Special Issue "Advances in Measurements and Modeling of the Earth’s Mineral Dust Source Regions"

A special issue of Remote Sensing (ISSN 2072-4292). This special issue belongs to the section "Biogeosciences Remote Sensing".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Hesham M. El-Askary
Website
Guest Editor
Professor of Remote Sensing and Earth System Science, Center of Excellence in Earth Systems Modeling and Observations, Schmid College of Science and Technology, Chapman University, 1 University Dr. Orange, CA, 92866, USA
Interests: applications of remote sensing in atmosphere; marine environment; vegetation and arid lands
Dr. Slobodan Nickovic

Guest Editor
Senior scientist, Republic Hydrometeorological Service of Serbia, Kneza Višeslava 66, 11000 Beograd, Serbia
Interests: Meteorlogy; Aerosols; Numerical Modelling
Dr. Michael J. Garay

Guest Editor
Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Caltech, 4800 Oak Grove Dr, Pasadena, CA 91109, USA
Interests: satellite remote sensing of clouds and aerosols; radiative transfer including polarization; machine learning techniques for satellite image feature classification; computer vision approaches for image feature tracking; multi-dimensional data visualization and analysis for ground-based and satellite systems; and the sensitivity of satellite retrievals to polarimetric information
Dr. Olga Kalashnikova

Guest Editor
Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Caltech, 4800 Oak Grove Dr, Pasadena, CA 91109, USA
Interests: : Modeling of aerosol optics; Light scattering by irregular particles; Remote sensing of aerosol optical properties
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Mineral dust emitted into the atmosphere by Aeolian processes is a major component of atmospheric aerosols. The net contribution of mineral dust to atmospheric warming or cooling depends on the mineralogy of dust particles, and initialization of Earth System Models (ESM) with the surface composition of dust source regions is required to forecast the state of the Earth’s dust cycle and impacts of dust on the Earth system, e.g. dust interaction with clouds and radiation, and dust effects on climate and air quality during the long range transport. ESM derive the mineralogy of airborne dust from the composition and spatial distribution of the soils exposed in dust source regions, and, consequently, ESM-based forecasts are sensitive to the soil maps used to initialize the models.

NASA recently announced a new Earth observing mission The Earth surface Mineral dust source InvesTigation (EMIT) to conduct comprehensive spectroscopic surveys of the surface mineralogy of arid dust source regions on the ~100m-scale resolution. EMIT proposed to provide a comprehensive inventory of key surface minerals available for dust emission and demonstrate the improvements in forecasting skill of ESM initialized with high-resolution mineralogical datasets.

This special issue aims in bring together expertise in the observation and modeling of the mineral dust cycle with a focus on observational and modeling studies of mineral dust source regions. Papers are invited of field and modeling studies of mineral dust source regions, models for the generation, emission, and radiative properties of mineral dust, and analyses of airborne and space-borne measurements of dust minerology and optics.


Prof. Dr. Hesham El-Askary
Dr. Slobodan Nickovic
Dr. Michael J. Garay
Dr. Olga Kalashnikova
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Remote Sensing is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Dust Sources
  • Mapping
  • Satellite Observations
  • High resolution modeling
  • Long range transport
  • Physical, mineralogical and Optical properties
  • Scattering Albedo
  • Forcing

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Open AccessArticle
Validation of Ash/Dust Detections from SEVIRI Data Using ACTRIS/EARLINET Ground-Based LIDAR Measurements
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(7), 1172; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12071172 - 06 Apr 2020
Abstract
Two tailored configurations of the Robust Satellite Technique (RST) multi-temporal approach, for airborne volcanic ash and desert dust detection, have been tested in the framework of the European Natural Airborne Disaster Information and Coordination System for Aviation (EUNADICS-AV) project. The two algorithms, running [...] Read more.
Two tailored configurations of the Robust Satellite Technique (RST) multi-temporal approach, for airborne volcanic ash and desert dust detection, have been tested in the framework of the European Natural Airborne Disaster Information and Coordination System for Aviation (EUNADICS-AV) project. The two algorithms, running on Spinning Enhanced Visible Infra-Red Imager (SEVIRI) data, were previously assessed over wide areas by comparison with independent satellite-based aerosol products. In this study, we present results of a first validation analysis of the above mentioned satellite-based ash/dust products using independent, ground-based observations coming from the European Aerosol Research Lidar Network (EARLINET). The aim is to assess the capabilities of RST-based ash/dust products in providing useful information even at local scale and to verify their applicability as a “trigger” to timely activate EARLINET measurements during airborne hazards. The intense Saharan dust event of May 18–23 2008—which affected both the Mediterranean Basin and Continental Europe—and the strong explosive eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull (Iceland) volcano of April–May 2010, were analyzed as test cases. Our results show that both RST-based algorithms were capable of providing reliable information about the investigated phenomena at specific sites of interest, successfully detecting airborne ash/dust in different geographic regions using both nighttime and daytime SEVIRI data. However, the validation analysis also demonstrates that ash/dust layers remain undetected by satellite in the presence of overlying meteorological clouds and when they are tenuous (i.e., with an integrated backscatter coefficient less than ~0.001 sr−1 and with aerosol backscatter coefficient less than ~1 × 10−6 m−1sr−1). This preliminary analysis confirms that the continuity of satellite-based observations can be used to timely “trigger” ground-based LIDAR measurements in case of airborne hazard events. Finally, this work confirms that advanced satellite-based detection schemes may provide a relevant contribution to the monitoring of ash/dust phenomena and that the synergistic use of (satellite-based) large scale, continuous and timely records with (ground-based) accurate and quantitative measurements may represent an added value, especially in operational scenarios. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Orange Snow—A Saharan Dust Intrusion over Romania During Winter Conditions
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(21), 2466; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11212466 - 23 Oct 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
On the morning of 23 March 2018, an unusual phenomenon was observed over Romania where the southeastern part of the country was covered in a fresh-layer of orange snow. The event was extensively reported in mass-media and social-media and raised questions about the [...] Read more.
On the morning of 23 March 2018, an unusual phenomenon was observed over Romania where the southeastern part of the country was covered in a fresh-layer of orange snow. The event was extensively reported in mass-media and social-media and raised questions about the origin and the possible impact of the orange snow. Even if this type of events, intrusions of Saharan dust, have been reported before in Romania, and in Europe in general, their occurrence during negative temperature conditions is very rare. Saharan dust intrusion occurs over Europe mainly during spring and, in general, is not accompanied by snow at low altitudes. In this article, for the first time, the synoptic-scale conditions leading to the Saharan dust intrusion over Romania and the chemical and physical properties of the deposited dust particles in a snow layer were analyzed. The Saharan dust event affected a permanent atmospheric measurement research infrastructure located southwest of Bucharest, the capital city of Romania. In-situ and remote sensing measurements conducted at this research infrastructure allowed the identification of the dust source as the north Sahara. The source was confirmed by the elemental ratios of the main components (e.g., Al, Ca, Mg, Fe, K). For example, the (Ca+Mg)/Fe ratio of 1.39 was characteristic for the north Sahara. The dust morphology and the minerals were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy with energy disperse X-ray spectrometry (SEM/EDX). The size distribution of the particle geometric diameter showed that they are centred on 1 μ m, but larger particles up to 40 μ m are also present. To visualize the minerals, an approach was developed which emphasized the presence of the calcite, quartz or clay minerals. The optical parameters of dust were measured by re-suspending the particles. Values of the optical parameters (i.e., asymmetry parameter at 550 nm was 0.604, single scattering albedo was 0.84–0.89) were similar to those measured for Saharan dust intrusions over the Iberian Peninsula. Also, the non-refractory particles found in the dust-contaminated snow layer were analyzed, indicating the presence of HULIS-like compounds, most probably advected from the Mediterranean sea. Full article
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Open AccessTechnical Note
Geophysical Prospecting Using ERT and IP Techniques to Locate Galena Veins
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(24), 2923; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11242923 - 06 Dec 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The aim of this study is to prove the effectiveness of two electrical geophysical prospecting techniques, namely electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and induced polarization (IP), in locating thin vein structures of metal sulphides embedded in Palaeozoic materials underlying a sedimentary cover. For this [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to prove the effectiveness of two electrical geophysical prospecting techniques, namely electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and induced polarization (IP), in locating thin vein structures of metal sulphides embedded in Palaeozoic materials underlying a sedimentary cover. For this purpose, a Quaternary basin known as La Garza was selected, located in the mining district of Linares-La Carolina (Southern Spain). Galena (PbS) veins appear abundantly throughout this area, hosted in the Palaeozoic granitic bedrock. The studied veins show thicknesses from 0.5 to 2.0 m, and most present a vertical planar distribution. The veins lose their continuity below the sedimentary cover due to normal fractures that control the subsidence of the basin. During the 1980s, geophysical research campaigns were carried out in La Garza using vertical electrical sounding and failed in detecting the hidden veins. For this reason, to carry out this study, a closed regular mesh was designed, composed by eight ERT and IP profiles, with variable lengths between 315 and 411 metres. An electrode spacing between 5 and 7 metres was selected, thus allowing the granite bedrock to be reached without significantly reducing the resolution capabilities of the method. Even though ERT and IP are well-known geophysical techniques for mapping ore deposits, this is a case study that shows the advantages of the simultaneous use of both techniques (ERT and IP), over their individual application. ERT allows for reconstructing the morphology of the basin and the fractures that control it due to high-resistivity contrast between the overlying sedimentary cover and the underlaying granitic basement. However, it cannot provide any insights about their degree of mineralization. At this point, it is the IP technique that makes it possible to differentiate which are the mineralized structures. Some of these fractures produce high (above 50 mV/V) and moderate (below 50 mV/V) chargeability values, suggesting the existence of several unexploited metal veins. Furthermore, the derived models enable researchers to analyse the morphology of this sedimentary basin controlled by normal faults. Full article
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