Special Issue "Strain, Stress and Texture Analysis with Quantum Beams"

A special issue of Quantum Beam Science (ISSN 2412-382X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2018)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Rozaliya Barabash

X-Ray & Neutron Scattering & Microscopy Group, Materials Science & Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6118, USA
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Guest Editor
Dr. Pingguang Xu

Stress Evaluation Research Group, Materials Sciences Research Center,Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA)2-4 Shirakata, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki, 319-1195, Japan
Website | E-Mail
Interests: texture analysis; strain-stress analysis; neutron diffraction; thermomechanical process; microstructure control; strengthening and toughening; phase transformation and recrystallization; hot, warm, cold deformation; X-ray diffraction; electron backscattering diffraction; grain refinement; hydrogen embrittlement; plastic anisotropy
Guest Editor
Prof. Klaus-Dieter Liss

Guangdong Technion - Israel Institute of Technology (GTIIT), 241 Daxue Lu, Jinping Qu, Shantou, Guangdong Province, China
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +86 136 7612 7052

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Residual stress measurements are most important for mechanical engineering in order to investigate and predict failure mechanisms in all modern industries, such as aerospace, pipelines, and civil infrastructure. Both neutron and synchrotron facilities have been well established to measure strains on an atomic scale, in response to externally-applied or internal-residual stress. This can be orientation and position sensitive in order to quantify the full stress tensor mapped over a specimen. Inherently, stress and strain response may strongly depend on the preferred crystallographic orientation, while the thermo-mechanic history of a specimen can be read from this texture. Furthermore, intergranular stress plays essential roles and can be physically simulated on the macro and micro-scale under in situ measurement conditions. On the other hand, strains and stresses in very local environments, such as atoms in metallic glass or foams or concrete, play a role in describing the physical properties of such material. Last, but not least, strain and stress are directly coupled to some functions of materials, such as in piezoelectrics and magnetic materials, and multiferroics.

Residual stress measurements: Understanding of residual stress in workpieces is the most straightforward application in a vast field of engineering issues. These can be thermal stresses, mechanical impacts, welding residual stresses, which also occur in additive manufacturing. Typical methods of measurements are angle- and energy-dispersive neutron or high-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The specimens are translated through a gauge volume and reoriented in order to locally map the stress tensor. Often, such results flow into comprehensive engineering studies, utilizing other techniques, as strain gaging, imaging and modeling.

Load partitioning: Both residual and applied stresses are studied by recording entire diffractograms, potentially in multiple dimensions. The individual diffraction peaks shift according to the response of individual lattice planes and elucidate yielding mechanisms, the Bauschinger effect, and structural transformations.

Texture: Preferred crystallographic orientation can be mapped independently or in simultaneous combination with strain and other crystallographic information accessible by the powder diffraction method. Contributions of interest cover the entire field of texture analysis and its application, while combined strain-stress and texture analysis is encouraged.

Special geometry and time resolved: In the past, much has been studied under uniaxially-applied stress and under quasi-static conditions, while modern research investigates multi-axial stress components and also time-resolved behavior, for example in fatigue testing.

Micro-mechanical: With the realization of sub-micrometer beam sizes, micromechanical testing has become possible in investigating strain fields and yielding in individual grains and micro-pillars. Combined with micro and nano-indentation and electron-micrsoscopic techniques, we can acquire additional information, particularly from the bulk of the material or depth resolved.

Strain and orientation dependence of functional materials: Most multi-ferroic properties are coupled to mechanical strain, such as piezoelectricity, magnetostriction, and the shape memory effect. The minute response to external fields allows the development of advanced functional materials for sensors, information storage and transmission.

With these aspects in mind, this Special Issue will collect original and review papers employing state-of-the-art quantum beams in applied research and for new and novel developments—both in characterization and in materials.

Prof. Dr. Rozaliya Barabas
Dr. Pingguang Xu
Prof. Dr. Klaus-Dieter Liss
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Quantum Beam Science is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) is waived for well-prepared manuscripts submitted to this issue. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • residual stress
  • applied mechanical load
  • stress tensor
  • lattice response
  • deformation mechanisms—slip, twinning, martensitic
  • yielding
  • phase transformations
  • thermal response
  • mechanical properties
  • orientation dependence and anisotropy
  • texture analysis
  • modelling
  • electric fields
  • magnetic fields
  • micro-mechanical modelling
  • fatigue
  • welding
  • additive manufacturing
  • multiferroics

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Residual Stress Relaxation in a Rolled Joint by Neutron Diffraction
Quantum Beam Sci. 2018, 2(4), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/qubs2040021
Received: 27 March 2018 / Revised: 1 October 2018 / Accepted: 2 October 2018 / Published: 12 October 2018
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Abstract
The rolled joint of a pressure tube, consisting of three axial symmetric parts, modified SUS403 stainless steel as an inner extension, Zr–2.5Nb as the pressure tube and an Inconel-718 outer sleeve has been examined by neutron diffraction for residual stresses. It was heat [...] Read more.
The rolled joint of a pressure tube, consisting of three axial symmetric parts, modified SUS403 stainless steel as an inner extension, Zr–2.5Nb as the pressure tube and an Inconel-718 outer sleeve has been examined by neutron diffraction for residual stresses. It was heat treated to 350 °C for 30, 130 and 635 h to simulate thermal aging over the lifetime of an advanced thermal reactor respectively for 1, 5 and 30 years at an operating temperature of 288 °C. The crystallographic texture has been investigated from cylindric disks cut from the heat treated Zr–2.5Nb pressure tube to determine the proper sample-orientation-dependent hkl reflections for reliable residual strain measurements. Corresponding in situ tensile deformation was carried out to obtain the necessary diffraction elastic constants for the residual stress evaluation. Three-dimensional crystal lattice strains at various locations in the rolled joint before and after the aging treatments for various times were non-destructively measured by neutron diffraction and the residual stress distribution in the rolled joint was evaluated by using the Kröner elastic model and the generalized Hooke’s law. In the crimp region of the rolled joint, it was found that the aging treatment had a much weaker effect on the residual stresses in the Inconel outer sleeve and the modified SUS403 stainless steel extension. In the non-aged Zr–2.5Nb pressure tube, the highest residual stresses were found near its interface with the modified SUS430 stainless steel extension. In the crimp region of the Zr–2.5Nb pressure tube near its interface with the modified SUS430 stainless steel, the average compressive axial stress was −440 MPa, having no evident change during the long-time aging. In the Zr–2.5Nb pressure tube outside closest to the crimp region, the tensile axial and hoop stresses were relieved during the 30 h of aging. The hoop stresses in the crimp region evolved from an average tensile stress of 80 MPa to an average compressive stress of 230 MPa after the 635 h of aging, suggesting that the rolled joint had a good long-term sealing ability against leakage of high temperature water. In the Zr–2.5Nb pressure tube close to the reactor core and far away from the modified SUS403 stainless steel extension, the residual stresses near the inside surface of the pressure tube were almost zero, helping to keep a good neutron irradiation resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Strain, Stress and Texture Analysis with Quantum Beams)
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Open AccessArticle
In Situ X-ray Diffraction Analysis of Stresses during Deep Rolling of Steel
Quantum Beam Sci. 2018, 2(4), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/qubs2040020
Received: 1 June 2018 / Revised: 12 September 2018 / Accepted: 25 September 2018 / Published: 28 September 2018
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Abstract
Residual stresses originating from elasto-plastic deformation during mechanical processing can be analyzed post-process with various known methods. A new measurement method to measure and evaluate the strain and stress fields in situ under the contact point during a deep rolling process was developed [...] Read more.
Residual stresses originating from elasto-plastic deformation during mechanical processing can be analyzed post-process with various known methods. A new measurement method to measure and evaluate the strain and stress fields in situ under the contact point during a deep rolling process was developed to describe the dependence of the residual stresses from the internal material load. Using synchrotron radiation at European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) (ID11), diffraction measurements were performed in transmission geometry during dynamical loading with different process parameters. The strain and stress fields were analyzed with high spatial resolution in an 8 mm × 4 mm area around the contact point during the process using a 13-mm tungsten carbide roller on samples of AISI 4140H steel. Fast data acquisition allowed the reconstruction of full two-dimensional (2D) strain and stress maps. These could be used to determine the response from the initial material state in front of the roller to the mechanically loaded region with plastic deformation up to the processed material with the resulting residual stresses. This comprehensive analysis was then used to link the internal material load with the resulting residual stresses in the final material state. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Strain, Stress and Texture Analysis with Quantum Beams)
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Open AccessArticle
Plasticity Enhancement by Fe-Addition on NiAl Alloy: A Synchrotron X-ray Diffraction Mapping and Molecular Dynamics Simulation Study
Quantum Beam Sci. 2018, 2(3), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/qubs2030018
Received: 6 June 2018 / Revised: 3 August 2018 / Accepted: 13 September 2018 / Published: 19 September 2018
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Abstract
Unalloyed nickel aluminide has important applications but lacks ductility at room temperature. In this study, iron-added nickel aluminide alloys exhibit plasticity enhancement. The nickel aluminide alloys are prepared with different iron contents (0, 0.25, and 1 at%) to study their plasticity. The indentation-induced [...] Read more.
Unalloyed nickel aluminide has important applications but lacks ductility at room temperature. In this study, iron-added nickel aluminide alloys exhibit plasticity enhancement. The nickel aluminide alloys are prepared with different iron contents (0, 0.25, and 1 at%) to study their plasticity. The indentation-induced deformed areas are mapped by the synchrotron X-ray diffraction to compare their plastic zones. A complimentary tight binding calculation and generalized embedded atom method demonstrate how the Fe-addition enhances the plasticity of the iron-added nickel aluminide alloys. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Strain, Stress and Texture Analysis with Quantum Beams)
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Open AccessArticle
Distinct Recrystallization Pathways in a Cold-Rolled Al-2%Mg Alloy Evidenced by In-Situ Neutron Diffraction
Quantum Beam Sci. 2018, 2(3), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/qubs2030017
Received: 4 May 2018 / Revised: 8 September 2018 / Accepted: 14 September 2018 / Published: 18 September 2018
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Abstract
The time-of-flight neutron diffraction data collected in-situ on Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s (ORNL, Oak Ridge, TN, USA) VULCAN and Los Alamos National Laboratory’s (LANL, Los Alamos, NM, USA) High-Pressure-Preferred-Orientation (HIPPO) diffractometers have been analyzed complementarily to show the texture evolution during annealing of [...] Read more.
The time-of-flight neutron diffraction data collected in-situ on Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s (ORNL, Oak Ridge, TN, USA) VULCAN and Los Alamos National Laboratory’s (LANL, Los Alamos, NM, USA) High-Pressure-Preferred-Orientation (HIPPO) diffractometers have been analyzed complementarily to show the texture evolution during annealing of a cold-rolled Al-2%Mg alloy. The texture analysis aimed to identify the components present in the initial rolling (or deformation) texture and in the thermally-activated recrystallization texture, respectively. Using a quasi-Monte-Carlo (QMC) approach, a new method has been developed to simulate the weighted texture components, and to obtain inverse pole figures for both rolling and normal directions. As such, distinct recrystallization pathways during annealing in isochronal conditions, can be revealed in terms of the evolution of the texture components and their respective volume fractions. Moreover, the recrystallization kinetics associated with the cube and random texture components are analyzed quantitatively using a similar approach developed for differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Strain, Stress and Texture Analysis with Quantum Beams)
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Open AccessArticle
Recent Progress of Residual Stress Distribution and Structural Evolution in Materials and Components by Neutron Diffraction Measurement at RSND
Quantum Beam Sci. 2018, 2(3), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/qubs2030015
Received: 25 April 2018 / Revised: 1 July 2018 / Accepted: 1 July 2018 / Published: 6 July 2018
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Abstract
Neutron diffraction is an effective and nondestructive method to investigate inner structure and stress distribution inside bulk materials and components. Compared with X-ray diffraction, neutron diffraction allows a relatively high penetration depth and covers a larger gauge volume, enabling it to measure the [...] Read more.
Neutron diffraction is an effective and nondestructive method to investigate inner structure and stress distribution inside bulk materials and components. Compared with X-ray diffraction, neutron diffraction allows a relatively high penetration depth and covers a larger gauge volume, enabling it to measure the lattice structure and three-dimensional (3D) distribution of residual stress deep inside thick sample materials. This paper presents the recent development of a Residual Stress Neutron Diffractometer (RSND) at the Key Laboratory for Neutron Physics of the Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics, Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, Mianyang, China. By integrating multiple instruments such as a loading frame, Kappa goniometer, and coupling system, the RSND was constructed as a suitable platform for various neutron diffraction experiments, including residual stress measurement, in situ observation, and texture analysis. Neutron diffraction measurement can be used to study various materials such as steels, aluminum alloys, and titanium alloys, as well as various components such as turbine discs and welding parts. An evaluation method for both polycrystalline and monocrystalline materials was developed, and this method was found to have the capability of solving an agelong technical challenge in characterizing monocrystalline materials. Furthermore, by introducing a texture and thermomechanical coupling system, it is now possible to make effective in situ observations of the structural evolution in single crystal materials under high-temperature tensile conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Strain, Stress and Texture Analysis with Quantum Beams)
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Open AccessArticle
Texture Evolution in U-10Mo Nuclear Fuel Foils during Plasma Spray Coating with Zr
Quantum Beam Sci. 2018, 2(2), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/qubs2020012
Received: 21 April 2018 / Revised: 17 May 2018 / Accepted: 17 May 2018 / Published: 24 May 2018
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Abstract
A uranium-molybdenum alloy clad in 6061 aluminum has the potential to lead to a wide application of low-enriched uranium fuels, replacing highly enriched uranium for research reactors. A Zr coating acts as a diffusion barrier between the fuel and the aluminum cladding. In [...] Read more.
A uranium-molybdenum alloy clad in 6061 aluminum has the potential to lead to a wide application of low-enriched uranium fuels, replacing highly enriched uranium for research reactors. A Zr coating acts as a diffusion barrier between the fuel and the aluminum cladding. In this study, U-10Mo (mass %) was coated with Zr using a plasma spray technique recognized as a fast and economical coating method. Neutron time-of-flight diffraction was used to study the microstructure evolution by quantifying the phase fractions of involved phases as well as the texture evolution of U-10Mo and Zr during plasma spray coating with Zr. Quantitative texture analysis revealed that the texture was drastically changed for high coating temperatures, likely due to selective grain growth. Furthermore, the Zr coating showed a preferential orientation, which could be correlated with the initial texture of the uncoated U-10Mo. This could be explained by the epitaxial growth of the Zr on the U-10Mo substrate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Strain, Stress and Texture Analysis with Quantum Beams)
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Open AccessArticle
Strain-Induced Martensitic Transformation and Texture Evolution in Cold-Rolled Co–Cr Alloys
Quantum Beam Sci. 2018, 2(2), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/qubs2020011
Received: 31 March 2018 / Revised: 9 May 2018 / Accepted: 16 May 2018 / Published: 22 May 2018
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Abstract
Co–Cr alloys have been used in biomedical purposes such as stents and artificial hip joints. However, the difficulty of plastic deformation limits the application of the alloys. During the deformation, Co–Cr alloys often exhibit strain-induced martensitic transformation (SIMT), which is a possible reason [...] Read more.
Co–Cr alloys have been used in biomedical purposes such as stents and artificial hip joints. However, the difficulty of plastic deformation limits the application of the alloys. During the deformation, Co–Cr alloys often exhibit strain-induced martensitic transformation (SIMT), which is a possible reason for the low formability. The distinct increase in dislocation density in the matrix phase may also result in early fractures. Since these microstructural evolutions accompany the textural evolution, it is crucial to understand the relationship among the SIMT, the increase in dislocations, and the texture evolution. To characterize those at the same time, we conducted time-of-flight neutron diffraction experiments at iMATERIA beamline at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) Materials and Life Science Experimental Facility (MLF), Ibaraki, Japan. The cold-rolled sheets of Co–29Cr–6Mo (CCM) and Co–20Cr–15W–10Ni (CCWN) alloys were investigated in this study. As expected from the different stacking fault energies, the SIMT progressed more rapidly in the CCM alloy. The dislocation densities of the matrix phases of the CCM and CCWN alloys increased similarly with an increase in the rolling reduction. These results suggest that the difference in deformability between the CCM and CCWN alloys originate not from the strain hardening of the matrix phase but from the growth behaviors of the martensitic phase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Strain, Stress and Texture Analysis with Quantum Beams)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
High Resolution Mapping of Orientation and Strain Gradients in Metals by Synchrotron 3D X-ray Laue Microdiffraction
Quantum Beam Sci. 2019, 3(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/qubs3010006
Received: 15 May 2018 / Revised: 3 August 2018 / Accepted: 14 February 2019 / Published: 11 March 2019
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Abstract
Synchrotron 3D X-ray Laue microdiffraction, available at beamline 34-ID-E at Advanced Photon Source in Argonne National Laboratory, is a powerful tool for 3D non-destructive mapping of local orientations and strains at sub-micron scale in the bulk. With this technique, it is possible to [...] Read more.
Synchrotron 3D X-ray Laue microdiffraction, available at beamline 34-ID-E at Advanced Photon Source in Argonne National Laboratory, is a powerful tool for 3D non-destructive mapping of local orientations and strains at sub-micron scale in the bulk. With this technique, it is possible to study local residual stresses developed during manufacturing or while in service due to interactions between, for example, different phases and/or grains with different orientations in materials containing multiple or single phase(s). Such information is essential for understanding mechanical properties and designing advanced materials, but is largely non-existent in the current generation of materials models. In the present paper, the principle and experimental set-up of the 3D microdiffraction are introduced, followed by a description of a method for quantification of the local plastic deformation based on high-angular-resolution orientation maps. The quantification of local residual stresses in two model materials, ductile cast iron (two phases) and partially recrystallized pure nickel (single phase), using 3D microdiffraction will then be presented. The results show that 3D microdiffraction is important for understanding the origin of local residual stresses and to relate them to the microstructural evolution. Finally, the limitations of the 3D microdiffraction on the current generation synchrotron source and new possibilities after the synchrotron upgrade are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Strain, Stress and Texture Analysis with Quantum Beams)
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Open AccessReview
Quantitative Scanning Laue Diffraction Microscopy: Application to the Study of 3D Printed Nickel-Based Superalloys
Quantum Beam Sci. 2018, 2(2), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/qubs2020013
Received: 6 April 2018 / Revised: 18 May 2018 / Accepted: 4 June 2018 / Published: 5 June 2018
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Abstract
Progress in computing speed and algorithm efficiency together with advances in area detector and X-ray optics technologies have transformed the technique of synchrotron radiation-based scanning Laue X-ray microdiffraction. It has now evolved into a near real-time quantitative imaging tool for material structure and [...] Read more.
Progress in computing speed and algorithm efficiency together with advances in area detector and X-ray optics technologies have transformed the technique of synchrotron radiation-based scanning Laue X-ray microdiffraction. It has now evolved into a near real-time quantitative imaging tool for material structure and deformation at the micrometer and nanometer scales. We will review the achievements of this technique at the Advanced Light Source (Berkeley, CA, USA), and demonstrate its application in the thorough microstructural investigations of laser-assisted 3D printed nickel-based superalloys. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Strain, Stress and Texture Analysis with Quantum Beams)
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