Screening of Bioactive Compounds from Food Processing Waste

A special issue of Processes (ISSN 2227-9717). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Process Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 February 2023) | Viewed by 56041

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
School of Agriculture & Food, Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3010, Australia
Interests: functional foods; antioxidants; fatty acids; nutrigenomics; large animal models of human nutrition and obesity; selenium
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Agriculture and Food Systems, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC 3010, Australia
Interests: separation science; natural product chemistry; advance food chemistry; life sciences & biomedicine; food and health; food nutrition
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The food processing industries produce large amounts of processing waste, discarded as by-products. This processing waste is enriched with polyphenols that provide a variety of health benefits and could potentially be used as ingredients in functional foods and nutraceuticals and provide candidates for drug discovery and pharmaceutical development. Recent technological innovations in extraction, isolation, structure explication, synthesis and amalgamation of new bioactive compounds and their biological activities have made it possible to explore unique and innovative bioactive compounds from different food sources. Many advanced analytical techniques are applied precisely to extract, isolate and characterize these bioactive compounds to understand their nature and molecular structure and composition. The application of these advance techniques depends on the complexity of the sample and nature of the matrices and the analytes. However, one of the most efficient processes for analyte identification and quantitative analysis involves the use of advanced chromatographic methods.

In this Special Issue, we are encouraging the submission of manuscripts related to food processing waste, including plant, animal and marine by-products. We are expecting manuscripts reflecting the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and gas chromatography (GC) techniques. In short, we are highly interested in and encourage manuscripts related to food processing waste, underutilized species and processing discards for production of value-added products.

Prof. Dr. Frank Dunshea
Dr. Hafiz Suleria
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Food processing waste
  • Food Processing techniques 
  • Extraction processes
  • Characterisation techniques
  • Marine Processing waste 
  • Food bioactive compounds 
  • Advance analytical applications 
  • Purification and optimisation processes

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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14 pages, 1223 KiB  
Article
Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Seed Oil from Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (L.) DC.: Optimization of Operating Conditions through Response Surface Methodology and Probabilistic Neural Network
by Padej Pao-la-or, Boonruang Marungsri, Kakanang Posridee, Ratchadaporn Oonsivilai and Anant Oonsivilai
Processes 2023, 11(7), 1949; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11071949 - 27 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1356
Abstract
For the treatment of menopausal symptoms, nutraceuticals and herbal remedies are thought to be more natural and safer than hormones. Attention has been paid to the winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (L.)) DC. seed oil. They are constituted of phytosterols, which may be [...] Read more.
For the treatment of menopausal symptoms, nutraceuticals and herbal remedies are thought to be more natural and safer than hormones. Attention has been paid to the winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (L.)) DC. seed oil. They are constituted of phytosterols, which may be effective in preventing menopausal symptoms. The purpose was to determine the optimal conditions for supercritical fluid extraction of oleic-rich oil from winged bean seeds. To optimize the condition, the response surface methodology (RSM) and probabilistic neural network (PNN) were utilized. In this research, PNN was used to improve RSM estimation by reducing the number of calculations. The optimized extraction conditions for winged bean seed oil entailed a CO2 flow rate of 21.3 L/h, a pressure of 30 MPa, a temperature of 55 °C, and an extraction time of 90 min. Under these conditions, the extraction process yielded a maximum oil yield of 36.27%. Ultimately, winged bean seed oil included a greater proportion of unsaturated fatty acids such as oleic acid, linoleic acid, and linoleic acid than oil produced using cold pressing or co-solvent extraction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Screening of Bioactive Compounds from Food Processing Waste)
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18 pages, 2317 KiB  
Article
Investigation of the Factors That Contribute to Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Losses in the Australian Fresh Food Supply Chain
by Reham Abdullah Sanad Alsbu, Prasad Yarlagadda and Azharul Karim
Processes 2023, 11(4), 1154; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11041154 - 9 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3430
Abstract
Fruit and vegetables (FV) are the major source of bioactive compounds for human beings. FV supply chains are complex and sensitive due to various features, including the seasonality of products, variations in demand, and short shelf-lives. The amount of waste in FV supply [...] Read more.
Fruit and vegetables (FV) are the major source of bioactive compounds for human beings. FV supply chains are complex and sensitive due to various features, including the seasonality of products, variations in demand, and short shelf-lives. The amount of waste in FV supply chains is significant compared with other supply chains as 44% of fresh FV produced globally are wasted in the food chain. This large amount of waste has a significant impact on the economy, food security, available natural resources, and the environment. To reduce food losses in the fresh food supply chain (FFSC), the root causes of waste must be first identified. While a number of researchers have investigated food losses in Australia, most only consider a specific stage in the supply chain and multiple stages in the FFSC are often overlooked. Additionally, the impact of advanced storage technologies, packing, handling, and transport on food losses should be investigated. Furthermore, supply chain practices are changing in response to uncertainties, such as the pandemic and climate changes, which also need to be captured. This research aims to identify the key factors contributing to fresh fruit and vegetable losses through a comprehensive empirical study. Primary data were collected through a well-designed questionnaire-based survey targeting major stakeholders in the FFSC, including farmers, distributors, and retailers in Australia. The survey investigates current postharvest practices and the effects of these practices on food losses. The main factors influencing food losses were identified and the options to reduce these losses were outlined. The results showed that losses mostly occurred at the farm level, and picking practices and preharvest conditions largely contributed to FV losses. The results highlight the need for proper training and education for workers involved in harvesting and handling fresh produce. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Screening of Bioactive Compounds from Food Processing Waste)
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11 pages, 1243 KiB  
Article
Use of Roselle Calyx Wastes for the Enrichment of Biscuits: An Approach to Improve Their Functionality
by Rocio Guadalupe Hernández-Nava, José Daniel Anaya-Tacuba, María de la Luz Sánchez-Mundo, Raquel García-Barrientos, Alejandra Flores-Castro, Carmen del Pilar Suárez-Rodríguez and Vicente Espinosa-Solis
Processes 2023, 11(1), 287; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11010287 - 16 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1874
Abstract
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the use of powder made out of Roselle Calyx Wastes (RCP) in developing a biscuit formulation with acceptable sensory value. Roselle calyxes were infused in water in a 1:10 ratio. The residual infused calyxes [...] Read more.
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the use of powder made out of Roselle Calyx Wastes (RCP) in developing a biscuit formulation with acceptable sensory value. Roselle calyxes were infused in water in a 1:10 ratio. The residual infused calyxes were dried at 50 °C for 16 h, grounded, sieved through a 50 mesh, and stored in plastic bags until used. The biscuit formulations were enriched with RCP at 0% (BC), 5% (BRCP5), 10% (BRCP10), and 15% (BRCP15). The amount of RCP added to the biscuit formulation did not change the protein content. However, the addition of RCP significantly affected the biscuit’s color; the lightness parameter (L*) decreased as the RP content increased from 69.66 to 49.04. The sensory evaluation showed that the control biscuit and the biscuit enriched with 5% of RP were the best accepted. As for the antiradical activity, the formulation with the highest activity was presented by the BRCP15 (587.43 µmol Trolox/100 g dwb). On the other hand, BRCP5 presented 189.96 µmol Trolox/100 g dwb. Therefore, the biscuit formulation with RCP at a 15% enrichment could be used to commercialize a functional product. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Screening of Bioactive Compounds from Food Processing Waste)
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11 pages, 3078 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Particle Size and Crystallinity of Plant Materials on the Diffusion Constant for Model Extraction
by Igor Lomovskiy, Liudmila Makeeva, Ekaterina Podgorbunskikh and Oleg Lomovsky
Processes 2020, 8(11), 1348; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8111348 - 25 Oct 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3440
Abstract
Adsorbed polyphenolic compound (resveratrol) to a wheat straw matrix was considered as a model system for studying the influence of particle sizes and crystallinity of cell wall cellulose on the extraction process from the matrix of plant material. The morphology of wheat straw [...] Read more.
Adsorbed polyphenolic compound (resveratrol) to a wheat straw matrix was considered as a model system for studying the influence of particle sizes and crystallinity of cell wall cellulose on the extraction process from the matrix of plant material. The morphology of wheat straw particles was studied by scanning electron microscopy and changes in the crystal structure of cellulose were determined using X-ray diffraction. The kinetics of resveratrol extraction were studied using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The diffusion constants were determined for particles of different sizes and particles having the same size but varying in the degree of disordering of cellulose, the main component of cell walls. The applicability of the Axelrud equation for calculating the mass transfer constants for plant objects with a complex internal structure was shown. Comparison of the particle sizes, the degree of crystallinity, and the calculated mass transfer constant makes it possible to suggest that it is the disordering of pore walls and their subsequent collapse that changes the diffusion mechanism. Schemes of resveratrol fluxes were proposed for extraction from particles of a plant matrix of different sizes; the mass transfer constants were calculated using these data. It was shown that the mass transfer constant has a maximum depending on the disordering of the crystalline structure of plant materials. By disordering the plant matrix, it is possible to increase the flow of matter by seven times. At high crystallinity index, the mass transfer process is impeded by diffusion through the cell wall. Intensive grinding leads to deep disordering of the structure and collapse of pores—the main diffusion channels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Screening of Bioactive Compounds from Food Processing Waste)
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10 pages, 2555 KiB  
Article
Hydroxyapatite Biosynthesis Obtained from Sea Urchin Spines (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus): Effect of Synthesis Temperature
by Nayeli Sarahi Gómez Vázquez, Priscy Alfredo Luque Morales, Claudia Mariana Gomez Gutierrez, Osvaldo de Jesus Nava Olivas, Ruben Cesar Villarreal Sánchez, Alfredo Rafael Vilchis Nestor and Manuel de Jesús Chinchillas Chinchillas
Processes 2020, 8(4), 486; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8040486 - 22 Apr 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3445
Abstract
In this investigation, hydroxyapatite (HA) was synthesized using sea urchin spines (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) via a precipitation and heat treatment method at three different temperatures (500, 600 and 700 °C). Biosynthesized HA was characterized to determine the vibration of functional groups, morphology, [...] Read more.
In this investigation, hydroxyapatite (HA) was synthesized using sea urchin spines (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) via a precipitation and heat treatment method at three different temperatures (500, 600 and 700 °C). Biosynthesized HA was characterized to determine the vibration of functional groups, morphology, particle size, crystalline structure and chemical composition. For this, Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy with Attenuated Total Reflectance (FTIR-ATR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) coupled with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) were used, respectively. The FTIR-ATR results reveal that the most defined characteristic HA bonds (O-H, P-O and C-O bonds) were better defined at higher synthesis temperatures. SEM also presented evidence that temperature has a significant effect on morphology. EDS results showed that the Ca/P ratio increased in the samples at higher temperatures. XRD analysis presented the characteristic peaks of HA, showing a lower crystallinity when the synthesis temperature increased. Finally, the XPS confirmed that the material resulting from biosynthesis was HA. Hence, according to these results, the synthesis temperature of HA has a significant effect on the characteristics of the resulting material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Screening of Bioactive Compounds from Food Processing Waste)
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16 pages, 2676 KiB  
Article
A Simple Approach for Determining the Maximum Sorption Capacity of Chlorpropham from Aqueous Solution onto Granular Activated Charcoal
by Bandar R. M. Alsehli
Processes 2020, 8(4), 398; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8040398 - 29 Mar 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 6669
Abstract
UV-Vis spectrophotometer was used to determine chlorpropham (CIPC) concentration in aqueous solution. The method was validated in term of linearity, precision and limit of detection and limit of quantitation. The correlation coefficient of standards calibration curve of (1.0–10.0 µg/mL CIPC) was R2 [...] Read more.
UV-Vis spectrophotometer was used to determine chlorpropham (CIPC) concentration in aqueous solution. The method was validated in term of linearity, precision and limit of detection and limit of quantitation. The correlation coefficient of standards calibration curve of (1.0–10.0 µg/mL CIPC) was R2 = 1 with a precision (RSD%, n=10) ranged from (0.87–0.53%). The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) based on the regression statistics of the calibration curve data of (1.0–10.0 µg/mL CIPC) were 0.04 µg/mL and 0.11 µg/mL respectively. The activated carbon adsorbent was found to be effective for the removal approximately 80% of CIPC from aqueous solution. Several isotherm models (Langmuir, Freundlich, Tempkin and Dubinin–Radushkevich) were evaluated. The maximum monolayer sorption capacity (Qm) from the Langmuir isotherm model was determined to be (44316.92 µg/g). The separation factor (RL) is 0.11 which indicates a favorable equilibrium sorption with the R2 value of 0.99, indicating that the Langmuir isotherm model fit the experimental sorption data well. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Screening of Bioactive Compounds from Food Processing Waste)
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Review

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29 pages, 2396 KiB  
Review
Valorization of Food Waste to Produce Value-Added Products Based on Its Bioactive Compounds
by Ziyao Liu, Thaiza S. P. de Souza, Brendan Holland, Frank Dunshea, Colin Barrow and Hafiz A. R. Suleria
Processes 2023, 11(3), 840; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11030840 - 10 Mar 2023
Cited by 33 | Viewed by 11729
Abstract
The rapid growth of the global population and changes in lifestyle have led to a significant increase in food waste from various industrial, agricultural, and household sources. Nearly one-third of the food produced annually is wasted, resulting in severe resource depletion. Food waste [...] Read more.
The rapid growth of the global population and changes in lifestyle have led to a significant increase in food waste from various industrial, agricultural, and household sources. Nearly one-third of the food produced annually is wasted, resulting in severe resource depletion. Food waste contains rich organic matter, which, if not managed properly, can pose a serious threat to the environment and human health, making the proper disposal of food waste an urgent global issue. However, various types of food waste, such as waste from fruit, vegetables, grains, and other food production and processing, contain important bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols, dietary fiber, proteins, lipids, vitamins, organic acids, and minerals, some of which are found in greater quantities in the discarded parts than in the parts accepted by the market. These bioactive compounds offer the potential to convert food waste into value-added products, and fields including nutritional foods, bioplastics, bioenergy, biosurfactants, biofertilizers, and single cell proteins have welcomed food waste as a novel source. This review reveals the latest insights into the various sources of food waste and the potential of utilizing bioactive compounds to convert it into value-added products, thus enhancing people’s confidence in better utilizing and managing food waste. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Screening of Bioactive Compounds from Food Processing Waste)
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27 pages, 8216 KiB  
Review
The Disposition of Bioactive Compounds from Fruit Waste, Their Extraction, and Analysis Using Novel Technologies: A Review
by Anwar Ali, Sakhawat Riaz, Aysha Sameen, Nenad Naumovski, Muhammad Waheed Iqbal, Abdur Rehman, Taha Mehany, Xin-An Zeng and Muhammad Faisal Manzoor
Processes 2022, 10(10), 2014; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10102014 - 5 Oct 2022
Cited by 30 | Viewed by 4764
Abstract
Fruit waste contains several bioactive components such as polyphenols, polysaccharides, and numerous other phytochemicals, including pigments. Furthermore, new financial opportunities are created by using fruit ‘leftovers’ as a basis for bioactivities that may serve as new foods or food ingredients, strengthening the circular [...] Read more.
Fruit waste contains several bioactive components such as polyphenols, polysaccharides, and numerous other phytochemicals, including pigments. Furthermore, new financial opportunities are created by using fruit ‘leftovers’ as a basis for bioactivities that may serve as new foods or food ingredients, strengthening the circular economy’s properties. From a technical standpoint, organic phenolic substances have become more appealing to industry, in addition to their application as nutritional supplements or functional meals. Several extraction methods for recovering phenolic compounds from fruit waste have already been published, most of which involve using different organic solvents. However, there is a growing demand for eco-friendly and sustainable techniques that result in phenolic-rich extracts with little ecological impact. Utilizing these new and advanced green extraction techniques will reduce the global crisis caused by fruit waste management. Using modern techniques, fruit residue is degraded to sub-zero scales, yielding bio-based commodities such as bioactive elements. This review highlights the most favorable and creative methods of separating bioactive materials from fruit residue. Extraction techniques based on environmentally friendly technologies such as bioreactors, enzyme-assisted extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction, and their combination are specifically covered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Screening of Bioactive Compounds from Food Processing Waste)
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15 pages, 275 KiB  
Review
Apple Pomace as a Functional and Healthy Ingredient in Food Products: A Review
by Fengzhi Lyu, Selma F. Luiz, Denise Rosane Perdomo Azeredo, Adriano G. Cruz, Said Ajlouni and Chaminda Senaka Ranadheera
Processes 2020, 8(3), 319; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8030319 - 9 Mar 2020
Cited by 127 | Viewed by 17994
Abstract
Apple pomace is a major by-product obtained during apple juice processing. Several million metric tons of apple pomace are estimated to be generated worldwide every year. However, the recovery rate of this by-product is low. Pomace is commonly disposed and thrown away as [...] Read more.
Apple pomace is a major by-product obtained during apple juice processing. Several million metric tons of apple pomace are estimated to be generated worldwide every year. However, the recovery rate of this by-product is low. Pomace is commonly disposed and thrown away as a waste, which results in environmental problems and even public health hazards. As a by-product of the apple juice processing industries, pomace contains plenty of different varieties of nutritionally important compounds, such as carbohydrates, phenolic compounds, dietary fiber and minerals. These important compounds can be recovered from apple pomace, or there is even a possibility of using apple pomace in the food systems directly or after minimal processing. Therefore, apple pomace can be utilized in food products to improve their health benefits and commercial values. This review focuses on the current food applications and influence of apple pomace on the characteristics of various food products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Screening of Bioactive Compounds from Food Processing Waste)
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