remotesensing-logo

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Advances of Remote Sensing on North Pacific Ecosystems, the Equatorial Pacific Band, and Adjacent Seas

A special issue of Remote Sensing (ISSN 2072-4292). This special issue belongs to the section "Ocean Remote Sensing".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2023) | Viewed by 22438

Special Issue Editors


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Geoscience, Environment and Spatial Planning (DGAOT), Faculty of Science, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, 4169-007 Porto, Portugal
Interests: satellite oceanography; ocean remote sensing; submesoscale dynamics; internal waves; river plumes; ocean color
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences, International Office of Graduate School, Ocean University of China, No. 238 Songling Road, Laoshan District, Qingdao 266071, China
Interests: internal waves; ocean remote sensing; physical oceanography; internal wave interaction; surface-wave/internal wave interaction; in situ measurements; coastal oceanography; ocean modelling; data assimilation

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research - CIIMAR, Terminal de Cruzeiros de Leixões, Av. General Norton de Matos s/n, 4450-208 Matosinhos, Portugal
Interests: satellite oceanography; ocean remote sensing; synthetic aperture radar (SAR); internal waves; submesoscale dynamics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Despite the global significance of the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre for energy and matter transformations and its role in the oceanic carbon cycle, it is grossly undersampled and not well characterized with respect to ecosystem structure and dynamics. In addition, marine heat waves are now a subject of increased attention in the setting of climate change and impacts in the ecosystem, and satellite remote sensing plays a significant role in monitoring their evolution and uncovering their origins and impacts. On the other hand, the equatorial band of the Pacific Ocean has been a major challenge to understanding ocean dynamics and climate, being a challenge for ocean remote sensing and theoretical physical oceanography. Furthermore, propagation of swell waves and their interaction with the air–sea system has been in the spotlight in some particular areas of the Pacific and may have influence on primary production.

The general aim of this Special Issue (SI) is to explore where water properties are transported at the ocean surface, driving weather and climate and shaping ecosystems and biodiversity. We invite papers that address the quantification of key processes that drive exchanges between atmosphere and ocean and the penetration toward the subsurface ocean that define the climate system on a wide range of time scales through the storage and transport of heat and carbon. We seek papers with approaches to use remote sensing data to study near surface phenomena and construct indicators that describe aspects of ecosystem dynamics in the North Pacific, the equatorial band of the Pacific Ocean, and its marginal seas (e.g., South China Sea, Gulf of California).

Dr. José C.B. da Silva
Prof. Dr. Caixia Wang
Dr. Jorge M. Magalhaes
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Remote Sensing is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • North Pacific subtropical gyre
  • Ocean and marine heatwaves
  • Swell and ocean waves
  • Internal waves
  • Equatorial waves
  • Tropical instability waves
  • Autonomous and Lagrangian platforms and multisensors
  • Ocean mixing
  • Fisheries oceanography
  • Upper ocean processes

Published Papers (9 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

24 pages, 7647 KiB  
Article
Long-Term Variability in Sea Surface Temperature and Chlorophyll a Concentration in the Gulf of California
by Juana López Martínez, Edgardo Basilio Farach Espinoza, Hugo Herrera Cervantes and Ricardo García Morales
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(16), 4088; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15164088 - 19 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2152
Abstract
The Gulf of California (GC) is the only interior sea in the Eastern Pacific Ocean and is the most important fishing area in the northwestern region of the Mexican Pacific. This study focuses on the oceanographic variability of the GC, including its southern [...] Read more.
The Gulf of California (GC) is the only interior sea in the Eastern Pacific Ocean and is the most important fishing area in the northwestern region of the Mexican Pacific. This study focuses on the oceanographic variability of the GC, including its southern portion, which is an area with a high flow of energy and exchange of properties with the Pacific Ocean (PO), in order to determine its role in physical–biological cycles and climate change. The purpose of this work is to analyze the sea surface temperature (SST) and chlorophyll a concentration (Chl-a) during the period from 1998–2022 as indicators of long-term physical and biological processes, oceanographic variability, and primary production in the GC. In total, 513 subareas in the GC were analyzed, and a cluster analysis was applied to identify similar areas in terms of SST and Chl-a via the K-means method and using the silhouette coefficient (>0.5) as a metric to validate the clusters obtained. The trends of the time series of both variables were analyzed, and a fast Fourier analysis was performed to evaluate cycles in the series. A descriptive analysis of the SST and Chl-a series showed that the SST decreased from south to north. Six bioregions were identified using a combined of both SST and Chl-a data. The spectral analysis of the SST showed that the main frequencies in the six bioregions were annual and interannual (3–7 years), and the frequencies of their variations were associated with basin-level weather events, such as El Niño and La Niña. The SST in the GC showed a heating trend at an annual rate of ~0.036 °C (~0.73 °C in 20 years) and a decrease in Chl-a at an annual rate of ~0.012 mg/m3 (~0.25 mg/m3 in 20 years), with potential consequences for communities and ecosystems. Additionally, cycles of 10–13 and 15–20 years were identified, and the 10–13-year cycle explained almost 40–50% of the signal power in some regions. Moreover, mesoscale features (eddies and filaments) were identified along the GC, and they were mainly associated with the clusters of the SST. All these spatial and temporal variabilities induce conditions that generate different habitats and could explain the high biodiversity of the GC. If the warming trend of the SST and the decreasing trend of the Chl-a continue in the long term, concerns could be raised, as they can have important effects on the dynamics of this important marine ecosystem, including habitat loss for numerous native species, declines in the catches of the main fishery resources, and, consequently, support for the arrival of harmful invasive species. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

22 pages, 9390 KiB  
Article
Evaluating the Performance of Sentinel-3A OLCI Products in the Subarctic Northeast Pacific
by Perumthuruthil Suseelan Vishnu and Maycira Costa
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(13), 3244; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15133244 - 23 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1409
Abstract
The subarctic northeast Pacific (SNEP) is a high-nitrate, low-chlorophyll (HNLC) region in the ocean, where phytoplankton growth and productivity are limited by iron. Moreover, there is a limited application of high spatial (300 m) and temporal resolution (daily) ocean color (OC) satellite imagery [...] Read more.
The subarctic northeast Pacific (SNEP) is a high-nitrate, low-chlorophyll (HNLC) region in the ocean, where phytoplankton growth and productivity are limited by iron. Moreover, there is a limited application of high spatial (300 m) and temporal resolution (daily) ocean color (OC) satellite imagery in studying the phytoplankton dynamics in this region. To address this issue, we aim to validate the remote sensing reflectance (Rrs; sr−1(λ)) and chlorophyll-a (Chla) concentration derived from the Polymer atmospheric correction algorithm against in situ data for the SNEP obtained during 2019 and 2020. Additionally, we performed qualitative analysis using weekly binned surface Chla maps to determine whether the product reflects the general pattern over a latitudinal and longitudinal domain. We processed the daily Level-1 image using Polymer and binned them weekly using Graphic Processing Tool (GPT). The validation results indicate that Polymer exhibits higher radiometric performance in the blue and green bands and fails to represent in situ Rrs in the red band. Furthermore, the Polymer slightly over- and underestimates reflectance between 0.0012 and 0.0018 sr−1 in the green band. On the other hand, excellent agreement was found between satellite-derived versus in situ Chla, followed by a slight overestimation of in situ Chla in the range from 0.17 to 0.28 mg/m3. The weekly binned Chla spatial map revealed a spatially homogeneous distribution of surface Chla in Central Alaska, but a substantial increase in Chla (≥0.7 mg/m3) was recorded toward Southeast Alaska (SEA) and the British Columbia (BC) shelf. Furthermore, Chla derived from latitudinal and longitudinal transects indicates high Chla toward 57°N and −135°W, respectively. Overall, the results of this study emphasize the need to obtain high-quality matchups from under-sampled oligotrophic waters, which are crucial for satellite validation, in addition to highlighting the importance of using high spatial and temporal resolution satellite imagery to study phytoplankton dynamics in the SNEP. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

22 pages, 14207 KiB  
Article
Satellite-Based Ocean Color and Thermal Signatures Defining Habitat Hotspots and the Movement Pattern for Commercial Skipjack Tuna in Indonesia Fisheries Management Area 713, Western Tropical Pacific
by Mukti Zainuddin, Safruddin Safruddin, Aisjah Farhum, Budimawan Budimawan, Rachmat Hidayat, Muhammad Banda Selamat, Eko Sri Wiyono, Muhammad Ridwan, Mega Syamsuddin and Yudi Nurul Ihsan
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(5), 1268; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15051268 - 25 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1965
Abstract
Understanding the mechanisms that determine the critical habitat of commercial species is one of the significant challenges in marine science, particularly for species that inhabit the vast ocean worldwide. Previous investigations primarily focused on determining skipjack habitats without considering the feasible size for [...] Read more.
Understanding the mechanisms that determine the critical habitat of commercial species is one of the significant challenges in marine science, particularly for species that inhabit the vast ocean worldwide. Previous investigations primarily focused on determining skipjack habitats without considering the feasible size for sustainable fisheries. To define habitat hotspots and movement patterns for decently sized skipjack tuna (≥50 cm) in Indonesia Fisheries Management Area (IFMA) 713, Indonesia, we examined the remote sensing of synoptic sea surface temperature (SST) and chlorophyll-a concentration (Chl-a) measurements with catch data from 2007 to 2016. A new skipjack tuna habitat model was developed based on the link between the key satellite-based environmental data and the best tuna fishery performance using a combination of generalized additive models (GAMs) and kernel density estimates. The findings reveal that feasible skipjack catch sizes were found in approximately 27% of total fishing grounds and were significantly captured in areas with a Chl-a of 0.15–0.28 mg m−3 and an SST of 29.5–31.0 °C, corresponding with an elevated skipjack habitat index (SHI). The habitat hotspots for the commercial skipjack were particularly produced by favorable Chl-a and SST, in association with Chl-a front and anticyclonic and cyclonic eddies, especially in October, which coincided with the highest skipjack catch per unit effort (CPUE). Skipjack distributions were mostly found within 10 km of favorable feeding habitats. They used the hotspot area as an indicator of their dynamics and movement pattern in the environment. The observed CPUEs cross-validated the predicted SHI values, suggesting that the model provided a reliable proxy for defining the potential habitats and the spatial movement of mature skipjack schools. Our findings have global significance for locating ecological hotspots, monitoring sustainable skipjack fisheries, and tracking skipjack migration, especially within the western tropical Pacific. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 4476 KiB  
Article
Using a Tandem Flight Configuration between Sentinel-6 and Jason-3 to Compare SAR and Conventional Altimeters in Sea Surface Signatures of Internal Solitary Waves
by Jorge M. Magalhaes, Ian G. Lapa, Adriana M. Santos-Ferreira, José C. B. da Silva, Fanny Piras, Thomas Moreau, Samira Amraoui, Marcello Passaro, Christian Schwatke, Michael Hart-Davis, Claire Maraldi and Craig Donlon
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(2), 392; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15020392 - 8 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3402
Abstract
Satellite altimetry has been providing a continuous record of ocean measurements with numerous applications across the entire range of ocean sciences. A reference orbit has been used since 1992 with TOPEX/Poseidon, which was repeated in the Jason missions, and in the newly launched [...] Read more.
Satellite altimetry has been providing a continuous record of ocean measurements with numerous applications across the entire range of ocean sciences. A reference orbit has been used since 1992 with TOPEX/Poseidon, which was repeated in the Jason missions, and in the newly launched Sentinel-6 Michael Freilich (in November 2020) to continually monitor the trends of sea level rise and other properties of the sea surface. These multidecadal missions have evolved alongside major technological advances, whose measurements are unified into a single data record owing to continuous intercalibration and validation efforts. However, the new Sentinel-6 provides synthetic aperture radar (SAR) processing, which improves the along-track resolution of conventional altimeters from a few kilometres (e.g., for Jason-3) to about 300 m. This means a major leap in sampling towards higher frequencies of the ocean spectrum, which inevitably means reconciling the assumption of a uniform Brown surface between the footprints of the larger kilometre-scale conventional altimetry and those of the finer-scale SAR altimetry. To explore this issue, this study uses the vantage point of the Sentinel-6/Jason-3 tandem phase to compare simultaneous sea surface signatures of large-scale Internal Solitary Waves (ISWs) between SAR and conventional altimetry. These waves can modulate the sea surface into arrayed sections of increased and decreased roughness with horizontal scales up to 10 km, which inflict sharp transitions between increased and decreased backscatter in the radar altimeters. It is found that Sentinel-6 can provide more detailed structures of ISWs in standard level-2 products, when compared with those from the conventional Jason-3 (similarly to previous results reported from the SAR altimeter from Sentinel-3). However, a new and striking feature is found when comparing the radar backscatter between Sentinel-6 and Jason-3, which are in opposite phases in the ISWs. These intriguing results are discussed in light of the intrinsically different acquisition geometries of SAR and conventional altimeters as well as possible implications thereof. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 4894 KiB  
Article
Remote Sensing of the Seasonal and Interannual Variability of Surface Chlorophyll-a Concentration in the Northwest Pacific over the Past 23 Years (1997–2020)
by Shuangling Chen, Yu Meng, Sheng Lin and Jingyuan Xi
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(21), 5611; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14215611 - 7 Nov 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2149
Abstract
Phytoplankton in the northwest Pacific plays an important role in absorbing atmospheric CO2 and promoting the ocean carbon cycle. However, our knowledge on the long-term interannual variabilities of the phytoplankton biomass in this region is quite limited. In this study, based on [...] Read more.
Phytoplankton in the northwest Pacific plays an important role in absorbing atmospheric CO2 and promoting the ocean carbon cycle. However, our knowledge on the long-term interannual variabilities of the phytoplankton biomass in this region is quite limited. In this study, based on the Chlorophyll-a concentration (Chl-a) time series observed from ocean color satellites of Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) in the period of 1997–2020, we investigated the variabilities of Chl-a on both seasonal and interannual scales, as well as the long-term trends. The phytoplankton Chl-a showed large spatial dynamics with a general decreasing pattern poleward. The seasonal phytoplankton blooms dominated the seasonal characteristics of Chl-a, with spring and fall blooms identified in subpolar waters and single spring blooms in subtropical seas. On interannual scales, we found a Chl-a increasing belt in the subpolar oceans from the marginal sea toward the northeast open ocean waters, with positive trends (~0.02 mg m−3 yr−1, on average) in Chl-a at significant levels (p < 0.05). In the subtropical gyre, Chl-a showed slight but significant negative trends (i.e., <−0.0006 mg m−3 yr−1, at p < 0.05). The negative Chl-a trends in the subtropical waters tended to be driven by the surface warming, which could inhibit nutrient supplies from the subsurface and thus limit phytoplankton growth. For the subpolar waters, although the surface warming also prevailed over the study period, the in situ surface nitrate reservoir somehow showed significant increases in the targeted spots, indicating potential external nitrate supplies into the surface layer. We did not find significant connections between the Chl-a interannual variabilities and the climate indices in the study area. Environmental data with finer spatial and temporal resolutions will further constrain the findings. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 8994 KiB  
Article
Framework to Extract Extreme Phytoplankton Bloom Events with Remote Sensing Datasets: A Case Study
by Wenfang Lu, Xinyu Gao, Zelun Wu, Tianhao Wang, Shaowen Lin, Canbo Xiao and Zhigang Lai
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(15), 3557; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14153557 - 25 Jul 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1963
Abstract
The chlorophyll-a concentration (CHL) is an essential climate variable. Extremes of CHL events directly reflect the condition of marine ecosystems. Here, we applied the statistical framework for defining marine heatwaves to study the extremes of winter CHL blooms off the Luzon Strait (termed [...] Read more.
The chlorophyll-a concentration (CHL) is an essential climate variable. Extremes of CHL events directly reflect the condition of marine ecosystems. Here, we applied the statistical framework for defining marine heatwaves to study the extremes of winter CHL blooms off the Luzon Strait (termed as LZB), northeastern South China Sea (SCS), from a set of remote sensing data. The application was enabled by a recent gap-free CHL dataset, the SCSDCT data. We present the basic properties and the long-term trends of these LZB events, which had become fewer but stronger in recent years. We further statistically analyze the LZB events’ controlling factors, including the submesoscale activity quantified by a heterogeneous index or surface temperature gradients. It was revealed that the submesoscale activity was also a vital modulating factor of the bloom events in addition to the well-understood wind and upwelling controls. This modulation can be explained by the stratification introduced by submesoscale mixed-layer instabilities. In the winter, the intensified winter monsoon provides a background front and well-mixed upper layer with replenished nutrients. During the wind relaxation, submesoscale baroclinic instabilities developed, leading to rapid stratification and scattered submesoscale fronts. Such a scenario is favorable for the winter blooms. For the first time, this study identifies the bloom events in a typical marginal sea and highlights the linkage between these events and submesoscale activity. Furthermore, the method used to identify extreme blooms opens up the possibility for understanding trends of multiple marine extreme events under climate change. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

16 pages, 11322 KiB  
Article
Surface Upwelling off the Zhoushan Islands, East China Sea, from Himawari-8 AHI Data
by Wenbin Yin, Youzhi Ma, Dian Wang, Shuangyan He and Daji Huang
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(14), 3261; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14143261 - 6 Jul 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1916
Abstract
The summer upwelling around the Zhoushan Islands is well-known. The previous concise review of (mostly) observational studies reveals that the present knowledge of the Zhoushan upwelling is unsatisfactory and has focused on seasonal variations. In this study, a sea surface temperature (SST) gradient-based [...] Read more.
The summer upwelling around the Zhoushan Islands is well-known. The previous concise review of (mostly) observational studies reveals that the present knowledge of the Zhoushan upwelling is unsatisfactory and has focused on seasonal variations. In this study, a sea surface temperature (SST) gradient-based upwelling detection algorithm was used. The Level 3 daily and hourly SST data from the geostationary satellite Himawari-8 were used to explore statistical features, seasonal variations, and short-term variations of the Zhoushan upwelling. Despite the duration period being like in previous studies, there is a new finding that the location of the upwelling center has a significant monthly migration. The statistical results show that the potential upwelling spots are clustered in the location with large topographic gradients and can be divided into four aggregation areas: between Gouqi Island and Lvhua Island, off Shengsi Island, around the Zhongjieshan Islands, and off the Taohua-Liuheng Islands. The core area of the Zhoushan upwelling is located at 122°E–123°E, 29.5°N–31.15°N with an irregular ellipse extending from southwest to northeast. The continuous cloud-free satellite images display that the lifecycle of the short-term variations was about 24 h and included two stages: intensification and decay. Meanwhile, the surface upwelling center has onshore–offshore movement under the advective transport of local tidal currents. A preliminary discussion suggests that the quasi-24 h periodic variations may be caused by the competing effect between tidal mixing and the stratification in the water column. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 4484 KiB  
Article
Tracking a Rain-Induced Low-Salinity Pool in the South China Sea Using Satellite and Quasi-Lagrangian Field Observations
by Zhiyong Cao, Zhendong Hu, Xiaolin Bai and Zhiyu Liu
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(9), 2030; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14092030 - 23 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2876
Abstract
A low-salinity pool (LSP) was observed in the northeastern South China Sea on 8–10 August 2018. Employing satellite and field observations, as well as widely used HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) Analysis data, we investigated the distribution, origin and evolution of the LSP. [...] Read more.
A low-salinity pool (LSP) was observed in the northeastern South China Sea on 8–10 August 2018. Employing satellite and field observations, as well as widely used HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) Analysis data, we investigated the distribution, origin and evolution of the LSP. A bowl-like structure of the LSP was observed from field observations and is also indicated by the HYCOM Analysis data. Spatially, the LSP extended 20 m deep vertically and spread at least 45 km laterally. Particle tracking simulations using satellite-observed precipitation and surface currents revealed the origin and evolution of the LSP. It is found that the LSP was induced by a heavy rainfall event two days prior to the field observations, evidenced by the significant correlation between the rainfall and salinity anomaly. The vertical expansion of the LSP was favored by nocturnal convection, but was restricted by the strong stratification at its base, which appeared to have prohibited development of convective instabilities as indicated by the observed vertical variation of the turbulent dissipation rate. The formation of a barrier layer due to the LSP restricted vertical heat exchanges, and as a result a thin temperature inversion layer was formed as the surface temperature dropped due to the nighttime cooling and mixing with the cold rainwater. The thermohaline structure favored development of diffusive convection, which is evidenced by the observation that the diapycnal diffusivity for heat (KT) was one order of magnitude larger than that for density (Kρ). Overall, this study provides novel insights into how the upper ocean responds to rainfall with satellite and field observations. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 6800 KiB  
Article
Detecting 2020 Coral Bleaching Event in the Northwest Hainan Island Using CoralTemp SST and Sentinel-2B MSI Imagery
by Bailu Liu, Lei Guan and Hong Chen
Remote Sens. 2021, 13(23), 4948; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13234948 - 6 Dec 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3132
Abstract
In recent years, coral reef ecosystems have been affected by global climate change and human factors, resulting in frequent coral bleaching events. A severe coral bleaching event occurred in the northwest of Hainan Island, South China Sea, in 2020. In this study, we [...] Read more.
In recent years, coral reef ecosystems have been affected by global climate change and human factors, resulting in frequent coral bleaching events. A severe coral bleaching event occurred in the northwest of Hainan Island, South China Sea, in 2020. In this study, we used the CoralTemp sea surface temperature (SST) and Sentinel-2B imagery to detect the coral bleaching event. From 31 May to 3 October, the average SST of the study area was 31.01 °C, which is higher than the local bleaching warning threshold value of 30.33 °C. In the difference images of 26 July and 4 September, a wide range of coral bleaching was found. According to the temporal variation in single band reflectance, the development process of bleaching is consistent with the changes in coral bleaching thermal alerts. The results show that the thermal stress level is an effective parameter for early warning of large-scale coral bleaching. High-resolution difference images can be used to detect the extent of coral bleaching. The combination of the two methods can provide better support for coral protection and research. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop