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Special Issue "Remote Sensing in Coastal Zone Monitoring and Management—How Can Remote Sensing Challenge the Broad Spectrum of Temporal and Spatial Scales in Coastal Zone Dynamic?"

A special issue of Remote Sensing (ISSN 2072-4292). This special issue belongs to the section "Ocean Remote Sensing".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 September 2018)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. David Doxaran

Laboratoire d'Océanographie de Villefranche UMR 7093 - CNRS / UPMC, France
Website | E-Mail
Phone: 0033493763724
Interests: ocean colour remote sensing, optical properties of turbid estuarine and coastal waters; bio-optical modelling; atmospheric corrections; river plumes; sediment transport modelling
Guest Editor
Dr. Javier Bustamante

Estación Biológica de Doñana, CSIC - Dept. Wetland Ecology - Américo Vespucio 26, Spain
Website | E-Mail
Interests: optical remote sensing of wetlands; time series; phenology; wetland ecology; SAV; species distribution models; ornithology
Guest Editor
Dr. Ana Ines Dogliotti

Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (IAFE), CONICET/UBA, Argentina
Website | E-Mail
Interests: Ocean color remote sensing in coastal areas and estuaries; validation of satellite-derived products; bio-optical algorithm development and evaluation; atmospheric correction in turbid waters
Guest Editor
Dr. Tim J Malthus

Coastal Sensing and Modelling Group - Coastal Development and Management Program - CSIRO Oceans and Atmosphere Business Unit, Australia
Website 1 | Website 2 | E-Mail
Interests: coastal management; field spectroscopy; airborne and satellite Earth observations data; management of land and water resources
Guest Editor
Dr. Nadia Senechal

University of Bordeaux OASU/ UMR 5805 CNRS, France
Website | E-Mail
Interests: open sandy beach; shoreline; video; storm impact; morphodynamic; recovery; erosion

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Coastal zones are sensitive areas responding at various scales (events to long-term trends) where the monitoring and management of physico-chemical, biological, morphological processes, and fluxes are highly challenging. They are directly affected by anthropization (urbanization, industrialization, agri- and aquaculture) and climate change (e.g., river discharges, waves, sea-level rise). Coastal waters only represent 15% of the global ocean, but concentrate 90% of commercial fisheries, contribute to 25% of global biological productivity, and represent 80% of the marine biodiversity, while being associated with an intensive tourism-related economy.

The monitoring and management of coastal zones requires past, present, and future observations adapted to quite diverse and dynamic environments. To complement field measurements, the use of remote sensing data provides useful information to map the hydromorphological (freshwater discharge, currents, shoreline evolution), physico-chemical (water transparency, temperature, salinity, oxygen, nutrients, and pollutants), and biological (habitats, phytoplankton blooms) properties of the coastal zones.

This Special Issue will highlight how remote sensing can tackle the monitoring of nearshore dynamics thanks to recent progress made in terms of sensors’ radiometric, spatial, and temporal resolutions, together with new data processing methods, products, and applications.

We are inviting submissions including, but not limited to:

  • high spatial and high temporal resolution remote sensing observations,
  • atmospheric correction in optically complex waters,
  • synergetic use of multi-mission remote sensing datasets,
  • techniques for assessing change in the coastal zone,
  • dredging activities,
  • mangrove systems,
  • coastal geomorphology and change,
  • turbidity evolution in coastal waters,
  • monitoring changes in river discharge,
  • beach morphology evolution,
  • mapping submerged aquatic vegetation,
  • change dynamic in coastal marshes,
  • coastal urbanization trends.
Dr. David Doxaran
Dr. Javier Bustamante
Dr. Ana Ines Dogliotti
Dr. Tim J Malthus
Dr. Nadia Senechal
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Remote Sensing is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • coastal zones
  • management
  • monitoring
  • remote sensing
  • river plumes
  • estuaries
  • applications
  • optically complex waters
  • shoreline
  • morphology

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Monitoring Retreat of Coastal Sandy Systems Using Geomatics Techniques: Somo Beach (Cantabrian Coast, Spain, 1875–2017)
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(9), 1500; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10091500
Received: 31 July 2018 / Revised: 25 August 2018 / Accepted: 16 September 2018 / Published: 19 September 2018
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Abstract
The dynamics and evolution of a coastal sandy system over the last 142 years (1875–2017) were analyzed using geomatics techniques (historical cartography, photogrammetry, topography, and terrestrial laser scanning (TLS)). The continuous beach–dune system is a very active confining sand barrier closing an estuarine
[...] Read more.
The dynamics and evolution of a coastal sandy system over the last 142 years (1875–2017) were analyzed using geomatics techniques (historical cartography, photogrammetry, topography, and terrestrial laser scanning (TLS)). The continuous beach–dune system is a very active confining sand barrier closing an estuarine system where damage is suffered by coastal infrastructures and houses. The techniques used and documentary sources involved historical cartography, digitalizing the 5-m-level curve on the maps of 1875, 1908, 1920, 1950, and 1985; photogrammetric flights of 1985, 1988, and 2001 without calibration certificates, digitalizing only the upper part of the sandy front; photogrammetric flights of 2005, 2007, 2010, and 2014, using photogrammetric restitution of the 5-m-level curve; topo-bathymetric profiles made monthly between 1988 and 1993 using a total station; a terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) since 2011 by means of two annual measurements; and the meteorological data for the period of 1985–2017. The retreat of the sandy complex was caused by winter storms with large waves and swells higher than 6 m, coinciding with periods demonstrating a high tidal range of over 100 and periods with a large number of strong storms. The retreat was 8 m between December 2013 and March 2014. The overall change of the coastline between 1875 and 2017 was approximately 415 m of retreat at Somo Beach. The erosive processes on the foredune involved the outcrop of the rock cliff in 1999 and 2014, which became a continuous rocky cliff without sands. To know the recent coastal evolution and its consequences on the human environment, the combined geomatic techniques and future TLS data series may lead to the improvement in the knowledge of shoreline changes in the context of sea level and global changes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Mapping and Classification of Ecologically Sensitive Marine Habitats Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Imagery and Object-Based Image Analysis (OBIA)
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(9), 1331; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10091331
Received: 13 June 2018 / Revised: 16 August 2018 / Accepted: 20 August 2018 / Published: 21 August 2018
PDF Full-text (4736 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Nowadays, emerging technologies, such as long-range transmitters, increasingly miniaturized components for positioning, and enhanced imaging sensors, have led to an upsurge in the availability of new ecological applications for remote sensing based on unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), sometimes referred to as “drones”. In
[...] Read more.
Nowadays, emerging technologies, such as long-range transmitters, increasingly miniaturized components for positioning, and enhanced imaging sensors, have led to an upsurge in the availability of new ecological applications for remote sensing based on unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), sometimes referred to as “drones”. In fact, structure-from-motion (SfM) photogrammetry coupled with imagery acquired by UAVs offers a rapid and inexpensive tool to produce high-resolution orthomosaics, giving ecologists a new way for responsive, timely, and cost-effective monitoring of ecological processes. Here, we adopted a lightweight quadcopter as an aerial survey tool and object-based image analysis (OBIA) workflow to demonstrate the strength of such methods in producing very high spatial resolution maps of sensitive marine habitats. Therefore, three different coastal environments were mapped using the autonomous flight capability of a lightweight UAV equipped with a fully stabilized consumer-grade RGB digital camera. In particular we investigated a Posidonia oceanica seagrass meadow, a rocky coast with nurseries for juvenile fish, and two sandy areas showing biogenic reefs of Sabelleria alveolata. We adopted, for the first time, UAV-based raster thematic maps of these key coastal habitats, produced after OBIA classification, as a new method for fine-scale, low-cost, and time saving characterization of sensitive marine environments which may lead to a more effective and efficient monitoring and management of natural resources. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Integrating Drone Imagery into High Resolution Satellite Remote Sensing Assessments of Estuarine Environments
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(8), 1257; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10081257
Received: 6 July 2018 / Revised: 29 July 2018 / Accepted: 8 August 2018 / Published: 10 August 2018
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Abstract
Very high-resolution satellite imagery (≤5 m resolution) has become available on a spatial and temporal scale appropriate for dynamic wetland management and conservation across large areas. Estuarine wetlands have the potential to be mapped at a detailed habitat scale with a frequency that
[...] Read more.
Very high-resolution satellite imagery (≤5 m resolution) has become available on a spatial and temporal scale appropriate for dynamic wetland management and conservation across large areas. Estuarine wetlands have the potential to be mapped at a detailed habitat scale with a frequency that allows immediate monitoring after storms, in response to human disturbances, and in the face of sea-level rise. Yet mapping requires significant fieldwork to run modern classification algorithms and estuarine environments can be difficult to access and are environmentally sensitive. Recent advances in unoccupied aircraft systems (UAS, or drones), coupled with their increased availability, present a solution. UAS can cover a study site with ultra-high resolution (<5 cm) imagery allowing visual validation. In this study we used UAS imagery to assist training a Support Vector Machine to classify WorldView-3 and RapidEye satellite imagery of the Rachel Carson Reserve in North Carolina, USA. UAS and field-based accuracy assessments were employed for comparison across validation methods. We created and examined an array of indices and layers including texture, NDVI, and a LiDAR DEM. Our results demonstrate classification accuracy on par with previous extensive fieldwork campaigns (93% UAS and 93% field for WorldView-3; 92% UAS and 87% field for RapidEye). Examining change between 2004 and 2017, we found drastic shoreline change but general stability of emergent wetlands. Both WorldView-3 and RapidEye were found to be valuable sources of imagery for habitat classification with the main tradeoff being WorldView’s fine spatial resolution versus RapidEye’s temporal frequency. We conclude that UAS can be highly effective in training and validating satellite imagery. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Detecting and Quantifying a Massive Invasion of Floating Aquatic Plants in the Río de la Plata Turbid Waters Using High Spatial Resolution Ocean Color Imagery
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(7), 1140; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10071140
Received: 20 May 2018 / Revised: 6 July 2018 / Accepted: 16 July 2018 / Published: 19 July 2018
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Abstract
The massive development of floating plants in floodplain lakes and wetlands in the upper Middle Paraná river in the La Plata basin is environmentally and socioeconomically important. Every year aquatic plant detachments drift downstream arriving in small amounts to the Río de la
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The massive development of floating plants in floodplain lakes and wetlands in the upper Middle Paraná river in the La Plata basin is environmentally and socioeconomically important. Every year aquatic plant detachments drift downstream arriving in small amounts to the Río de la Plata, but huge temporary invasions have been observed every 10 or 15 years associated to massive floods. From late December 2015, heavy rains driven by a strong El Niño increased river levels, provoking a large temporary invasion of aquatic plants from January to May 2016. This event caused significant disruption of human activities via clogging of drinking water intakes in the estuary, blocking of ports and marinas and introducing dangerous animals from faraway wetlands into the city. In this study, we developed a scheme to map floating vegetation in turbid waters using high-resolution imagery, like Sentinel-2/SMI (MultiSpectral Imager), Landsat-8/OLI (Operational Land Imager), and Aqua/MODIS (MODerate resolution Imager Spectroradiometer)-250 m. A combination of the Floating Algal Index (that make use of the strong signal in the NIR part of the spectrum), plus conditions set on the RED band (to avoid misclassifying highly turbid waters) and on the CIE La*b* color space coordinates (to confirm the visually “green” pixels as floating vegetation) were used. A time-series of multisensor high resolution imagery was analyzed to study the temporal variability, covered area and distribution of the unusual floating macroalgae invasion that started in January 2016 in the Río de la Plata estuary. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Quantification of Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Concentration in San Francisco Bay Using Satellite Imagery
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(7), 1110; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10071110
Received: 9 April 2018 / Revised: 27 May 2018 / Accepted: 10 July 2018 / Published: 12 July 2018
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Abstract
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency banned the use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in 1979, due to the high environmental and public health risks with which they are associated. However, PCBs continue to persist in the San Francisco Bay (SFB), often at concentrations deemed
[...] Read more.
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency banned the use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in 1979, due to the high environmental and public health risks with which they are associated. However, PCBs continue to persist in the San Francisco Bay (SFB), often at concentrations deemed unsafe for humans. In situ PCB monitoring within the SFB is extremely limited, due in large part to the high monetary costs associated with sampling. Here we offer a cost effective alternative to in situ PCB monitoring by demonstrating the feasibility of indirectly quantifying PCBs in the SFB via satellite remote sensing using a two-step approach. First, we determined the relationship between in situ PCB concentrations and suspended sediment concentrations (SSC) in the SFB. We then correlated in situ SSC with spatially and temporally consistent Landsat 8 and Sentinel 2A reflectances. We demonstrate strong relationships between SSC and PCBs in all three SFB sub-embayments (R2 > 0.28–0.80, p < 0.01), as well as a robust relationship between SSC and satellite measurements for both Landsat 8 and Sentinel 2A (R2 > 0.72, p < 0.01). These relationships held regardless of the atmospheric correction regime that we applied. The end product of these relationships is an empirical two-step relationship capable of deriving PCBs from satellite imagery. Our approach of estimating PCBs in the SFB by remotely sensing SSC is extremely cost-effective when compared to traditional in situ techniques. Moreover, it can also be utilized to generate PCB concentration maps for the SFB. These maps could one day serve as an important tool for PCB remediation in the SFB, as they can provide valuable insight into the spatial distribution of PCBs throughout the bay, as well as how this distribution changes over time. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Evaluating Operational AVHRR Sea Surface Temperature Data at the Coastline Using Benthic Temperature Loggers
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(6), 925; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10060925
Received: 25 April 2018 / Revised: 31 May 2018 / Accepted: 2 June 2018 / Published: 12 June 2018
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Abstract
The nearshore coastal ocean is one of the most dynamic and biologically productive regions on our planet, supporting a wide range of ecosystem services. It is also one of the most vulnerable regions, increasingly exposed to anthropogenic pressure. In the context of climate
[...] Read more.
The nearshore coastal ocean is one of the most dynamic and biologically productive regions on our planet, supporting a wide range of ecosystem services. It is also one of the most vulnerable regions, increasingly exposed to anthropogenic pressure. In the context of climate change, monitoring changes in nearshore coastal waters requires systematic and sustained observations of key essential climate variables (ECV), one of which is sea surface temperature (SST). As temperature influences physical, chemical and biological processes within coastal systems, accurate monitoring is crucial for detecting change. SST is an ECV that can be measured systematically from satellites. Yet, owing to a lack of adequate in situ data, the accuracy and precision of satellite SST at the coastline are not well known. In a prior study, we attempted to address this by taking advantage of in situ SST measurements collected by a group of surfers. Here, we make use of a three year time-series (2014–2017) of in situ water temperature measurements collected using a temperature logger (recording every 30 min) deployed within a kelp forest (∼3 m below chart datum) at a subtidal rocky reef site near Plymouth, UK. We compared the temperature measurements with three other independent in situ SST datasets in the region, from two autonomous buoys located ∼7 km and ∼33 km from the coastline, and from a group of surfers at two beaches near the kelp site. The three datasets showed good agreement, with discrepancies consistent with the spatial separation of the sites. The in situ SST measurements collected from the kelp site and the two autonomous buoys were matched with operational Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) EO SST passes, all within 1 h of the in situ data. By extracting data from the closest satellite pixel to the three sites, we observed a significant reduction in the performance of AVHRR at retrieving SST at the coastline, with root mean square differences at the kelp site over twice that observed at the two offshore buoys. Comparing the in situ water temperature data with pixels surrounding the kelp site revealed the performance of the satellite data improves when moving two to three pixels offshore and that this improvement was better when using an SST algorithm that treats each pixel independently in the retrieval process. At the three sites, we related differences between satellite and in situ SST data with a suite of atmospheric variables, collected from a nearby atmospheric observatory, and a high temporal resolution land surface temperature (LST) dataset. We found that differences between satellite and in situ SST at the coastline (kelp site) were well correlated with LST and solar zenith angle; implying contamination of the pixel by land is the principal cause of these larger differences at the coastline, as opposed to issues with atmospheric correction. This contamination could be either from land directly within the pixel, potentially impacted by errors in geo-location, or possibly through thermal adjacency effects. Our results demonstrate the value of using benthic temperature loggers for evaluating satellite SST data in coastal regions, and highlight issues with retrievals at the coastline that may inform future improvements in operational products. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Assessing Texture Features to Classify Coastal Wetland Vegetation from High Spatial Resolution Imagery Using Completed Local Binary Patterns (CLBP)
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(5), 778; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10050778
Received: 21 March 2018 / Revised: 14 April 2018 / Accepted: 12 May 2018 / Published: 17 May 2018
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Abstract
Coastal wetland vegetation is a vital component that plays an important role in environmental protection and the maintenance of the ecological balance. As such, the efficient classification of coastal wetland vegetation types is key to the preservation of wetlands. Based on its detailed
[...] Read more.
Coastal wetland vegetation is a vital component that plays an important role in environmental protection and the maintenance of the ecological balance. As such, the efficient classification of coastal wetland vegetation types is key to the preservation of wetlands. Based on its detailed spatial information, high spatial resolution imagery constitutes an important tool for extracting suitable texture features for improving the accuracy of classification. In this paper, a texture feature, Completed Local Binary Patterns (CLBP), which is highly suitable for face recognition, is presented and applied to vegetation classification using high spatial resolution Pléiades satellite imagery in the central zone of Yancheng National Natural Reservation (YNNR) in Jiangsu, China. To demonstrate the potential of CLBP texture features, Grey Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) texture features were used to compare the classification. Using spectral data alone and spectral data combined with texture features, the image was classified using a Support Vector Machine (SVM) based on vegetation types. The results show that CLBP and GLCM texture features yielded an accuracy 6.50% higher than that gained when using only spectral information for vegetation classification. However, CLBP showed greater improvement in terms of classification accuracy than GLCM for Spartina alterniflora. Furthermore, for the CLBP features, CLBP_magnitude (CLBP_m) was more effective than CLBP_sign (CLBP_s), CLBP_center (CLBP_c), and CLBP_s/m or CLBP_s/m/c. These findings suggest that the CLBP approach offers potential for vegetation classification in high spatial resolution images. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Using High-Resolution Airborne Data to Evaluate MERIS Atmospheric Correction and Intra-Pixel Variability in Nearshore Turbid Waters
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(2), 274; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10020274
Received: 11 January 2018 / Revised: 6 February 2018 / Accepted: 8 February 2018 / Published: 10 February 2018
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Abstract
The implementation of accurate atmospheric correction is a prerequisite for satellite observation and water quality monitoring in coastal areas. The potential of the fast-line-of-sight atmospheric analysis of spectral hypercubes (FLAASH) was investigated here for the medium resolution imaging spectrometer (MERIS). As the comparison
[...] Read more.
The implementation of accurate atmospheric correction is a prerequisite for satellite observation and water quality monitoring in coastal areas. The potential of the fast-line-of-sight atmospheric analysis of spectral hypercubes (FLAASH) was investigated here for the medium resolution imaging spectrometer (MERIS). As the comparison between discrete field sampling points and macro-scale satellite pixels is subject to spatial biases associated with small-scale spatial patchiness in the turbid and highly dynamic nearshore zone, an alternative approach was proposed here using high spatial resolution (1 m) airborne hyperspectral images as radiometric truthing references. While FLAASH was not optimal for moderately turbid offshore waters (suspended particulate matter (SPM) concentration < 50 g∙m−3), it yields satisfactory results in the 50–1500 g∙m−3 range, where MERIS standard atmospheric correction was subject to significant biases and failures. Due to the significant intra-pixel variability of SPM distribution in highly turbid areas, the acquisition of high resolution airborne images should be considered as a consistent strategy for the validation of medium resolution satellite remote sensing in the spatially heterogeneous and optically diverse nearshore waters. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Fusion of Landsat-8/OLI and GOCI Data for Hourly Mapping of Suspended Particulate Matter at High Spatial Resolution: A Case Study in the Yangtze (Changjiang) Estuary
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(2), 158; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10020158
Received: 21 November 2017 / Revised: 17 January 2018 / Accepted: 18 January 2018 / Published: 23 January 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (10487 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Suspended particulate matter (SPM) concentrations ([SPM]) in the Yangtze estuary, which has third-order bifurcations and four outlets, exhibit large spatial and temporal variations. Studying the characteristics of these variations in [SPM] is important for understanding sediment transport and pollutant diffusion in the estuary
[...] Read more.
Suspended particulate matter (SPM) concentrations ([SPM]) in the Yangtze estuary, which has third-order bifurcations and four outlets, exhibit large spatial and temporal variations. Studying the characteristics of these variations in [SPM] is important for understanding sediment transport and pollutant diffusion in the estuary as well as for the construction of port and estuarine engineering structures. The 1-h revisit frequency of the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) sensor and the 30-m spatial resolution of the Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (L8/OLI) provide a new opportunity to study the large spatial and temporal variations in the [SPM] in the Yangtze estuary. In this study, [SPM] images with a temporal resolution of 1 h and a spatial resolution of 30 m are generated through the product-level fusion of [SPM] data derived from L8/OLI and GOCI images using the Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Fusion Model (STARFM). The results show that the details and accuracy of the spatial and temporal variations are maintained well in the [SPM] images that are predicted based on the fused images. Compared to the [SPM] observations at fixed field stations, the mean relative error (MRE) of the predicted SPM is 17.7%, which is lower than that of the GOCI-derived [SPM] (27.5%). In addition, thanks to the derived high-resolution [SPM] with high spatiotemporal dynamic changes, both natural phenomena (dynamic variation of the maximum turbid zone) and human engineering changes leading to the dynamic variability of SPM in the channel are observed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Examining Land Cover and Greenness Dynamics in Hangzhou Bay in 1985–2016 Using Landsat Time-Series Data
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(1), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10010032
Received: 9 November 2017 / Revised: 7 December 2017 / Accepted: 23 December 2017 / Published: 25 December 2017
PDF Full-text (7237 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Land cover changes significantly influence vegetation greenness in different regions. Dense Landsat time series stacks provide unique opportunity to analyze land cover change and vegetation greenness trends at finer spatial scale. In the past three decades, large reclamation activities have greatly changed land
[...] Read more.
Land cover changes significantly influence vegetation greenness in different regions. Dense Landsat time series stacks provide unique opportunity to analyze land cover change and vegetation greenness trends at finer spatial scale. In the past three decades, large reclamation activities have greatly changed land cover and vegetation growth of coastal areas. However, rarely has research investigated these frequently changed coastal areas. In this study, Landsat Normalized Difference Vegetation Index time series (1984–2016) data and the Breaks For Additive Seasonal and Trend algorithm were used to detect the intensity and dates of abrupt changes in a typical coastal area—Hangzhou Bay, China. The prior and posterior land cover categories of each change were classified using phenology information through a Random Forest model. The impacts of land cover change on vegetation greenness trends of the inland and reclaimed areas were analyzed through distinguishing gradual and abrupt changes. The results showed that the intensity and date of land cover change were detected successfully with overall accuracies of 88.7% and 86.1%, respectively. The continuous land cover dynamics were retrieved accurately with an overall accuracy of 91.0% for ten land cover classifications. Coastal reclamation did not alleviate local cropland occupation, but prompted the vegetation greenness of the reclaimed area. Most of the inland area showed a browning trend. The main contributors to the greenness and browning trends were also quantified. These findings will help the natural resource management community generate better understanding of coastal reclamation and make better management decisions. Full article
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Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Assessing the Resilience of Coastal Wetlands to Extreme Hydrologic Events Using Vegetation Indices: A Review
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(9), 1390; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10091390
Received: 7 August 2018 / Revised: 27 August 2018 / Accepted: 28 August 2018 / Published: 31 August 2018
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Abstract
Coastal wetlands (CWs) offer numerous imperative functions that support a diverse array of life forms that are poorly adapted for other environments and provide an economic base for human communities. Unfortunately, CWs have been experiencing significant threats due to meteorological and climatic fluctuations
[...] Read more.
Coastal wetlands (CWs) offer numerous imperative functions that support a diverse array of life forms that are poorly adapted for other environments and provide an economic base for human communities. Unfortunately, CWs have been experiencing significant threats due to meteorological and climatic fluctuations as well as anthropogenic impacts. The wetlands and marshes in Apalachicola Bay, Florida have endured the impacts of several extreme hydrologic events (EHEs) over the past few decades. These extreme hydrologic events include drought, hurricane, heavy precipitation and fluvial flooding. Remote sensing has been used and continues to demonstrate promise for acquiring spatial and temporal information about CWs thereby making it easier to track and quantify long term changes driven by EHEs. These wetland ecosystems are also adversely impacted by increased human activities such as wetland conversion to agricultural, aquaculture, industrial or residential use; construction of dikes along the shoreline; and sprawl of built areas. In this paper, we review previous works on coastal wetland resilience to EHEs. We synthesize these concepts in the context of remote sensing as the primary assessment tool with focus on derived vegetation indices to monitor CWs at regional and global scales. Full article
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