Residual stresses originating from elasto-plastic deformation during mechanical processing can be analyzed post-process with various known methods. A new measurement method to measure and evaluate the strain and stress fields in situ under the contact point during a deep rolling process was developed to describe the dependence of the residual stresses from the internal material load. Using synchrotron radiation at European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) (ID11), diffraction measurements were performed in transmission geometry during dynamical loading with different process parameters. The strain and stress fields were analyzed with high spatial resolution in an 8 mm × 4 mm area around the contact point during the process using a 13-mm tungsten carbide roller on samples of AISI 4140H steel. Fast data acquisition allowed the reconstruction of full two-dimensional (2D) strain and stress maps. These could be used to determine the response from the initial material state in front of the roller to the mechanically loaded region with plastic deformation up to the processed material with the resulting residual stresses. This comprehensive analysis was then used to link the internal material load with the resulting residual stresses in the final material state.
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