in summer, which represented 13%, 19%, 23% and 31% of the monthly average ET calculated using the one-day revisit dataset. The capability of a system to capture rapid changes in ET was significantly reduced for return periods higher than eight days. The impact of the revisit on ET depended mainly on the land cover type and seasonal climate, and was higher over areas with high ET. We did not observe significant and systematic differences between the impacts of the revisit on monthly ET estimates that are based on morning or afternoon observations. We found that four-day revisit scenarios provided a significant improvement in temporal sampling to monitor surface ET reducing by around 40% the uncertainty of ET products derived from a 16-day revisit system, such as Landsat for instance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in the Remote Sensing of Terrestrial Evaporation)
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Open AccessArticle
Exploring the Potential of Satellite Solar-Induced Fluorescence to Constrain Global Transpiration Estimates
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(4), 413; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11040413
Received: 31 December 2018 / Revised: 30 January 2019 / Accepted: 9 February 2019 / Published: 18 February 2019
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (4333 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The opening and closing of plant stomata regulates the global water, carbon and energy cycles. Biophysical feedbacks on climate are highly dependent on transpiration, which is mediated by vegetation phenology and plant responses to stress conditions. Here, we explore the potential of satellite [...] Read more.
The opening and closing of plant stomata regulates the global water, carbon and energy cycles. Biophysical feedbacks on climate are highly dependent on transpiration, which is mediated by vegetation phenology and plant responses to stress conditions. Here, we explore the potential of satellite observations of solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF)—normalized by photosynthetically-active radiation (PAR)—to diagnose the ratio of transpiration to potential evaporation (‘transpiration efficiency’, τ). This potential is validated at 25 eddy-covariance sites from seven biomes worldwide. The skill of the state-of-the-art land surface models (LSMs) from the eartH2Observe project to estimate τ is also contrasted against eddy-covariance data. Despite its relatively coarse (0.5°) resolution, SIF/PAR estimates, based on data from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment 2 (GOME-2) and the Clouds and Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES), correlate to the in situ τ significantly (average inter-site correlation of 0.59), with higher correlations during growing seasons (0.64) compared to decaying periods (0.53). In addition, the skill to diagnose the variability of in situ τ demonstrated by all LSMs is on average lower, indicating the potential of SIF data to constrain the formulations of transpiration in global models via, e.g., data assimilation. Overall, SIF/PAR estimates successfully capture the effect of phenological changes and environmental stress on natural ecosystem transpiration, adequately reflecting the timing of this variability without complex parameterizations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in the Remote Sensing of Terrestrial Evaporation)
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Open AccessArticle
Combining Electrical Resistivity Tomography and Satellite Images for Improving Evapotranspiration Estimates of Citrus Orchards
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(4), 373; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11040373
Received: 29 December 2018 / Revised: 3 February 2019 / Accepted: 11 February 2019 / Published: 13 February 2019
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (6923 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
An adjusted satellite-based model was proposed with the aim of improving spatially distributed evapotranspiration (ET) estimates under plant water stress conditions. Remote sensing data and near surface geophysics information, using electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), were used in a revised version of the original [...] Read more.
An adjusted satellite-based model was proposed with the aim of improving spatially distributed evapotranspiration (ET) estimates under plant water stress conditions. Remote sensing data and near surface geophysics information, using electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), were used in a revised version of the original dual crop coefficient (Kc) FAO-56 approach. Sentinel 2-A imagery were used to compute vegetation indices (VIs) required for spatially estimating ET. The potentiality of the ERT technique was exploited for tracking the soil wetting distribution patterns during and after irrigation phases. The ERT-derived information helped to accurately estimate the wet exposed fraction (few) and therefore the water evaporated from the soil surface into the dual Kc FAO-56 approach. Results, validated by site-specific ET measurements (ETEC) obtained using the eddy covariance (EC) technique, showed that ERT-adjusted ET estimates (ETERT) were considerably reduced (15%) when compared with the original dual Kc FAO-56 approach (ETFAO), soil evaporation overestimation being the main reason for these discrepancies. Nevertheless, ETFAO and ETERT showed overestimations of 64% and 40% compared to ETEC. This is because both approaches determine ET under standard conditions without water limitation, whereas EC is able to determine ET even under soil water deficit conditions. From the comparison between ETEC and ETERT, the water stress coefficient was experimentally derived, reaching a mean value for the irrigation season of 0.74. The obtained results highlight how new technologies for soil water status monitoring can be incorporated for improving ET estimations, particularly under drip irrigation conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in the Remote Sensing of Terrestrial Evaporation)
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Open AccessArticle
Spectral Mixture Analysis as a Unified Framework for the Remote Sensing of Evapotranspiration
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(12), 1961; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10121961
Received: 24 October 2018 / Revised: 1 December 2018 / Accepted: 1 December 2018 / Published: 5 December 2018
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (10795 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study illustrates a unified, physically-based framework for mapping landscape parameters of evapotranspiration (ET) using spectral mixture analysis (SMA). The framework integrates two widely used approaches by relating radiometric surface temperature to subpixel fractions of substrate (S), vegetation ( [...] Read more.
This study illustrates a unified, physically-based framework for mapping landscape parameters of evapotranspiration (ET) using spectral mixture analysis (SMA). The framework integrates two widely used approaches by relating radiometric surface temperature to subpixel fractions of substrate (S), vegetation (V), and dark (D) spectral endmembers (EMs). Spatial and temporal variations in these spectral endmember fractions reflect process-driven variations in soil moisture, vegetation phenology, and illumination. Using all available Landsat 8 scenes from the peak growing season in the agriculturally diverse Sacramento Valley of northern California, we characterize the spatiotemporal relationships between each of the S, V, D land cover fractions and apparent brightness temperature (T) using bivariate distributions in the ET parameter spaces. The dark fraction scales inversely with shortwave broadband albedo (ρ < −0.98), and show a multilinear relationship to T. Substrate fraction estimates show a consistent (ρ ≈ 0.7 to 0.9) linear relationship to T. The vegetation fraction showed the expected triangular relationship to T. However, the bivariate distribution of V and T shows more distinct clustering than the distributions of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)-based proxies and T. Following the Triangle Method, the V fraction is used with T to compute the spatial maps of the ET fraction (EF; the ratio of the actual total ET to the net radiation) and moisture availability (Mo; the ratio of the actual soil surface evaporation to potential ET at the soil surface). EF and Mo estimates derived from the V fraction distinguish among rice growth stages, and between rice and non-rice agriculture, more clearly than those derived from transformed NDVI proxies. Met station-based reference ET & soil temperatures also track vegetation fraction-based estimates of EF & Mo more closely than do NDVI-based estimates of EF & Mo. The proposed approach using S, V, D land cover fractions in conjunction with T (SVD+T) provides a physically-based conceptual framework that unifies two widely-used approaches by simultaneously mapping the effects of albedo and vegetation abundance on the surface temperature field. The additional information provided by the third (Substrate) fraction suggests a potential avenue for ET model improvement by providing an explicit observational constraint on the exposed soil fraction and its moisture-modulated brightness. The structures of the T, EF & Mo vs SVD feature spaces are complementary and that can be interpreted in the context of physical variables that scale linearly and that can be represented directly in process models. Using the structure of the feature spaces to represent the spatiotemporal trajectory of crop phenology is possible in agricultural settings, because variations in the timing of planting and irrigation result in continuous trajectories in the physical parameter spaces that are represented by the feature spaces. The linear scaling properties of the SMA fraction estimates from meter to kilometer scales also facilitate the vicarious validation of ET estimates using multiple resolutions of imagery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in the Remote Sensing of Terrestrial Evaporation)
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
CubeSats Enable High Spatiotemporal Retrievals of Crop-Water Use for Precision Agriculture
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(12), 1867; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10121867
Received: 28 September 2018 / Revised: 19 November 2018 / Accepted: 20 November 2018 / Published: 22 November 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3337 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Remote sensing based estimation of evapotranspiration (ET) provides a direct accounting of the crop water use. However, the use of satellite data has generally required that a compromise between spatial and temporal resolution is made, i.e., one could obtain low spatial resolution data [...] Read more.
Remote sensing based estimation of evapotranspiration (ET) provides a direct accounting of the crop water use. However, the use of satellite data has generally required that a compromise between spatial and temporal resolution is made, i.e., one could obtain low spatial resolution data regularly, or high spatial resolution occasionally. As a consequence, this spatiotemporal trade-off has tended to limit the impact of remote sensing for precision agricultural applications. With the recent emergence of constellations of small CubeSat-based satellite systems, these constraints are rapidly being removed, such that daily 3 m resolution optical data are now a reality for earth observation. Such advances provide an opportunity to develop new earth system monitoring and assessment tools. In this manuscript we evaluate the capacity of CubeSats to advance the estimation of ET via application of the Priestley-Taylor Jet Propulsion Laboratory (PT-JPL) retrieval model. To take advantage of the high-spatiotemporal resolution afforded by these systems, we have integrated a CubeSat derived leaf area index as a forcing variable into PT-JPL, as well as modified key biophysical model parameters. We evaluate model performance over an irrigated farmland in Saudi Arabia using observations from an eddy covariance tower. Crop water use retrievals were also compared against measured irrigation from an in-line flow meter installed within a center-pivot system. To leverage the high spatial resolution of the CubeSat imagery, PT-JPL retrievals were integrated over the source area of the eddy covariance footprint, to allow an equivalent intercomparison. Apart from offering new precision agricultural insights into farm operations and management, the 3 m resolution ET retrievals were shown to explain 86% of the observed variability and provide a relative RMSE of 32.9% for irrigated maize, comparable to previously reported satellite-based retrievals. An observed underestimation was diagnosed as a possible misrepresentation of the local surface moisture status, highlighting the challenge of high-resolution modeling applications for precision agriculture and informing future research directions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in the Remote Sensing of Terrestrial Evaporation)
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Open AccessArticle
Estimating Evapotranspiration in a Post-Fire Environment Using Remote Sensing and Machine Learning
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(11), 1728; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10111728
Received: 10 September 2018 / Revised: 20 October 2018 / Accepted: 30 October 2018 / Published: 2 November 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2678 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the hydrological cycle, evapotranspiration (ET) transfers moisture from the land surface to the atmosphere and is sensitive to disturbances such as wildfires. Ground-based pre- and post-fire measurements of ET are often unavailable, limiting the potential to understand the extent of wildfire impacts [...] Read more.
In the hydrological cycle, evapotranspiration (ET) transfers moisture from the land surface to the atmosphere and is sensitive to disturbances such as wildfires. Ground-based pre- and post-fire measurements of ET are often unavailable, limiting the potential to understand the extent of wildfire impacts on the hydrological cycle. This research estimated both pre- and post-fire ET using remotely sensed variables and support vector machine (SVM) methods. Input variables (land surface temperature, modified soil-adjusted vegetation index, normalized difference moisture index, normalized burn ratio, precipitation, potential evapotranspiration, albedo and vegetation types) were used to train and develop 56 combinations that yielded 33 unique SVM models to predict actual ET. The models were trained to predict a spatial ET, the Operational Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEBop), for the 2003 Coyote Fire in San Diego, California (USA). The optimal SVM model, SVM-ET6, required six input variables and predicted ET for fifteen years with a root-mean-square error (RMSE) of 8.43 mm/month and a R2 of 0.89. The developed model was transferred and applied to the 2003 Old Fire in San Bernardino, California (USA), where a watershed balance approach was used to validate SVM-ET6 predictions. The annual water balance for ten out of fifteen years was within ±20% of the predicted values. This work demonstrated machine learning as a viable method to create a remotely-sensed estimate with wide applicability for regions with sparse data observations and information. This innovative work demonstrated the potential benefit for land and forest managers to understand and analyze the hydrological cycle of watersheds that experience acute disturbances based on this developed predictive ET model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in the Remote Sensing of Terrestrial Evaporation)
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Open AccessArticle
Towards Estimating Land Evaporation at Field Scales Using GLEAM
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(11), 1720; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10111720
Received: 27 September 2018 / Revised: 24 October 2018 / Accepted: 29 October 2018 / Published: 31 October 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (17318 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The evaporation of water from land into the atmosphere is a key component of the hydrological cycle. Accurate estimates of this flux are essential for proper water management and irrigation scheduling. However, continuous and qualitative information on land evaporation is currently not available [...] Read more.
The evaporation of water from land into the atmosphere is a key component of the hydrological cycle. Accurate estimates of this flux are essential for proper water management and irrigation scheduling. However, continuous and qualitative information on land evaporation is currently not available at the required spatio-temporal scales for agricultural applications and regional-scale water management. Here, we apply the Global Land Evaporation Amsterdam Model (GLEAM) at 100 m spatial resolution and daily time steps to provide estimates of land evaporation over The Netherlands, Flanders, and western Germany for the period 2013–2017. By making extensive use of microwave-based geophysical observations, we are able to provide data under all weather conditions. The soil moisture estimates from GLEAM at high resolution compare well with in situ measurements of surface soil moisture, resulting in a median temporal correlation coefficient of 0.76 across 29 sites. Estimates of terrestrial evaporation are also evaluated using in situ eddy-covariance measurements from five sites, and compared to estimates from the coarse-scale GLEAM v3.2b, land evaporation from the Satellite Application Facility on Land Surface Analysis (LSA-SAF), and reference grass evaporation based on Makkink’s equation. All datasets compare similarly with in situ measurements and differences in the temporal statistics are small, with correlation coefficients against in situ data ranging from 0.65 to 0.95, depending on the site. Evaporation estimates from GLEAM-HR are typically bounded by the high values of the Makkink evaporation and the low values from LSA-SAF. While GLEAM-HR and LSA-SAF show the highest spatial detail, their geographical patterns diverge strongly due to differences in model assumptions, model parameterizations, and forcing data. The separate consideration of rainfall interception loss by tall vegetation in GLEAM-HR is a key cause of this divergence: while LSA-SAF reports maximum annual evaporation volumes in the Green Heart of The Netherlands, an area dominated by shrubs and grasses, GLEAM-HR shows its maximum in the national parks of the Veluwe and Heuvelrug, both densely-forested regions where rainfall interception loss is a dominant process. The pioneering dataset presented here is unique in that it provides observational-based estimates at high resolution under all weather conditions, and represents a viable alternative to traditional visible and infrared models to retrieve evaporation at field scales. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in the Remote Sensing of Terrestrial Evaporation)
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Open AccessArticle
Sensitivity of Evapotranspiration Components in Remote Sensing-Based Models
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(10), 1601; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10101601
Received: 9 September 2018 / Revised: 4 October 2018 / Accepted: 6 October 2018 / Published: 9 October 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3373 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Accurately estimating evapotranspiration (ET) at large spatial scales is essential to our understanding of land-atmosphere coupling and the surface balance of water and energy. Comparisons between remote sensing-based ET models are difficult due to diversity in model formulation, parametrization and data requirements. The [...] Read more.
Accurately estimating evapotranspiration (ET) at large spatial scales is essential to our understanding of land-atmosphere coupling and the surface balance of water and energy. Comparisons between remote sensing-based ET models are difficult due to diversity in model formulation, parametrization and data requirements. The constituent components of ET have been shown to deviate substantially among models as well as between models and field estimates. This study analyses the sensitivity of three global ET remote sensing models in an attempt to isolate the error associated with forcing uncertainty and reveal the underlying variables driving the model components. We examine the transpiration, soil evaporation, interception and total ET estimates of the Penman-Monteith model from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (PM-MOD), the Priestley-Taylor Jet Propulsion Laboratory model (PT-JPL) and the Global Land Evaporation Amsterdam Model (GLEAM) at 42 sites where ET components have been measured using field techniques. We analyse the sensitivity of the models based on the uncertainty of the input variables and as a function of the raw value of the variables themselves. We find that, at 10% added uncertainty levels, the total ET estimates from PT-JPL, PM-MOD and GLEAM are most sensitive to Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) (%RMSD = 100.0), relative humidity (%RMSD = 122.3) and net radiation (%RMSD = 7.49), respectively. Consistently, systemic bias introduced by forcing uncertainty in the component estimates is mitigated when components are aggregated to a total ET estimate. These results suggest that slight changes to forcing may result in outsized variation in ET partitioning and relatively smaller changes to the total ET estimates. Our results help to explain why model estimates of total ET perform relatively well despite large inter-model divergence in the individual ET component estimates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in the Remote Sensing of Terrestrial Evaporation)
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Open AccessArticle
Vegetation Water Use Based on a Thermal and Optical Remote Sensing Model in the Mediterranean Region of Doñana
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(7), 1105; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10071105
Received: 8 May 2018 / Revised: 9 June 2018 / Accepted: 4 July 2018 / Published: 11 July 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (4402 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Terrestrial evapotranspiration (ET) is a central process in the climate system, is a major component in the terrestrial water budget, and is responsible for the distribution of water and energy on land surfaces especially in arid and semiarid areas. In order [...] Read more.
Terrestrial evapotranspiration (ET) is a central process in the climate system, is a major component in the terrestrial water budget, and is responsible for the distribution of water and energy on land surfaces especially in arid and semiarid areas. In order to inform water management decisions especially in scarce water environments, it is important to assess ET vegetation use by differentiating irrigated socio-economic areas and natural ecosystems. The global remote sensing ET product MOD16 has proven to underestimate ET in semiarid regions where ET is very sensitive to soil moisture. The objective of this research was to test whether a modified version of the remote sensing ET model PT-JPL, proven to perform well in drylands at Eddy Covariance flux sites using the land surface temperature as a proxy to the surface moisture status (PT-JPL-thermal), could be up-scaled at regional levels introducing also a new formulation for net radiation from various MODIS products. We applied three methods to track the spatial and temporal characteristics of ET in the World Heritage UNESCO Doñana region: (i) a locally calibrated hydrological model (WATEN), (ii) the PT-JPL-thermal, and (iii) the global remote sensing ET product MOD16. The PT-JPL-thermal showed strong agreement with the WATEN ET in-situ calibrated estimates (ρ = 0.78, ρ1month-lag = 0.94) even though the MOD16 product did not (ρ = 0.48). The PT-JPL-thermal approach has proven to be a robust remote sensing model for detecting ET at a regional level in Mediterranean environments and it requires only air temperature and incoming solar radiation from climatic databases apart from freely available satellite products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in the Remote Sensing of Terrestrial Evaporation)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Field-Scale Assessment of Land and Water Use Change over the California Delta Using Remote Sensing
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(6), 889; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10060889
Received: 22 April 2018 / Revised: 23 May 2018 / Accepted: 28 May 2018 / Published: 7 June 2018
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (16016 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The ability to accurately monitor and anticipate changes in consumptive water use associated with changing land use and land management is critical to developing sustainable water management strategies in water-limited climatic regions. In this paper, we present an application of a remote sensing [...] Read more.
The ability to accurately monitor and anticipate changes in consumptive water use associated with changing land use and land management is critical to developing sustainable water management strategies in water-limited climatic regions. In this paper, we present an application of a remote sensing data fusion technique for developing high spatiotemporal resolution maps of evapotranspiration (ET) at scales that can be associated with changes in land use. The fusion approach combines ET map timeseries developed using an multi-scale energy balance algorithm applied to thermal data from Earth observation platforms with high spatial but low temporal resolution (e.g., Landsat) and with moderate resolution but frequent temporal coverage (e.g., MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer)). The approach is applied over the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta region in California—an area critical to both agricultural production and drinking water supply within the state that has recently experienced stresses on water resources due to a multi-year (2012–2017) extreme drought. ET “datacubes” with 30-m resolution and daily timesteps were constructed for the 2015–2016 water years and related to detailed maps of land use developed at the same spatial scale. The ET retrievals are evaluated at flux sites over multiple land covers to establish a metric of accuracy in the annual water use estimates, yielding root-mean-square errors of 1.0, 0.8, and 0.3 mm day−1 at daily, monthly, and yearly timesteps, respectively, for all sites combined. Annual ET averaged over the Delta changed only 3 mm year−1 between water years, from 822 to 819 mm year−1, translating to an area-integrated total change in consumptive water use of seven thousand acre-feet (TAF). Changes were largest in areas with recorded land-use change between water years—most significantly, fallowing of crop land presumably in response to reductions in water availability and allocations due to the drought. Moreover, the time evolution in water use associated with wetland restoration—an effort aimed at reducing subsidence and carbon emissions within the inner Delta—is assessed using a sample wetland chronosequence. Region-specific matrices of consumptive water use associated with land use changes may be an effective tool for policymakers and farmers to understand how land use conversion could impact consumptive use and demand. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in the Remote Sensing of Terrestrial Evaporation)
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Open AccessArticle
Attribution of Flux Partitioning Variations between Land Surface Models over the Continental U.S.
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(5), 751; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10050751
Received: 12 February 2018 / Revised: 9 May 2018 / Accepted: 13 May 2018 / Published: 14 May 2018
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (10469 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Accurate quantification of the terrestrial evapotranspiration ( ET ) components of plant transpiration (T), soil evaporation (E) and evaporation of the intercepted water (I) is necessary for improving our understanding of the links between the carbon [...] Read more.
Accurate quantification of the terrestrial evapotranspiration ( E T ) components of plant transpiration (T), soil evaporation (E) and evaporation of the intercepted water (I) is necessary for improving our understanding of the links between the carbon and water cycles. Recent studies have noted that, among the modeled estimates, large disagreements exist in the relative contributions of T, E and I to the total E T . As these models are often used in data assimilation environments for incorporating and extending E T relevant remote sensing measurements, understanding the sources of inter-model differences in E T components is also necessary for improving the utilization of such remote sensing measurements. This study quantifies the contributions of two key factors explaining inter-model disagreements to the uncertainty in total E T : (1) contribution of the local partitioning and (2) regional distribution of E T . The analysis is conducted by using outputs from a suite of land surface models in the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) configuration. For most of these models, transpiration is the dominant component of the E T partition. The results indicate that the uncertainty in local partitioning dominates the inter-model spread in modeled soil evaporation E. The inter-model differences in T are dominated by the uncertainty in the distribution of E T over the Eastern U.S. and the local partitioning uncertainty in the Western U.S. The results also indicate that uncertainty in the T estimates is the primary driver of total E T errors. Over the majority of the U.S., the contribution of the two factors of uncertainty to the overall uncertainty is non-trivial. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in the Remote Sensing of Terrestrial Evaporation)
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