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Open AccessArticle

Thermophysical Properties of Newly Synthesized Ammonium-Based Protic Ionic Liquids: Effect of Temperature, Anion and Alkyl Chain Length

1
Department of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, Center of Research in Ionic Liquids (CORIL), Institute of Contaminant Management for Oil and Gas, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Seri Iskandar 32610, Malaysia
2
Department of Chemical Engineering, Center of Research in Ionic Liquids (CORIL), Institute of Contaminant Management for Oil and Gas, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Seri Iskandar 32610, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Processes 2020, 8(6), 742; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8060742
Received: 17 May 2020 / Revised: 20 June 2020 / Accepted: 21 June 2020 / Published: 25 June 2020
Ionic liquids which are often classified as low melting point salts have received significant attention from research groups and industries to be used in a wide range of applications. Many of these applications require thorough knowledge on the thermophysical properties of the ionic liquids before utilizing their full potentials in various fields. In this work, a series of alkylammonium cation and carboxylate anion-based room temperature protic ionic liquids (PILs) were synthesized by varying length of alkyl chain of the cation from diethyl to dibutyl combined with pentanoate, hexanoate and heptanoate anions. These ammonium-based PILs named as diethylammonium pentanoate [DEA][C5], diethylammonium hexanoate [DEA][C6], diethylammonium heptanoate [DEA][C7], dibutylammonium pentanoate [DBA][C5], dibutylammonium hexanoate [DBA][C6] and dibutylammonium heptanoate [DBA][C7] were characterized using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The thermophysical properties of the PILs namely density, dynamic viscosity and refractive index were measured and analyzed. Density, ρ and dynamic viscosity, η were determined at T = (293.15 to 363.15) K and refractive index, nD was measured at T = (293.15 to 333.15) K. The fitting parameters are proposed for the empirical correlations of density, dynamic viscosity and refractive index. The values of thermal expansion coefficient, αp, molecular volume, Vm, standard entropy, S° and lattice potential energy, Upot also have been calculated by using the specified equations. The thermal decomposition temperature, Td was also determined using a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) while the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) technique provided the glass transition, Tg, melting point, Tm and crystallization, Tc temperatures of the PILs. The experimental results revealed that the dependency of the experimental values namely the ρ, η, nD, and Td on the alkyl chain of the anion, size of the cations and the temperature of measurement. View Full-Text
Keywords: protic ionic liquids; density; viscosity; refractive index; phase transition; thermal expansion coefficient; standard entropy; lattice potential energy protic ionic liquids; density; viscosity; refractive index; phase transition; thermal expansion coefficient; standard entropy; lattice potential energy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Othman Zailani, N.H.Z.; Yunus, N.M.; Ab Rahim, A.H.; Bustam, M.A. Thermophysical Properties of Newly Synthesized Ammonium-Based Protic Ionic Liquids: Effect of Temperature, Anion and Alkyl Chain Length. Processes 2020, 8, 742.

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