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Special Issue "Remote Sensing and GIS for Environmental Analysis and Cultural Heritage"

A special issue of Remote Sensing (ISSN 2072-4292). This special issue belongs to the section "Urban Remote Sensing".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2020) | Viewed by 37919

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Tomasz Noszczyk
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Department of Land Management and Landscape Architecture, Faculty of Environmental Engineering and Land Surveying, University of Agriculture in Krakow, Balicka 253c, 30-149 Kraków, Poland
Interests: land change science; land use/cover change; land use modelling; statistical approaches; cadastre; environmental analysis; urban analysis
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Pelagia Gawronek
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
University of Agriculture in Krakow, Faculty of Environmental Engineering and Land Surveying, Department of Land Surveying, Balicka 253a, 30-149 Kraków, Poland
Interests: point cloud; TLS; displacement and deformation; construction monitoring; bridge monitoring; control networks

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Dynamically growing remote sensing and GIS technologies are gaining popularity all over the world as tools for environmental analysis. Remote sensing additionally provides data for mapping the surface of the Earth, the identification of landslides, and environmental monitoring. This Special Issue focuses on the practice and theory of the application of modern technologies in environmental studies.

Authors are requested to submit papers on the application of remote sensing or GIS in such domains as spatial modelling and planning, spatiotemporal analysis, urban analysis, land change science, or surveying engineering. The integration of remote sensing, GIS, and modelling can provide valuable support for management and decision-making. Close-range remote sensing is a means for obtaining comprehensive and detailed spatial data on strategic objects and cultural heritage.

We will welcome contributions where remote sensing and GIS are combined with other techniques and applied in various disciplines such as land surveying, land management, environmental engineering, or landscape architecture.

The following list provides some examples of topics of interest to ensure the consistency of the papers in this Special Issue:

  • Integration of remote sensing data for environmental analysis
  • New tools and methods for spatial data generation
  • Tracking urban growth and land use change with remote sensing technologies (e.g. LIDAR) and GIS tools
  • Remote sensing tools for surveying engineering
  • Modelling and visualization of spatial displacement and deformation using remote sensing (e.g. TLS)
  • Remote sensing technologies and GIS tools for the diagnosis and preservation of cultural heritage
  • UAV data for the mapping of erosion and landslide processes

Papers incorporating novel and interesting techniques in studying these aspects, as well as some interesting applications, will be considered. Well-prepared review papers are also welcomed.

We invite all prospective authors to share their research.

Dr. Tomasz Noszczyk
Dr. Pelagia Gawronek
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Remote Sensing is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • spatiotemporal analysis
  • UAV data
  • urban analysis
  • spatial modelling
  • spatial planning
  • GIScience
  • spatial analysis
  • surveying engineering
  • cultural heritage
  • land change science

Published Papers (22 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Remote Sensing and GIS for Environmental Analysis and Cultural Heritage
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(23), 3960; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12233960 - 03 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1025
Abstract
Dynamically growing remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) technologies are gaining popularity all over the world as tools for environmental analysis [...] Full article
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Research

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Article
Analyses of the Prądnik riverbed Shape Based on Archival and Contemporary Data Sets—Old Maps, LiDAR, DTMs, Orthophotomaps and Cross-Sectional Profile Measurements
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(14), 2208; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12142208 - 10 Jul 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1272
Abstract
Analyses of riverbed shape evolution are crucial for environmental protection and local water management. For narrow rivers located in forested, mountain areas, it is difficult to use remote sensing data used for large river regions. We performed a study of the Prądnik River, [...] Read more.
Analyses of riverbed shape evolution are crucial for environmental protection and local water management. For narrow rivers located in forested, mountain areas, it is difficult to use remote sensing data used for large river regions. We performed a study of the Prądnik River, located in the Ojców National Park (ONP), Poland. A multitemporal analysis of various data sets was performed. Light detection and ranging (LiDAR)-based data and orthophotomaps were compared with classical survey methods, and 78 cross-sectional profiles were done via GNSS and tachymetry. In order to add an extra time step, the old maps of this region were gathered, and their content was compared with contemporary data. The analysis of remote sensing data suggests that they do not provide sufficient information on the state and changes of riverbanks, river course or river depth. LiDAR data sets do not show river bottoms, and, due to plant life, do not document riverbanks. The orthophotomaps, due to tree coverage and shades, cannot be used for tracking the whole river course. The quality of old maps allows only for general shape analysis over time. This paper shows that traditional survey methods provide sufficient accuracy for such analysis, and the resulted cross-sectional profiles can and should be used to validate other, remote sensing, data sets. We diagnosed problems with the inventory and monitoring of such objects and proposed methods to refine the data acquisition. Full article
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Article
An Analysis of Urbanisation Dynamics with the Use of the Fuzzy Set Theory—A Case Study of the City of Olsztyn
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(11), 1784; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12111784 - 01 Jun 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1228
Abstract
Quantitative, qualitative and structural changes in land use that occur in a given location over time are a manifestation and a measure of urban development. Urbanisation is a process of spatial diffusion that spreads from the urban core to peripheral areas. Urban development [...] Read more.
Quantitative, qualitative and structural changes in land use that occur in a given location over time are a manifestation and a measure of urban development. Urbanisation is a process of spatial diffusion that spreads from the urban core to peripheral areas. Urban development is linked with human activities in a specific location and in a given period of time. In the context of spatial management, urbanisation is a process where less intensive land-use types are replaced by more intensive forms of land use. The demand for new land for residential development, the search for alternative locations for housing construction and the development of sustainable land management plans require new methods that support decision-making in the process of land conversion in peri-urban areas. The aim of this study was to develop a methodology for identifying and localising the boundaries of urban development with the use of the fuzzy set theory and to analyse the rate of changes in land use based on data for 2005–2010–2017. The proposed method supports the identification and localisation of urbanised areas and an evaluation of the degree of urbanisation in the interval [0,1]. The case study was conducted in the Polish city of Olsztyn. Full article
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Article
Landmarks as Cultural Heritage Assets Affecting the Distribution of Settlements in Rural Areas—An Analysis Based on LIDAR DTM, Digital Photographs, and Historical Maps
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(11), 1778; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12111778 - 01 Jun 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1284
Abstract
The final decision of the owner of the plot who plans to build a house depends on many factors most of which are of legal and financial nature. The authors demonstrate that the decisions regarding specific location within the plot of land are [...] Read more.
The final decision of the owner of the plot who plans to build a house depends on many factors most of which are of legal and financial nature. The authors demonstrate that the decisions regarding specific location within the plot of land are influenced by intangible components as well, namely the intention to have the best view. The view is often related to the occurrence of landmarks with prominent visual impact in the landscape that determine visual connections. The rural landscape is determined by the spatial arrangement including the buildings, the shape of public spaces, ownership divisions, and the land distribution. Being an element of rural cultural heritage, the arrangement of buildings is influenced by a vast number of factors such as geographical, historical, physical, and socio-economic ones. This article focuses on determining the interaction between the settlement locations and zones with an excellent, unique view of characteristic, well-known architectural landmarks. Mapping of viewsheds of many features is a critical element of the landscape planning process and facilitates the protection of cultural heritage assets. The analysis involved LiDAR DTM (Digital Terrain Model created in Light Detection and Ranging technology), digital photographs, and historical maps. In terms of the administrative subdivision, the area comprises 20 localities. The landmark visibility analysis for locations of the buildings covered a 140 km2 area of Carpathian Foothills in southern Poland. The article combines experiences in the field of landscape architecture, spatial planning and the use of Geographic Information System (GIS) technology. The examples show that the modern development layout refers to the historical structure and the development of a new settlement tissue has a cultural background and is influenced by spatial landmarks. Full article
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Article
The Use of Common Knowledge in Fuzzy Logic Approach for Vineyard Site Selection
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(11), 1775; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12111775 - 01 Jun 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1193
Abstract
A multitude of factors considered necessary for an informed choice of the location of the vineyard can be overwhelming for the decision-maker. Is there still a place for knowledge valuable from the perspective of an experienced winegrower in the era of precise measurements? [...] Read more.
A multitude of factors considered necessary for an informed choice of the location of the vineyard can be overwhelming for the decision-maker. Is there still a place for knowledge valuable from the perspective of an experienced winegrower in the era of precise measurements? The informative use of so-called common knowledge is possible owing to fuzzy-based techniques, which allow for the representation of intuitive notions in terms of quantitative measures. The work uses tools based on fuzzy logic to cover the scope of common knowledge within the decision-making process. Owing to its flexibility and ability to deal with imprecise input data while maintaining the simple construction, the fuzzy logic solution filled the gap between GIS data and wine grower’s experience. Based on the data from the thematic literature, a set of rules was created to interpret the relationships between popular site selection criteria. The dynamics and manner of interaction between variables were determined using adequate membership functions. Pre-processing using GIS with remote sensing data was considered as a preliminary stage for the analysis. By using the graphical interface, the system operation facilitates the work of a potential user. The obtained results indicated the possibility of an alternative approach to classical analyses by replacing or extending the meaning of some variables using information based on feelings and perceptions. Research constitutes a premise for the further development of expert systems using widely understood domain knowledge. Full article
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Article
Historical Underground Structures as 3D Cadastral Objects
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(10), 1547; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12101547 - 13 May 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1441
Abstract
The need for accurate registration of underground objects in the 3D cadastre is becoming increasingly common throughout the world. Research studies conducted in this area mostly focus on objects related to transportation or other public utilities and services. However, in settlements with a [...] Read more.
The need for accurate registration of underground objects in the 3D cadastre is becoming increasingly common throughout the world. Research studies conducted in this area mostly focus on objects related to transportation or other public utilities and services. However, in settlements with a long history, apart from new objects, there are also various historical objects underground. Such places are not fully discovered, and sometimes they are not even fully inventoried with surveying methods. The aim of this work therefore is to try to describe the possibility of introducing historical undergrounds to the real estate cadastre created for three dimensions, in case of its creation, and to check ground laser scanning as a method of measuring such objects in order to introduce them to the 3D cadastre. Considerations on the inclusion of underground historical objects into the three-dimensional cadastre database began with conceptual considerations. Their result is the elaboration of UML schemas describing relationships among 3D cadastre objects including underground objects. According to the authors, such underground objects should constitute a completely new class called ‘EGB_BuildingBlockUnderground3D’ and be part of the legal space of the entire building represented by the class ‘EGB_BuildingLegalSpace3D’ (the prefix EGB is an acronym of Polish cadastre name ‘Ewidencja Gruntów i Budynków’; in English, it stands for ‘Land and Building Cadastre’). In order to verify in practice the possibility of introducing historical underground objects into the 3D cadastre database, the inventory of the Underground Tourist Route in Rzeszów (Poland) was used. This route consists of a network of underground passageways and cellars built between the 14th and 18th centuries. The measurement was carried out with the application of the Faro Focus 3D terrestrial laser scanner. The underground inventory showed that at the time the current cadastre of land and buildings in Rzeszów was being founded, the boundaries of the cadastral parcels were established without knowing the location of the underground passageways under the Main Market Square. This resulted in a situation in which the objects located underground became parts of more than one cadastral parcel. If a 3D cadastre is created, such a situation must of course be recorded accordingly. The article proposes solutions for such situations. Full article
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Article
3D Point Cloud Analysis for Damage Detection on Hyperboloid Cooling Tower Shells
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(10), 1542; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12101542 - 12 May 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1638
Abstract
The safe operation and maintenance of the appropriate strength of hyperboloid cooling towers require special supervision and a maintenance plan that takes into consideration the condition of the structure. With three series of terrestrial laser scanning data, the paper presents an automatic inspection [...] Read more.
The safe operation and maintenance of the appropriate strength of hyperboloid cooling towers require special supervision and a maintenance plan that takes into consideration the condition of the structure. With three series of terrestrial laser scanning data, the paper presents an automatic inspection system for reinforced concrete cooling tower shells that ensures detection and measurement of damage together with the verification of the quality and durability of surface repairs as required by industry standards. The proposed solution provides an automatic sequence of algorithm steps with low computational requirements. The novel method is based on the analysis of values of the local surface curvature determined for each point in the cloud using principal component analysis and transformed using the square root function. Data segmentation into cloud points representing a uniform shell and identified defects was carried out using the region growing algorithm. The extent of extracted defects was defined through vectorisation with a convex hull. The proposed diagnostics strategy of reinforced concrete hyperboloid cooling towers was drafted and validated using an object currently under repair but in continuous service for fifty years. The results of detection and measurement of defects and verification of surface continuity at repaired sites were compared with traditional diagnostics results. It was shown that the sequence of algorithm steps successfully identified all cavities, scaling, and blisters in the shell recorded in the expert report (recognition rate—100%). Cartometric vectorisation of defects determined the scope of necessary shell repairs offering higher performance and detail level than direct contact measurement from suspended platforms. Analysis of local geometric features of repaired surfaces provided a reliable baseline for the evaluation of the repairs aimed at restoring the protective properties of the concrete surround, desirable especially in the warranty period. Full article
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Communication
New Heights of the Highest Peaks of Polish Mountain Ranges
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(9), 1446; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12091446 - 02 May 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2362 | Correction
Abstract
The idea to verify the height of the highest peaks (summits) in the Crown of Polish Mountains arose after analyzing sources regarding the date and method of measuring the height of these mountain peaks. Our investigations revealed that this type of material is [...] Read more.
The idea to verify the height of the highest peaks (summits) in the Crown of Polish Mountains arose after analyzing sources regarding the date and method of measuring the height of these mountain peaks. Our investigations revealed that this type of material is not usually available, and the first mention of height values is most often noted in the inter-war period, and occasionally before WWI (when Poland did not exist as an independent state); most of these values are still in use to this day. The problem of accurate measurement of the height of mountain peaks concerns not only the peaks analyzed by the authors, but also almost all mountain peaks worldwide. Therefore, as part of this work, several trips were organized to the highest peaks of several dozen mountain ranges in the territory of Poland. Measurement was made using a precise geodetic GNSS receiver an accuracy of within 10 cm and a DTM model based on ALS (airborne laser scanning). The results showed that commonly published heights can differ by up to several meters from the actual ones. The most important element of this work consists of the establishment of new measurements of the heights of the highest peaks of all mountain ranges in Poland, which may result in an alteration of the officially recorded heights based on this article. Apart from verification of these heights, this work also aimed to address the issue of the heights of all characteristic objects whose heights must be verified by using modern satellite techniques. Full article
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Article
A Conceptual Approach to Modeling the Geospatial Impact of Typical Urban Threats on the Habitat Quality of River Corridors
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(8), 1345; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12081345 - 23 Apr 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1830
Abstract
While for most of a landscape, urbanization leads to a significant habitat loss, rivers in urban areas are usually maintained or developed for their drainage function. Rivers are often the most important biophysical and ecological connection of cities with their surrounding ecosystems, although [...] Read more.
While for most of a landscape, urbanization leads to a significant habitat loss, rivers in urban areas are usually maintained or developed for their drainage function. Rivers are often the most important biophysical and ecological connection of cities with their surrounding ecosystems, although usually heavily altered due to urban impacts. For the conservation of urban rivers as ecological corridors, it is important to assess the impact of typical urban threats on habitat quality. In this study, we used the InVEST (Integrated Valuation of Environmental Services and Trade-offs) habitat quality model to assess the individual and combined impacts of built-up areas, first- and second-order road and water pollution from urban drainage, and wastewater discharge on habitat quality within a 200 m wide river corridor. The Pochote River in León, Nicaragua, was used as a case study. Our results show the spatial distribution and magnitude of the individual threat impacts, as well as the respective contribution of each threat to the overall impact of urbanization on the habitat quality within the river corridor. While close to the city center, all threats almost equally contributed to severe habitat degradation, while further downstream, an individual threat influence became more distinct with only water pollution having a consistent negative impact. We concluded that the InVEST habitat quality model can be used to assess the impact of typical urban threats on habitat quality in river corridors at a high spatial resolution. The results can help to improve urban planning and development to improve habitat conservation along urban rivers. Full article
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Article
The InVEST Habitat Quality Model Associated with Land Use/Cover Changes: A Qualitative Case Study of the Winike Watershed in the Omo-Gibe Basin, Southwest Ethiopia
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(7), 1103; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12071103 - 30 Mar 2020
Cited by 56 | Viewed by 3333
Abstract
The contribution of biodiversity to the global economy, human survival, and welfare has been increasing significantly, but the anthropogenic pressure as a threat to the pristine habitat has followed. This study aims to identify habitat suitability, analyze the change in habitat quality from [...] Read more.
The contribution of biodiversity to the global economy, human survival, and welfare has been increasing significantly, but the anthropogenic pressure as a threat to the pristine habitat has followed. This study aims to identify habitat suitability, analyze the change in habitat quality from 1988 to 2018, and to investigate the correlation between impact factors and habitat quality. The InVEST habitat quality model was used to analyze the spatiotemporal change in habitat quality in individual land-use types in the Winike watershed. Remote sensing data were used to analyze the land use/land cover changes. Nine threat sources, their maximum distance of impact, mode of decay, and sensitivity to threats were also estimated for each land-use cover type. The analysis illustrates that habitat degradation in the watershed was continuously increasing over the last three decades (1988 to 2018). Each threat impact factor and habitat sensitivity have increased for the last 30 years. The most contributing factor of habitat degradation was the 25.41% agricultural expansion in 2018. Population density, land-use intensity, elevation, and slope were significantly correlated with the distribution of habitat quality. Habitat quality degradation in the watershed during the past three decades suggested that the conservation strategies applied in the watershed ecosystem were not effective. Therefore, this study helps decision makers, particularly regarding the lack of data on biodiversity. It further looks into the conflict between economic development and conservation of biodiversity. Full article
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Article
Archaeological Remote Sensing Using Multi-Temporal, Drone-Acquired Thermal and Near Infrared (NIR) Imagery: A Case Study at the Enfield Shaker Village, New Hampshire
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(4), 690; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12040690 - 20 Feb 2020
Cited by 30 | Viewed by 2922
Abstract
While archaeologists have long understood that thermal and multi-spectral imagery can potentially reveal a wide range of ancient cultural landscape features, only recently have advances in drone and sensor technology enabled us to collect these data at sufficiently high spatial and temporal resolution [...] Read more.
While archaeologists have long understood that thermal and multi-spectral imagery can potentially reveal a wide range of ancient cultural landscape features, only recently have advances in drone and sensor technology enabled us to collect these data at sufficiently high spatial and temporal resolution for archaeological field settings. This paper presents results of a study at the Enfield Shaker Village, New Hampshire (USA), in which we collect a time-series of multi-spectral visible light, near-infrared (NIR), and thermal imagery in order to better understand the optimal contexts and environmental conditions for various sensors. We present new methods to remove noise from imagery and to combine multiple raster datasets in order to improve archaeological feature visibility. Analysis compares results of aerial imaging with ground-penetrating radar and magnetic gradiometry surveys, illustrating the complementary nature of these distinct remote sensing methods. Results demonstrate the value of high-resolution thermal and NIR imagery, as well as of multi-temporal image analysis, for the detection of archaeological features on and below the ground surface, offering an improved set of methods for the integration of these emerging technologies into archaeological field investigations. Full article
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Article
3D Modeling of Discontinuity in the Spatial Distribution of Apartment Prices Using Voronoi Diagrams
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(2), 229; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12020229 - 09 Jan 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1455
Abstract
An immanent feature of the housing market is a large spatial dispersion of real estate prices along with their simultaneous high stratification. Application of classic methods of data interpolation results in an excessive simplification of the outcome because of a conversion of the [...] Read more.
An immanent feature of the housing market is a large spatial dispersion of real estate prices along with their simultaneous high stratification. Application of classic methods of data interpolation results in an excessive simplification of the outcome because of a conversion of the dispersed data sets into areas of spatial continuity by reducing the above-average real estate prices. The main aim of the article was to search for spatial discontinuities of real estate prices’ distribution with 3D modeling using Voronoi diagrams as a method of irregular division of this space. Used methods of geospatial analyses with GIS tools enabled to identify clusters of high housing market activity and to avoid an excessive generalization of data resulting from the reduction of the above-average real estate prices. The research was conducted for over 7000 real estate transactions in years 2010–2017 in Olsztyn, the capital city of Warmia and Mazury in Poland, resulting in a 3D visualization of real estate prices for the chosen market, including the discontinuity in their spatial distribution. Full article
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Article
Land Use versus Land Cover: Geo-Analysis of National Roads and Synchronisation Algorithms
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(24), 3053; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11243053 - 17 Dec 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1325
Abstract
Technological progress in Earth surface observation provides a vast range of information on the land and methods of its use. This enables property owners, users and administrators to monitor the state of the boundaries of the land they own/administer. The land cover, monitored [...] Read more.
Technological progress in Earth surface observation provides a vast range of information on the land and methods of its use. This enables property owners, users and administrators to monitor the state of the boundaries of the land they own/administer. The land cover, monitored directly on the ground, is not always consistent with the land use entered in the Land and Property Registry (LPR). Discrepancies between these data are often found in former communist countries. One of the reasons for this was the rapid process of land privatisation, which took place in Poland, without updating information on the plot geodetic boundaries. The study examined and compared the land use (entered in the LPR) with the land cover (on the ground) for national roads (acr. LU-LC). The most frequent discrepancies were selected, using CLC2018, digital orthophotomaps (using the Web Map Service (WMS) browsing service compliant with Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards), cadastral data, statistical modelling and an updated survey of the right-of-way. Subsequently, six algorithms were proposed to synchronise the land use and land cover when the right-of-way was used by unauthorised persons, and two algorithms for cases of unauthorised use of land by the road administrator. Currently, it is difficult to synchronise the land cover with the land use from the administrative, legal and social points of view. The results of analyses show that full synchronisation of land use and land cover is complicated and time-consuming, although desired. Full article
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Article
Analysis of Changes in Forest Structure using Point Clouds from Historical Aerial Photographs
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(19), 2259; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11192259 - 27 Sep 2019
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 1337
Abstract
Dynamic changes in land use, many of which are related to land abandonment, are taking place in many regions of the world. As a result, forest vegetation appears, which in part is a consequence of planned afforestation programs and in part has the [...] Read more.
Dynamic changes in land use, many of which are related to land abandonment, are taking place in many regions of the world. As a result, forest vegetation appears, which in part is a consequence of planned afforestation programs and in part has the characteristics of secondary forest succession. Monitoring of forest structure allows the range and dynamics of such changes to be identified. The aim of the study was to assess the usefulness of historical aerial photographs in the determination of forest structure. On the basis of such data, a point cloud was created which represented the forest structure in 1966. Subsequently, using airborne laser scanning data for the same area, corresponding datasets describing the situation in 2012 were created. Comparison of the two tall vegetation models made it possible to perform four analyses related to forest structure changes over a period of 46 years. The analyses were carried out in four areas in southern Poland. The analysis of the results confirmed that historical aerial photographs may be a valuable source in long-term analyses of changes in the range and height structure of areas containing tall vegetation. Full article
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Article
Using Canopy Height Model Obtained with Dense Image Matching of Archival Photogrammetric Datasets in Area Analysis of Secondary Succession
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(18), 2182; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11182182 - 19 Sep 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1186
Abstract
One of the threats that has a significant impact on the conservation status and on the preservation of non-forest Natura 2000 habitats, is secondary succession, which is currently analyzed using airborne laser scanning (ALS) data. However, learning about the dynamics of this phenomenon [...] Read more.
One of the threats that has a significant impact on the conservation status and on the preservation of non-forest Natura 2000 habitats, is secondary succession, which is currently analyzed using airborne laser scanning (ALS) data. However, learning about the dynamics of this phenomenon in the past is only possible by using archival aerial photographs, which are often the only source of information about the past state of land cover. Algorithms of dense image matching developed in the last decade have provided a new quality of digital surface modeling. The aim of this study was to determine the extent of trees and shrubs, using dense image matching of aerial images. As part of a comprehensive research study, the testing of two software programs with different settings of image matching was carried out. An important step in this investigation was the quality assessment of digital surface models (DSM), derived from point clouds based on reference data for individual trees growing singly and in groups with high canopy closure. It was found that the detection of single trees provided worse results. The final part of the experiment was testing the impact of the height threshold value in elevation models on the accuracy of determining the extent of the trees and shrubs. It was concluded that the best results were achieved for the threshold value of 1.25–1.75 m (depending on the analyzed archival photos) with 10 to 30% error rate in determining the trees and shrubs cover. Full article
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Article
Stability Assessment of Coastal Cliffs Incorporating Laser Scanning Technology and a Numerical Analysis
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(16), 1951; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11161951 - 20 Aug 2019
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 1634
Abstract
We investigated the cliff coast in Jastrzebia Gora, Poland. The measurements that were taken between 2014 and 2018 by applying terrestrial, mobile, and airborne laser scanning describe a huge geometric modification involving dislocations in a 2.5 m range. Differential maps and a volumetric [...] Read more.
We investigated the cliff coast in Jastrzebia Gora, Poland. The measurements that were taken between 2014 and 2018 by applying terrestrial, mobile, and airborne laser scanning describe a huge geometric modification involving dislocations in a 2.5 m range. Differential maps and a volumetric change analysis made it possible to identify the most deformed cliff’s location. Part of the monitoring of coastal change involved the measurement of a cliff sector in order to determine the soil mass flow down the slope. A full geometric image of the cliff was complemented by a stability assessment that incorporated numerical methods. The analysis showed that the stability coefficients, assuming a particular soil strata layout and geotechnical parameters, are unsafely close to the limit value. Moreover, the numerical computations, which were performed under simplifying assumptions, were not able to capture a multitude of other random factors that may have an impact on the soil mass stability. Thus, displacements of both reinforced soil and gabions were detected that are intended to prevent the cliff from deforming and to protect the infrastructure in its vicinity. The array of applied measurement methods provides a basis for the development of research aimed at optimization of applied tools, safety improvements, and a rapid reaction to threats. Full article
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Article
Method of Delimiting the Spatial Structure of Villages for the Purposes of Land Consolidation and Exchange
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(11), 1268; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11111268 - 28 May 2019
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 1227
Abstract
Land fragmentation and the distribution of plots in rural areas has a negative effect on the profitability and efficiency of agricultural production. Land consolidation and exchange is an operation that facilitates improvements in the spatial structure, while at the same time contributing to [...] Read more.
Land fragmentation and the distribution of plots in rural areas has a negative effect on the profitability and efficiency of agricultural production. Land consolidation and exchange is an operation that facilitates improvements in the spatial structure, while at the same time contributing to the sustainable development of rural areas. With regard to the large number of problem areas, they cannot be subject to land consolidation and exchange at the same time for reasons related to finance and human resources. Therefore, the authors propose that land for consolidation should be consolidated into larger typological units. Identifying those areas that are most similar facilitates the analysis and makes it possible to capture the spatial differentiation of land. The proposed method was tested on 116 villages in the county of Łęczna, situated in Lublin Voivodeship in Eastern Poland. The aim of this research is to develop the concept of village grouping into larger typological units. The obtained results allowed for the creation of a grouping methodology based on selected diagnostic variables that can be applied to other research objects. The description of differences between the identified groups of villages makes it possible to determine the hierarchy of urgency of for land consolidation and exchange. Although delimitation itself does not determine the sequence in which consolidation should be performed, it does allow for the identification of similar areas where such works should be performed at the same time. Based on properly selected guidelines, it is also possible to develop an adequate hierarchy of works. In addition, identifying areas which share similar spatial characteristics and consolidating them has a positive influence, primarily on the cultural heritage, because some variables reflect both quantitative and qualitative aspects of human development on the use of land and on the built-up environment. Full article
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Article
The Comparison of Different Methods of Texture Analysis for Their Efficacy for Land Use Classification in Satellite Imagery
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(10), 1233; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11101233 - 24 May 2019
Cited by 46 | Viewed by 2577
Abstract
The paper presents a comparison of the efficacy of several texture analysis methods as tools for improving land use/cover classification in satellite imagery. The tested methods were: gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) features, Laplace filters and granulometric analysis, based on mathematical morphology. The [...] Read more.
The paper presents a comparison of the efficacy of several texture analysis methods as tools for improving land use/cover classification in satellite imagery. The tested methods were: gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) features, Laplace filters and granulometric analysis, based on mathematical morphology. The performed tests included an assessment of the classification accuracy performed based on spectro-textural datasets: spectral images with the addition of images generated using different texture analysis methods. The class nomenclature was based on spectral and textural differences and included the following classes: water, low vegetation, bare soil, urban, and two (coniferous and deciduous) forest classes. The classification accuracy was assessed using the overall accuracy and kappa index of agreement, based on the reference data generated using visual interpretation of the images. The analysis was performed using very high-resolution imagery (Pleiades, WorldView-2) and high-resolution imagery (Sentinel-2). The results show the efficacy of selected GLCM features and granulometric analysis as tools for providing textural data, which could be used in the process of land use/cover classification. It is also clear that texture analysis is generally a more important and effective component of classification for images of higher resolution. In addition, for classification using GLCM results, the Random Forest variable importance analysis was performed. Full article
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Article
GIS-based Landform Classification of Eneolithic Archaeological Sites in the Plateau-plain Transition Zone (NE Romania): Habitation Practices vs. Flood Hazard Perception
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(8), 915; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11080915 - 15 Apr 2019
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 2427
Abstract
The landforms of the Earth’s surface ranging from large-scale features to local topography are factors that influence human behavior in terms of habitation practices. The ability to extract geomorphological settings using geoinformatic techniques is an important aspect of any environmental analysis and archaeological [...] Read more.
The landforms of the Earth’s surface ranging from large-scale features to local topography are factors that influence human behavior in terms of habitation practices. The ability to extract geomorphological settings using geoinformatic techniques is an important aspect of any environmental analysis and archaeological landscape approach. Morphological data derived from DEMs with high accuracies (e.g., LiDAR data), can provide valuable information related to landscape modelling and landform classification processes. This study applies the first landform classification and flood hazard vulnerability of 730 Eneolithic (ca. 5000–3500 BCE) settlement locations within the plateau-plain transition zone of NE Romania. The classification was done using the SD (standard deviation) of TPI (Topographic Position Index) for the mean elevation (DEV) around each archaeological site, and HEC-RAS flood hazard pattern generated for 0.1% (1000 year) discharge insurance. The results indicate that prehistoric communities preferred to place their settlements for defensive purposes on hilltops, or in the close proximity of a steep slope. Based on flood hazard pattern, 8.2% out of the total sites had been placed in highly vulnerable areas. The results indicate an eco-cultural niche connected with habitation practices and flood hazard perception during the Eneolithic period in the plateau-plain transition zone of NE Romania and contribute to archaeological predictive modelling. Full article
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Correction
Correction: Kozioł K. and Maciuk K. New Heights of the Highest Peaks of Polish Mountain Ranges. Remote Sensing 2020, 12, 1446
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(9), 2008; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14092008 - 22 Apr 2022
Viewed by 334
Abstract
The authors wish to make the following corrections to this paper [...] Full article
Technical Note
High-Rate Monitoring of Satellite Clocks Using Two Methods of Averaging Time
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(23), 2754; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11232754 - 22 Nov 2019
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1958
Abstract
Knowledge of the global navigation satellite system (GNSS) satellite clock error is crucial in real-time precise point positioning (PPP), seismology, and many other high-rate GNSS applications. In this work, the authors show the characterisation of the atomic GNSS clock’s stability and its dependency [...] Read more.
Knowledge of the global navigation satellite system (GNSS) satellite clock error is crucial in real-time precise point positioning (PPP), seismology, and many other high-rate GNSS applications. In this work, the authors show the characterisation of the atomic GNSS clock’s stability and its dependency on the adopted orbit type using Allan deviation with two methods of averaging time. Four International GNSS Service (IGS) orbit types were used: broadcast, ultra-rapid, rapid and final orbit. The calculations were made using high-rate 1 Hz observations from the IGS stations equipped with external clocks (oscillators). The most stable receiver oscillator was chosen as a reference clock. The results show the advantage of the newest GPS satellite block with respect to the other satellites. Significant differences in the results based on the orbit type used have not been recorded. Many averaging time methods used in Allan deviation (ADEV) show the clock’s fluctuations, usually smoothed in 2n s averaging times. Full article
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Letter
Estimation of Usable Area of Flat-Roof Residential Buildings Using Topographic Data with Machine Learning Methods
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(20), 2382; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11202382 - 14 Oct 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1181
Abstract
The real estate appraisal largely consists of estimating the property’s value based on the transaction prices of similar buildings with the usable area being one of the main comparative units. A Polish appraiser finds data mentioned in the Price and Value Register (PVR). [...] Read more.
The real estate appraisal largely consists of estimating the property’s value based on the transaction prices of similar buildings with the usable area being one of the main comparative units. A Polish appraiser finds data mentioned in the Price and Value Register (PVR). However, one of the authors’ previous studies indicated that the PVR contained highly incomplete information on usable area of residential buildings rendering it impractical for real estate appraisal purposes. Here, we propose a machine learning method to estimate the usable area of flat-roof residential buildings based on Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data as well as the Database of Topographic Objects (BDOT10k). First, we train models with different architectures on the exact project data of residential buildings available online, obtained mostly from the design offices Lipińscy and Archon. Then, we apply trained algorithms on available residential building in Koszalin, Poland, using BDOT10k and LoD1 standard LiDAR data, and compare the results with usable area reported in PVR. Results show that the usable area of flat-roof houses without garages and extensions can be calculated with great accuracy up to 4%, while for more complex flat-roof buildings-up to 4–10%, depending on how detailed data are available. The model may be used by real estate appraisers to approximate the unknown usable area of residential buildings with known transaction prices, and as such increase the number of properties that can be compared to the evaluated real estate. To estimate the usable area of buildings with more complex roofs, a higher standard of LiDAR data is needed. Full article
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