Special Issue "Sustainable Modelling, Processes and Applications for Societal Development"

A special issue of Processes (ISSN 2227-9717). This special issue belongs to the section "Advanced Digital and Other Processes".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 September 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Yoshimitsu Uemura
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Member, NPO Kuramae Bioenergy, Tokyo, Japan
Visiting Professor, Research Institute for Composite Materials, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka, Japan
Interests: catalytic processes; reaction engineering; biomass conversion; renewable energy; nano and porous materials; STEM education
Dr. Jun-Wei Lim
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, HICoE-Centre for Biofuel and Biochemical Research, Institute of Self-Sustainable Building, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Seri Iskandar 32610, Malaysia
Interests: biofuel; wastewater treatment; larval biochemicals
Dr. Worapon Kiatkittipong
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Industrial Technology, Silpakorn University, Nakhon Pathom 73000, Thailand
Interests: Process Intensification; Biorefinery; Bioresources; Biofuels

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The global society has experienced a tremendous development since the establishment of the first human civilizations, but no more so than in recent years, when societal development has further intensified thanks  to the changes brought forth by the Fourth Industrial Revolution. Indeed, we are currently experiencing greater levels of energy, efficiency, productivity, comprehension, creativity, and innovation, all in our effort to continue on this path of significant scientific and industrial accomplishments. Societal development in particular is a continuous, unabated process, interlocking successive generations to one another. This development is necessary to achieve a decent quality of life; however, the rapid transformations we have experienced in the recent past must be accompanied by the exploration of sustainable approaches to them, and indeed, experts have sought to identify such approaches.

These approaches include modeling to deal with simulation, change of matter, time and space, analytical and statistical analyses, and real case studies for future prediction. The enhancement of all the processes currently used is undoubtedly essential to account for the escalation of various demands stemming from the population growth to the tune of approximately 10 billion by 2050. These processes include physical, biological, and chemical modes for sustainable technicality, treatment, bioremediation, control, production, and development, but also, and perhaps more importantly, applications corresponding to feedstock and products, new materials, operations, systems, theories on identifying and managing tangible and intangible resources, which are indispensable prerequisites in attaining sustainable societal development. Therefore, the prime intention of this Special Issue is to document novel “Sustainable Modeling, Processes, and Applications for Societal Development”. The knowledge gaps in the field of sustainability and societies must eventually be curtailed to create a global harmony whilst enriching the natural environments, and this is the purpose of this Special Issue.

Prof. Dr. Yoshimitsu Uemura
Dr. Jun-Wei Lim
Dr. Worapon Kiatkittipong
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information 

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Processes is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Please note that for papers submitted after 30 June 2020 an APC of 1500 CHF applies. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • simulation and modeling
  • process control
  • treatment
  • medical technique
  • material development
  • clean energy
  • water and wastewater
  • IoT and AI
  • Sustainable Development Goals
  • education and policy

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Experimental and Modeling of Dicamba Adsorption in Aqueous Medium Using MIL-101(Cr) Metal-Organic Framework
Processes 2021, 9(3), 419; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9030419 - 26 Feb 2021
Viewed by 420
Abstract
Drift deposition of emerging and carcinogenic contaminant dicamba (3,6-dichloro-2-methoxy benzoic acid) has become a major health and environmental concern. Effective removal of dicamba in aqueous medium becomes imperative. This study investigates the adsorption of a promising adsorbent, MIL-101(Cr) metal-organic framework (MOF), for the [...] Read more.
Drift deposition of emerging and carcinogenic contaminant dicamba (3,6-dichloro-2-methoxy benzoic acid) has become a major health and environmental concern. Effective removal of dicamba in aqueous medium becomes imperative. This study investigates the adsorption of a promising adsorbent, MIL-101(Cr) metal-organic framework (MOF), for the removal of dicamba in aqueous solution. The adsorbent was hydrothermally synthesized and characterized using N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET), powdered X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transformed Infrared (FTIR) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Adsorption models such as kinetics, isotherms and thermodynamics were studied to understand details of the adsorption process. The significance and optimization of the data matrix, as well as the multivariate interaction of the adsorption parameters, were determined using response surface methodology (RSM). RSM and artificial neural network (ANN) were used to predict the adsorption capacity. In each of the experimental adsorption conditions used, the ANN gave a better prediction with minimal error than the RSM model. The MIL-101(Cr) adsorbent was recycled six times to determine the possibility of reuse. The results show that MIL-101(Cr) is a very promising adsorbent, in particular due to the high surface area (1439 m2 g−1), rapid equilibration (~25 min), high adsorption capacity (237.384 mg g−1) and high removal efficiency of 99.432%. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Rhizopus oligosporus-Assisted Valorization of Coconut Endosperm Waste by Black Soldier Fly Larvae for Simultaneous Protein and Lipid to Biodiesel Production
Processes 2021, 9(2), 299; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9020299 - 05 Feb 2021
Viewed by 656
Abstract
Coconut endosperm waste (CEW) was treated by Rhizopus oligosporus via in situ and ex situ fermentations together with bioconversion into valuable black soldier fly larval biomass. The ex situ fermentation could overall enrich the nutritional compositions of CEW by hydrolyzing its complex organic [...] Read more.
Coconut endosperm waste (CEW) was treated by Rhizopus oligosporus via in situ and ex situ fermentations together with bioconversion into valuable black soldier fly larval biomass. The ex situ fermentation could overall enrich the nutritional compositions of CEW by hydrolyzing its complex organic polymers and exuding assimilable nutrients to enhance the black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) growth. Nevertheless, the larval gut bacteria were competing with Rhizopus oligosporus in in situ fermentation, derailing the hydrolysis processes and larval growth. Accordingly, the highest growth rates achieved were around 0.095 g/day, as opposed to only 0.065 g/day whilst using 0.5 wt% of Rhizopus oligosporus to perform ex situ and in situ fermentations, respectively. These were also underpinned by the greater amount of total CEW consumed when employing ex situ fermentation, with comparable metabolic costs to feeding on in situ-fermented CEW. The mature BSFL were subsequently harvested and the amounts of protein and lipid produced were assessed in terms of their feasibility for biodiesel production. While the statistical analyses showed that the larval protein yields derived from both fermentation modes were insignificant, the BSFL could attain higher lipid and protein productivities upon feeding with ex situ- rather than in situ-fermented CEW mediums. Better yet, the larval biodiesel quality measured in terms of the fatty acid methyl ester composition were not varied significantly by Rhizopus oligosporus through the fermentation process. Thereby, the presence of 1.0 wt% Rhizopus oligosporus was considered optimum to perform ex situ fermentation, giving rise to the acceptable growth of BSFL loaded with the highest lipid yield and productivity for producing biodiesel and protein simultaneously. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Blended Sewage Sludge–Palm Kernel Expeller to Enhance the Palatability of Black Soldier Fly Larvae for Biodiesel Production
Processes 2021, 9(2), 297; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9020297 - 04 Feb 2021
Viewed by 572
Abstract
Black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) have been employed for valorizing organic waste materials as the larvae are able to consume organic waste and transform it into valuable larval biomass. In this study, BSFL were found to potentially reduce blended sewage sludge. The addition [...] Read more.
Black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) have been employed for valorizing organic waste materials as the larvae are able to consume organic waste and transform it into valuable larval biomass. In this study, BSFL were found to potentially reduce blended sewage sludge. The addition of palm kernel expeller (PKE) fortified the protein and lipid content in blended sewage sludge substrates, leading to larval growth enhancement. In addition, the larval weight also influenced the lipid yield and fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profile. However, the optimum ratio of sewage sludge to PKE had to be determined as excess PKE content could become a threat to larval growth by contributing to the reduction of non-fiber carbohydrates content in the feed, thereby resulting in the decrease in lipid yield and FAME content. In this work, a sewage sludge to PKE ratio of 2:3 proffered the highest larval weight gained at 46.99 ± 2.09 mg/larva. Meanwhile, a proportion of 3:2 of sewage sludge to PKE was able provide the highest lipid yield of 17 ± 1.77%. Furthermore, the FAME profile revealed the presence of a significant amount of saturated and monosaturated fatty acids, indicating a good quality biodiesel. Thus, BSFL-based biodiesel fed with blended sewage sludge and PKE could be utilized for producing a high quality biodiesel. However, further improvement on the amount of lipid yield and FAME content should be further investigated. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication
Black Soldier Fly Larval Valorization Benefitting from Ex-Situ Fungal Fermentation in Reducing Coconut Endosperm Waste
Processes 2021, 9(2), 275; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9020275 - 01 Feb 2021
Viewed by 490
Abstract
Oftentimes, the employment of entomoremediation to reduce organic wastes encounters ubiquitous shortcomings, i.e., ineffectiveness to valorize recalcitrant organics in wastes. Considering the cost-favorability, a fermentation process can be employed to facilitate the degradation of biopolymers into smaller organics, easing the subsequent entomoremediation process. [...] Read more.
Oftentimes, the employment of entomoremediation to reduce organic wastes encounters ubiquitous shortcomings, i.e., ineffectiveness to valorize recalcitrant organics in wastes. Considering the cost-favorability, a fermentation process can be employed to facilitate the degradation of biopolymers into smaller organics, easing the subsequent entomoremediation process. However, the efficacy of in situ fermentation was found impeded by the black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) in the current study to reduce coconut endosperm waste (CEW). Indeed, by changing into ex situ fermentation, in which the fungal Rhizopus oligosporus was permitted to execute fermentation on CEW prior to the larval feeding, the reduction of CEW was significantly enhanced. In this regard, the waste reduction index of CEW by BSFL was almost doubled as opposed to in situ fermentation, even with the inoculation of merely 0.5 wt % of Rhizopus oligosporus. Moreover, with only 0.02 wt % of fungal inoculation size to execute the ex situ fermentation on CEW, it could spur BSFL growth by about 50%. Finally, from the statistical correlation study using principal component analysis, the presence of Rhizopus oligosporus in a range of 0.5–1.0 wt % was regarded as optimum to ferment CEW via ex situ mode, prior to the valorization by BSFL in reducing the CEW. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Low-Viscosity Ether-Functionalized Ionic Liquids as Solvents for the Enhancement of Lignocellulosic Biomass Dissolution
Processes 2021, 9(2), 261; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9020261 - 29 Jan 2021
Viewed by 417
Abstract
Due to the substantial usage of fossil fuels, the utilization of lignocellulosic biomass as renewable sources for fuels and chemical production has been widely explored. The dissolution of lignocellulosic biomass in proper solvents is vital prior to the extraction of its important constituents, [...] Read more.
Due to the substantial usage of fossil fuels, the utilization of lignocellulosic biomass as renewable sources for fuels and chemical production has been widely explored. The dissolution of lignocellulosic biomass in proper solvents is vital prior to the extraction of its important constituents, and ionic liquids (ILs) have been found to be efficient solvents for biomass dissolution. However, the high viscosity of ILs limits the dissolution process. Therefore, with the aim to enhance the dissolution of lignocellulosic biomass, a series of new ether-functionalized ILs with low viscosity values were synthesized and characterized. Their properties, such as density, viscosity and thermal stability, were analyzed and discussed in comparison with a common commercial IL, namely 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMIMCl). The presence of the ether group in the new ILs reduces the viscosity of the ILs to some appreciable extent in comparison to BMIMCl. 1-2(methoxyethyl)-3-methylimidazolium chloride (MOE-MImCl), which possesses the lowest viscosity value among the other ether-functionalized ILs, demonstrates an ability to be a powerful solvent in the application of biomass dissolution via the sonication method. In addition, an optimization study employing response surface methodology (RSM) was carried out in order to obtain the optimum conditions for maximum dissolution of biomass in the solvents. Results suggested that the maximum biomass dissolution can be achieved by using 3 weight% of initial biomass loading with 40% amplitude of sonication at 32.23 min of sonication period. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Encapsulation of Lactoferrin for Sustained Release Using Particles from Gas-Saturated Solutions
Processes 2021, 9(1), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9010073 - 31 Dec 2020
Viewed by 562
Abstract
The particles from gas saturated solutions (PGSS) process were performed to encapsulate lactofer-rin, an iron-binding milk glycoprotein, using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2). A natural en-teric polymer, shellac, was used as a coating material of lactoferrin carried out by the PGSS pro-cess. [...] Read more.
The particles from gas saturated solutions (PGSS) process were performed to encapsulate lactofer-rin, an iron-binding milk glycoprotein, using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2). A natural en-teric polymer, shellac, was used as a coating material of lactoferrin carried out by the PGSS pro-cess. Conditions were optimized by applying different temperatures (20–50 °C) and pressures (8–10 MPa) and the particles were evaluated for particle shape and size, lactoferrin encapsulation ef-ficiency, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to confirm lactoferrin entrapment and in vitro dissolution studies at different pH values. Particles with an average diameter of 75.5 ± 7 μm were produced with encapsulation efficiency up to 71 ± 2%. Furthermore, particles that showed high stability in low pH (pH 1.2) and a sustained release over time (t2h = 75%) in higher pH (pH 7.4) suggested an effective encapsulation process for the protection of lactoferrin from gastric di-gestion. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Optimising Brewery-Wastewater-Supported Acid Mine Drainage Treatment vis-à-vis Response Surface Methodology and Artificial Neural Network
Processes 2020, 8(11), 1485; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8111485 - 18 Nov 2020
Viewed by 475
Abstract
This study investigated the use of brewing wastewater (BW) as the primary carbon source in the Postgate medium for the optimisation of sulphate reduction in acid mine drainage (AMD). The results showed that the sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) consortium was able to utilise BW [...] Read more.
This study investigated the use of brewing wastewater (BW) as the primary carbon source in the Postgate medium for the optimisation of sulphate reduction in acid mine drainage (AMD). The results showed that the sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) consortium was able to utilise BW for sulphate reduction. The response surface methodology (RSM)/Box–Behnken design optimum conditions found for sulphate reduction were a pH of 6.99, COD/SO42− of 2.87, and BW concentration of 200.24 mg/L with predicted sulphate reduction of 91.58%. Furthermore, by using an artificial neural network (ANN), a multilayer full feedforward (MFFF) connection with an incremental backpropagation network and hyperbolic tangent as the transfer function gave the best predictive model for sulphate reduction. The ANN optimum conditions were a pH of 6.99, COD/SO42− of 0.50, and BW concentration of 200.31 mg/L with predicted sulphate reduction of 89.56%. The coefficient of determination (R2) and absolute average deviation (AAD) were estimated as 0.97 and 0.046, respectively, for RSM and 0.99 and 0.011, respectively, for ANN. Consequently, ANN was a better predictor than RSM. This study revealed that the exclusive use of BW without supplementation with refined carbon sources in the Postgate medium is feasible and could ensure the economic sustainability of biological sulphate reduction in the South African environment, or in any semi-arid country with significant brewing activity and AMD challenges. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Denoising of Hydrogen Evolution Acoustic Emission Signal Based on Non-Decimated Stationary Wavelet Transform
Processes 2020, 8(11), 1460; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8111460 - 15 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 466
Abstract
Monitoring the evolution of hydrogen gas on carbon steel pipe using acoustic emission (AE) signal can be a part of a reliable technique in the modern structural health-monitoring (SHM) field. However, the extracted AE signal is always mixed up with random extraneous noise [...] Read more.
Monitoring the evolution of hydrogen gas on carbon steel pipe using acoustic emission (AE) signal can be a part of a reliable technique in the modern structural health-monitoring (SHM) field. However, the extracted AE signal is always mixed up with random extraneous noise depending on the nature of the service structure and experimental environment. The noisy AE signals often mislead the obtaining of the desired features from the signals for SHM and degrade the performance of the monitoring system. Therefore, there is a need for the signal denoising method to improve the quality of the extracted AE signals without degrading the original properties of the signals before using them for any knowledge discovery. This article proposes a non-decimated stationary wavelet transform (ND-SWT) method based on the variable soft threshold function for denoising hydrogen evolution AE signals. The proposed method filters various types of noises from the acquired AE signal and removes them efficiently without degrading the original properties. The hydrogen evolution experiments on carbon steel pipelines are carried out for AE data acquisition. Simulations on experimentally acquired AE signals and randomly generated synthetic signals with different levels of noise are performed by the ND-SWT method for noise removal. Results show that our proposed method can effectively eliminate Gaussian white noise as well as noise from the vibration and frictional activity and provide efficient noise removal solutions for SHM applications with minimum reconstruction error, to extract meaningful AE signals from the large-scale noisy AE signals during monitoring and inspection. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Comparative Performances of Microalgal-Bacterial Co-Cultivation to Bioremediate Synthetic and Municipal Wastewaters Whilst Producing Biodiesel Sustainably
Processes 2020, 8(11), 1427; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8111427 - 09 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 659
Abstract
The potentiality of a microalgal-bacterial culture system was explored in bioremediating wastewater while generating biomass for biodiesel production. A pre-determined optimal activated sludge and microalgal ratio was adopted and cultivation performance was evaluated in both synthetic and municipal wastewater media for nitrogen removal [...] Read more.
The potentiality of a microalgal-bacterial culture system was explored in bioremediating wastewater while generating biomass for biodiesel production. A pre-determined optimal activated sludge and microalgal ratio was adopted and cultivation performance was evaluated in both synthetic and municipal wastewater media for nitrogen removal along with biomass and lipid generation for biodiesel production. The microalgal-bacterial consortium grown in the municipal wastewater medium produced higher biomass and lipid yields than those in the synthetic wastewater medium. The presence of trace elements in the municipal wastewater medium, e.g., iron and copper, contributed to the upsurge of biomass, thereby leading to higher lipid productivity. Both the microbial cultures in the synthetic and municipal wastewater media demonstrated similar total nitrogen removal efficiencies above 97%. However, the nitrification and assimilation rates were relatively higher for the microbial culture in the municipal wastewater medium, corresponding to the higher microbial biomass growth. Accordingly, the feasibility of the microalgal-bacterial consortium for bioremediating real municipal wastewaters was attested in this study by virtue of higher biomass and lipid production. The assessment of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) composition showed the mixed microbial biomasses comprised 80–93% C16 to C18 FAME species, signifying efficient fuel combustion properties for quality biodiesel requirements. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Firm’s Sustainability and Societal Development from the Lens of Fishbone Eco-Innovation: A Moderating Role of ISO 14001-2015 Environmental Management System
Processes 2020, 8(9), 1152; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8091152 - 15 Sep 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1274
Abstract
Eco-innovation has gained considerable attention in academia as well as in industry due to its potential in mitigating environmental challenges and its positive correlation with firm performance. However, there are limited studies which have investigated the moderating relation of International Organization for Standardization [...] Read more.
Eco-innovation has gained considerable attention in academia as well as in industry due to its potential in mitigating environmental challenges and its positive correlation with firm performance. However, there are limited studies which have investigated the moderating relation of International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 14001:2015 between eco-innovation and firm sustainability in their contribution to societal development. This research is supported by a resource-based theory which explores the core-competencies of firms and challenges the resources creating the competitive advantage of the firm without compromising on the social responsibility aspect of the firm. This study proposes a fishbone eco-innovation business model, which includes production (product, process, and technology) and non-production (organization and marketing) business activities mapped with the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) for societal development. This fishbone eco-innovation business model signals to the stakeholders about the organization’s innovation in their green implementation, which goes beyond mere compliance. The contribution of the fishbone eco-innovation business model to societal development will create a unique competitive edge and green goodwill amongst the external stakeholders, which will attract sustainably responsible investors for investment. This article draws propositions and develops a conceptual model for future empirical research on eco-innovation and societal development. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Heat and Mass Transfer during Lignocellulosic Biomass Torrefaction: Contributions from the Major Components—Cellulose, Hemicellulose, and Lignin
Processes 2020, 8(8), 959; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8080959 - 09 Aug 2020
Viewed by 830
Abstract
The torrefaction of three representative types of biomass—bamboo, and Douglas fir and its bark—was carried out in a cylindrical-shaped packed bed reactor under nitrogen flow at 573 K of the reactor wall temperature. As the thermal energy for the torrefaction was supplied from [...] Read more.
The torrefaction of three representative types of biomass—bamboo, and Douglas fir and its bark—was carried out in a cylindrical-shaped packed bed reactor under nitrogen flow at 573 K of the reactor wall temperature. As the thermal energy for the torrefaction was supplied from the top and the side of the bed, the propagation of the temperature profile of the bed is a crucial factor for discussing and improving the torrefaction reactor performance. Therefore, the temperature and gas flow rate (vector) profiles throughout the bed were calculated by model simulation so as to scrutinize this point. The measured temperature at a certain representative location (z = 30 mm and r = 38 mm) of the bed was well reproduced by the simulation. The volume faction of the bed at temperatures higher than 500 K at 75 min was 0.89, 0.85, and 0.99 for bamboo, and Douglas fir and its bark, respectively. It was found that the effective thermal conductivity is the determining factor for this difference. The heat of the reactions was found to be insignificant. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Liquid Polymer Eutectic Mixture for Integrated Extractive-Oxidative Desulfurization of Fuel Oil: An Optimization Study via Response Surface Methodology
Processes 2020, 8(7), 848; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8070848 - 16 Jul 2020
Viewed by 802
Abstract
Hydrodesulfurization (HDS) has been commercially employed for the production of ultra-low sulfur fuel oil. However, HDS is unable to remove sterically hindered sulfur-containing compounds such as dibenzothiophene (DBT) and benzothiophene (BT). An alternative way to remove sulfur is via extractive desulfurization system (EDS) [...] Read more.
Hydrodesulfurization (HDS) has been commercially employed for the production of ultra-low sulfur fuel oil. However, HDS is unable to remove sterically hindered sulfur-containing compounds such as dibenzothiophene (DBT) and benzothiophene (BT). An alternative way to remove sulfur is via extractive desulfurization system (EDS) using deep eutectic solvents (DES) as sustainable extractant. In this work, liquid polymer DES was synthesized using tetrabutylammonium chloride (TBAC) and poly(ethylene glycol) 400 (PEG) with different molar ratios. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to study the effect of independent variables toward extraction efficiency (EE). Three significant operating parameters, temperature (25–70 °C), DES molar ratio (1–3), and DES volume ratio (0.2–2.0), were varied to study the EE of sulfur from model oil. A quadratic model was selected based on the fit summary test, revealing that the extraction efficiency was greatly influenced by the amount of DES used, followed by the extraction temperature and PEG ratio. Although molar ratio of DES was less sensitive towards EDS performance, the EE was much higher at lower PEG ratio. For the realization of an energy-efficient EDS system, optimization of EDS parameters and EE was carried out via a desirability tool. At 25 °C, 1:1 molar ratio of TBAC to PEG, and DES-to-model-oil-volume ratio of 1, removal of DBT reached as high as 79.01%. The present findings could provide valuable insight into the development of practicable EDS technology as a substitute to previous HDS process. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Modelling of a Single Passage Air PV/T Solar Collector: Experimental and Simulation Design
Processes 2020, 8(7), 763; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8070763 - 29 Jun 2020
Viewed by 725
Abstract
The hybrid photovoltaic/thermal solar collector has attracted research attention for more than five decades. Its capability to produce thermal energy simultaneously with electrical energy is considered attractive since it provides higher total efficiency than stand-alone photovoltaic or thermal systems separately. This paper describes [...] Read more.
The hybrid photovoltaic/thermal solar collector has attracted research attention for more than five decades. Its capability to produce thermal energy simultaneously with electrical energy is considered attractive since it provides higher total efficiency than stand-alone photovoltaic or thermal systems separately. This paper describes theoretical and experimental studies of a finned single pass air-type photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) solar collector. The performance of the system is calculated based on one dimensional (1D) steady-state analysis using one dimensional energy balance equations, where simulation was carried out using MATLAB. Experiments were carried out to observe the performance of the solar collector under changes in air mass flow rate. Experimental values on photovoltaic panel temperature and air temperature on both air inlet and outlet, together with the ambient temperature and solar radiation were measured. The simulation results were validated against the results obtained from experiments using the error analysis method, Root Mean Square Error. At a solar irradiance level of 800 to 900 W/m2, the thermal efficiency increases to 20.32% while the electrical efficiency increases to 12.01% when the air mass flow rate increases from 0.00015 kg/s to 0.01 kg/s. The error analysis shows that both experimental and simulation results are in good agreement. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Thermophysical Properties of Newly Synthesized Ammonium-Based Protic Ionic Liquids: Effect of Temperature, Anion and Alkyl Chain Length
Processes 2020, 8(6), 742; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8060742 - 25 Jun 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 753
Abstract
Ionic liquids which are often classified as low melting point salts have received significant attention from research groups and industries to be used in a wide range of applications. Many of these applications require thorough knowledge on the thermophysical properties of the ionic [...] Read more.
Ionic liquids which are often classified as low melting point salts have received significant attention from research groups and industries to be used in a wide range of applications. Many of these applications require thorough knowledge on the thermophysical properties of the ionic liquids before utilizing their full potentials in various fields. In this work, a series of alkylammonium cation and carboxylate anion-based room temperature protic ionic liquids (PILs) were synthesized by varying length of alkyl chain of the cation from diethyl to dibutyl combined with pentanoate, hexanoate and heptanoate anions. These ammonium-based PILs named as diethylammonium pentanoate [DEA][C5], diethylammonium hexanoate [DEA][C6], diethylammonium heptanoate [DEA][C7], dibutylammonium pentanoate [DBA][C5], dibutylammonium hexanoate [DBA][C6] and dibutylammonium heptanoate [DBA][C7] were characterized using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The thermophysical properties of the PILs namely density, dynamic viscosity and refractive index were measured and analyzed. Density, ρ and dynamic viscosity, η were determined at T = (293.15 to 363.15) K and refractive index, nD was measured at T = (293.15 to 333.15) K. The fitting parameters are proposed for the empirical correlations of density, dynamic viscosity and refractive index. The values of thermal expansion coefficient, αp, molecular volume, Vm, standard entropy, S° and lattice potential energy, Upot also have been calculated by using the specified equations. The thermal decomposition temperature, Td was also determined using a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) while the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) technique provided the glass transition, Tg, melting point, Tm and crystallization, Tc temperatures of the PILs. The experimental results revealed that the dependency of the experimental values namely the ρ, η, nD, and Td on the alkyl chain of the anion, size of the cations and the temperature of measurement. Full article
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Liquid Polymer Eutectic Mixture for Integrated Extractive-Oxidative Desulfurization of Fuel Oil: an Optimization study via Response Surface Methodology

Authors: Hayyiratul Fatimah Bt M Zaid
Affiliation: Institute of Autonomous Systems, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 32610 Bandar Seri Iskandar, Malaysia

Title: Acoustic emission signal pre-processing using wavelet packet decomposition technique for external carbon steel pipe corrosion monitoring
Authors: Zazilah Bt May
Affiliation: UTP

Title: Eco Innovation Fishbone Model: A nexus of Eco Innovation & Sustainability Practices
Authors: Satirenjit Kaur
Affiliation: UTP

Title: A review on Non-Isocyanate Polyurethane from Non-Edible Oil
Authors: Ruzaimah Nik Mohamad Kamil
Affiliation: Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS

Title: Liquid Polymer Eutectic Mixture for Integrated Extractive-Oxidative Desulfurization of Fuel Oil: An Optimization study via Response Surface Methodology
Authors: Mohd. Faridzuan Majid; Hayyiratul Fatimah Mohd Zaid; Chong Fai Kait; Khairulazhar Jumbri; Jun Wei Lim; Asiah Nusaibah Masri; Siti Musliha Mat Ghani; Hiroshi Yamagishi; Yohei Yamamoto; Brian Yuliarto
Affiliation: Department of Fundamental and Applied Sciences and Centre of Research in Ionic Liquids (CORIL), Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 32610 Seri Iskandar, Perak, Malaysia

Title: Total Quality Management Practices: A Future Research Agenda for Sustainability and Industrial Revolution 4.0.
Authors: Satirenjit Kaur Johl
Affiliation: Department of Management and Humanities, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 32610 Seri Iskandar, Perak, Malaysia

Title: Influence of major components on heat and mass transfer during biomass torrefaction
Authors: Ken-ichiro Tanoue*, Kentaro Hikasa, Yuuki Hamaoka, Akihiro Yoshinaga, Tatsuo Nishimura, Yoshimitsu Uemura, Akihiro Hideno
Affiliation: Yamaguchi University, Japan

Title: A novel photocatalyst for hydroxylation: Fullerene C60-doped CD-MOF
Authors: Katsuki Kusakabe*, Anna Nagai
Affiliation: Sojo University, Japan

Title: Encapsulation of lactoferrin for sustained release using particles from gas-saturated solutions
Authors: Kento Ono, Hiroki Sakai, Shinichi Tokunaga, Tanjina Sharmin, Taku Michael Aida, Kenji Mishima*
Affiliation: a Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Fukuoka University, 6 8-19-1 Nanakuma Jonan-ku, Fukuoka 814-0180, Japan b Research Institute of 7 Composite Materials, Fukuoka University, 8-19-1, Nanakuma Jonan-ku, Fukuoka 8 814-0180, Japan.

Title: Mechanism of Binary Glycol-Based Eutectic Mixture in Extractive Desulphurization via Computer Simulation
Authors: Hayyiratul Fatimah Mohd Zaid
Affiliation: Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 32610 Seri Iskandar, Perak, Malaysia.

Title: Oxidative Extractive Desulfurization System for Fuel Oil using Acidic Eutectic-Based Ionic Liquid
Authors: Hayyiratul Fatimah Mohd Zaid
Affiliation: Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 32610 Seri Iskandar, Perak, Malaysia

Title: Effect of nanoparticles concentration on electromagnetic-assisted oil recovery using ZnO nanofluids
Authors: Muhammad Adil; Kean Chuan Lee; Hasnah Mohd. Zaid; M Fadhllullah A Shukur; Takaaki Manaka
Affiliation: Department of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS

Title: Microwave CO2 pyrolysis - A new approach for valorization of waste
Authors: Shin Ying Foong, Su Shiung Lam
Affiliation: Universiti Malaysia Terengganu

Title: Correlation Analysis between Sub-Bituminous Coal Ash Fusion Temperature (AFT) to Ash Slagging Propensity
Authors: Salmi, S. Nuraini, A. A, Abdul Aziz, H. Siti Ujila, M.
Affiliation: Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor.

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