Special Issue "Properties and Processing Process of Flour Products"

A special issue of Processes (ISSN 2227-9717). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Processes".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 December 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Tonna A. Anyasi
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Agro-processing and Postharvest Unit, Agricultural Research Council – Tropical and Subtropical Crops, Nelspruit 1200, South Africa
Interests: agro-processing; postharvest technology of fruits and vegetables, cereals, root and tuber crops; carbohydrate polymers; plant bioactives; antioxidants in food; metabolic profiling
Prof. Dr. Afam I. O. Jideani
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Science, Engineering and Agriculture, University of Venda, Private Bag X5050, Thohoyandou 0950, Limpopo Province, South Africa
2. Postharvest- Handling Group, ISEKI-Food Association, Vienna, Austria
Interests: cereal science; cereal chemistry; fermentation technology; fruit processing; cereal nutrition and metabolomics; food product development and preservation; food machinery; food security; antimicrobial resistance

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Processing of harvested plant produce into flour has increased, over the years, the utilization of flour into shelf-stable products with desirable properties, enhanced shelf life and consumer appeal. Harvested crops such as fruits, grains, legumes, roots and tubers have undergone different forms of processing leading to the production of flour needed for valorization and other food uses. Variations, however, occur in flour processing techniques, as different processing techniques are used for different plant flours depending on their end-use. The outcome of the different processing methods includes associated changes and impacts on the size, structure and composition of the flour leading to differences in the nutritional configuration and functionalities. These changes confer different effects on flour characteristics of particle size, texture, color, structure and form as well as the overall flour end product.

This Special Issue on “Properties and Processing Process of Flour Products” examines the various forms of processing methods in the production of flour from different plant sources, their effect on the nutritional composition, antioxidant activities, bioactive compounds, functionality and application in foods, as well as the novel methods currently utilized in flour processing. Sensory studies and industrial application of processed flour products are other contributions that are welcomed in this Special Issue. Submissions on novel and green methods of flour processing, as well as the current methods for determining their functionalities and properties, are also welcomed. Topics include but are not limited to:

  • Processing and properties of cereal flours;
  • Processing and properties of fruit flours;
  • Processing and properties of root and tuber crop flour;
  • Processing effects on the nutritional and techno-functional properties of flours;
  • Processing effects on flour bioactives;
  • Antioxidant activities of processed flour;
  • Fermentation processes and its effects on flour;
  • Flour extrusion processes;
  • Novel and green flour processing techniques;
  • Sensory studies on processed flour products.

Dr. Tonna A. Anyasi
Prof. Dr. Afam I. O. Jideani
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Processes is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • flour particle size
  • flour techno-functional properties
  • rheological properties
  • flour bioactives
  • antioxidant activities of flour
  • novel flour processing
  • fermentation processes
  • nixtamalization
  • milling
  • sensory analysis

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

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Article
Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Pediococcus pentosaceus Non-Alcoholic Pearl Millet Beverage Enriched with Moringa oleifera Leaf Powder: Nutritional and Sensory Characteristics
Processes 2021, 9(12), 2125; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9122125 - 25 Nov 2021
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Abstract
Non-alcoholic cereal beverages (NACB) are usually produced through uncontrolled fermentation driven by a cocktail of bacteria resulting in final product variability. Hence, to commercialise fermented traditional cereal beverages bioburden microbial cultures are required. This investigation aimed to evaluate the physicochemical, nutritional, and sensory [...] Read more.
Non-alcoholic cereal beverages (NACB) are usually produced through uncontrolled fermentation driven by a cocktail of bacteria resulting in final product variability. Hence, to commercialise fermented traditional cereal beverages bioburden microbial cultures are required. This investigation aimed to evaluate the physicochemical, nutritional, and sensory characteristics of NACB produced using pure cultures of Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Pediococcus pentosaceus. Pearl millet extract (PME) pasteurised at 85 °C for 15 min and cooled to 40 °C was inoculated with Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Pediococcus pentosaceus at 0.050% and 0.025% (1:0.5), respectively, and fermented at 37 °C for 18 h, referred to as plain non-alcoholic pearl millet beverage (PNAPMB). Moringa supplemented non-alcoholic pearl millet beverage (MSNAPMB) was produced following the same method as PNAPMB but a 4% moringa leaf extract powder was added before hydration of the pearl millet powder. The traditional non-alcoholic pearl millet beverage (TNAPMB) was prepared by mixing water and pearl millet flour (1:1.25; PMF:Water) and hydrated for 3 h at 25 °C. The mixture was divided into ¼ slurry which was mixed with sprouted rice flour (SRF) and ¾ portion that was gelatinised with 1 L of boiling water and cooled to 40 °C. The two portions were mixed and fermented at 37 °C for 18 h, followed by sieving, dilution with water (1:0.5, filtrate:water), and pasteurization for 15 min at 85 °C. The growth of lactic acid bacteria, pH, total titratable acidity (TTA), and sugar in PNAPMB and MSNAPMB were determined at 3 h intervals during fermentation. The final beverages were also analysed for proximate, colour and metabolites. The lactic acid bacteria were significantly (p < 0.05) affected by the fermentation period and increased from 3.32 to 7.97 log CFU/mL (pH 4.14) and 3.58 to 8.38 log CFU/mL (pH 3.65) for PNAPMB and MSNAPMB, respectively. The total titratable acidity significantly (p < 0.05) increased from 0.14 to 0.22% and from 0.17 to 0.38% in PNAPMB and MSNAPMB, respectively. The protein, total fat, moisture total sugar, and carbohydrates differed significantly (p < 0.05) among the samples. PNAPMB was preferred by a consumer panel followed by MSNAPMB and TNAPMB. Volatile compounds with beneficial anti-inflammatory and anti-pathogenic properties were identified in the beverages. Innovative fermentation of pearl millet extract using purified bioburden cultures was possible and the added Moringa oleifera leaf powder improved the nutritional quality of the resulting beverage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Properties and Processing Process of Flour Products)
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Review

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Review
Process-Induced Modifications on Quality Attributes of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) Flour
Processes 2021, 9(11), 1891; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9111891 - 22 Oct 2021
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Abstract
Cassava flour (CF) is a suitable representative and one of the easiest shelf-stable food products of the edible portion of the highly perishable cassava root (Manihot esculenta Crantz). The quality and type of CF are dependent on processing variables. Broadly categorized into [...] Read more.
Cassava flour (CF) is a suitable representative and one of the easiest shelf-stable food products of the edible portion of the highly perishable cassava root (Manihot esculenta Crantz). The quality and type of CF are dependent on processing variables. Broadly categorized into fermented and unfermented CF, unfermented CF is white, odorless, and bland, while fermented CF has a sour flavor accompanied by its characteristic odor. The use of fermented CF as a composite is limited because of their off-odors. Modifications in CF processing have given rise to prefixes such as: modified, unmodified, gelatinized, fortified, native, roasted, malted, wet, and dry. Consumed alone, mostly in reconstituted dough form with soups, CF may also serve as a composite in the processing of various flour-based food products. Fermenting with microorganisms such as Rhizopus oryzae and Saccharomyces cerevisiae results in a significant increase in the protein content and a decrease in the cyanide content of CF. However, there are concerns regarding its safety for consumption. Pre-gelatinized CF has potential for the textural and structural improvement of bakery products. The average particle size of the CF also influences its functional properties and, subsequently, the quality of its products. Cassava flour is best stored at ambient temperature. Standardizing the processing of CF is a challenge because it is mostly processed in artisanal units. Furthermore, each variety of the root best suits a particular application. Therefore, understanding the influence of processing variables on the characteristics of CF may improve the utilization of CF locally and globally. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Properties and Processing Process of Flour Products)
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