Special Issue "Polymer Materials for Drug Delivery and Tissue Engineering"

A special issue of Polymers (ISSN 2073-4360). This special issue belongs to the section "Polymer Applications".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (25 November 2022) | Viewed by 14578

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Ariana Hudita
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular biology, Faculty of Biology, University of Bucharest, Bucharest 061071, Romania
Interests: nanoscaled drug delivery nanoscaled drug delivery systems; tumor-on-chip systems; colorectal cancer research; regenerative medicine; tissue engineering
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Bianca Gǎlǎţeanu
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Biology, University of Bucharest, Bucharest, Romania
Interests: colon cancer research; nanoscaled drug delivery systems; tumor-on-chip; liquid biopsy; pharmacogenomics; personalized medicine
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The recent years have witnessed an impressive development of modern therapies because of the appearance of numerous novel drug-delivery systems and biomaterials synthetized for tissue engineering purposes. The use of polymer-based biomaterials (natural, synthetic, or blends) has played a pivotal role in the tremendous advances reported in the biomedical field because of their tailorable designs, versatility, attractive physiochemical properties, and excellent biocompatibility. On the one hand, polymer-based materials are widely used in tissue engineering for the design and fabrication of biomimetic scaffolds that resemble the complex architecture of the defective tissues, which are easily engineered to exert distinct biological functions. On the other hand, polymers have been used for drug and gene delivery systems fabrication because of their ability to carry both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs or other molecules, with a controlled release of controllable doses, that can be biofunctionalized to ensure the efficient delivery of pharmacological cargo to the desired site. Moreover, functional polymer-based biomaterials with dual function, scaffolds, and delivery vehicles for therapeutic agents and biological cues are currently an attractive modern approach in regenerative medicine. Independent of the targeted application, smart polymers currently represent a popular choice in the biomedical field, as these stimuli-responsive materials can adapt to the biological environment, thus providing a real opportunity for designing personalized biomedical products.

This Special Issue titled “Polymer Materials for Drug Delivery and Tissue Engineering” will focus on the recent development of polymeric materials intended for tissue engineering or drug-delivery applications. In this regard, we warmly invite members of the academic and scientific communities to contribute original papers, short communications, or reviews on the development, characterization, and possible biological applications of polymer-based biomaterials, with applications in drug delivery and tissue engineering. The purpose of this Special Issue is to gather cutting-edge research and new insights into polymer-based biomaterial progress in terms of novel and innovative methods of synthesis and functionalization, as well as modern approaches for in vitro and in vivo biological effect investigations.

Dr. Ariana Hudita
Dr. Bianca Gǎlǎţeanu
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Bioinspired implantable materials
  • Nanoshuttles
  • Polymeric drug delivery systems
  • Tissue engineering
  • Regenerative medicine
  • Non-viral vectors
  • Modern biomedicine

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Research

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Article
Composite Fibers Based on Polycaprolactone and Calcium Magnesium Silicate Powders for Tissue Engineering Applications
Polymers 2022, 14(21), 4611; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14214611 - 30 Oct 2022
Viewed by 323
Abstract
The present work reports the synthesis and characterization of polycaprolactone fibers loaded with particulate calcium magnesium silicates, to form composite materials with bioresorbable and bioactive properties. The inorganic powders were achieved through a sol–gel method, starting from the compositions of diopside, akermanite, and [...] Read more.
The present work reports the synthesis and characterization of polycaprolactone fibers loaded with particulate calcium magnesium silicates, to form composite materials with bioresorbable and bioactive properties. The inorganic powders were achieved through a sol–gel method, starting from the compositions of diopside, akermanite, and merwinite, three mineral phases with suitable features for the field of hard tissue engineering. The fibrous composites were fabricated by electrospinning polymeric solutions with a content of 16% polycaprolactone and 5 or 10% inorganic powder. The physico-chemical evaluation from compositional and morphological points of view was followed by the biological assessment of powder bioactivity and scaffold biocompatibility. SEM investigation highlighted a significant reduction in fiber diameter, from around 3 μm to less than 100 nm after the loading stage, while EDX and FTIR spectra confirmed the existence of embedded mineral entities. The silicate phases were found be highly bioactive after 4 weeks of immersion in SBF, enriching the potential of the polymeric host that provides only biocompatibility and bioresorbability. Moreover, the cellular tests indicated a slight decrease in cell viability over the short-term, a compromise that can be accepted if the overall benefits of such multifunctional composites are considered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Materials for Drug Delivery and Tissue Engineering)
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Article
Cefazolin Loaded Oxidized Regenerated Cellulose/Polycaprolactone Bilayered Composite for Use as Potential Antibacterial Dural Substitute
Polymers 2022, 14(20), 4449; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14204449 - 21 Oct 2022
Viewed by 334
Abstract
Oxidized regenerated cellulose/polycaprolactone bilayered composite (ORC/PCL bilayered composite) was investigated for use as an antibacterial dural substitute. Cefazolin at the concentrations of 25, 50, 75 and 100 mg/mL was loaded in the ORC/PCL bilayered composite. Microstructure, density, thickness, tensile properties, cefazolin loading content, [...] Read more.
Oxidized regenerated cellulose/polycaprolactone bilayered composite (ORC/PCL bilayered composite) was investigated for use as an antibacterial dural substitute. Cefazolin at the concentrations of 25, 50, 75 and 100 mg/mL was loaded in the ORC/PCL bilayered composite. Microstructure, density, thickness, tensile properties, cefazolin loading content, cefazolin releasing profile and antibacterial activity against S. aureus were measured. It was seen that the change in concentration of cefazolin loading affected the microstructure of the composite on the rough side, but not on the dense or smooth side. Cefazolin loaded ORC/PCL bilayered composite showed greater densities, but lower thickness, compared to those of drug unloaded composite. Tensile modulus was found to be greater and increased with increasing cefazolin loading, but tensile strength and strain at break were lower compared to the drug unloaded composite. In vitro cefazolin release in artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) consisted of initial burst release on day 1, followed by a constant small release of cefazolin. The antibacterial activity was observed to last for up to 4 days depending on the cefazolin loading. All these results suggested that ORC/PCL bilayered composite could be modified to serve as an antibiotic carrier for potential use as an antibacterial synthetic dura mater. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Materials for Drug Delivery and Tissue Engineering)
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Article
Structural Breakdown of Collagen Type I Elastin Blend Polymerization
Polymers 2022, 14(20), 4434; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14204434 - 20 Oct 2022
Viewed by 311
Abstract
Biopolymer blends are advantageous materials with novel properties that may show performances way beyond their individual constituents. Collagen elastin hybrid gels are a new representative of such materials as they employ elastin’s thermo switching behavior in the physiological temperature regime. Although recent studies [...] Read more.
Biopolymer blends are advantageous materials with novel properties that may show performances way beyond their individual constituents. Collagen elastin hybrid gels are a new representative of such materials as they employ elastin’s thermo switching behavior in the physiological temperature regime. Although recent studies highlight the potential applications of such systems, little is known about the interaction of collagen and elastin fibers during polymerization. In fact, the final network structure is predetermined in the early and mostly arbitrary association of the fibers. We investigated type I collagen polymerized with bovine neck ligament elastin with up to 33.3 weight percent elastin and showed, by using a plate reader, zeta potential and laser scanning microscopy (LSM) experiments, that elastin fibers bind in a lateral manner to collagen fibers. Our plate reader experiments revealed an elastin concentration-dependent increase in the polymerization rate, although the rate increase was greatest at intermediate elastin concentrations. As elastin does not significantly change the structural metrics pore size, fiber thickness or 2D anisotropy of the final gel, we are confident to conclude that elastin is incorporated homogeneously into the collagen fibers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Materials for Drug Delivery and Tissue Engineering)
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Article
5-Fluorouracil-Loaded Folic-Acid-Fabricated Chitosan Nanoparticles for Site-Targeted Drug Delivery Cargo
Polymers 2022, 14(10), 2010; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14102010 - 13 May 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 956
Abstract
Nanoparticles play a vital role in cancer treatment to deliver or direct the drug to the malignant cell, avoiding the attacking of normal cells. The aim of the study is to formulate folic-acid-modified chitosan nanoparticles for colon cancer. Chitosan was successfully conjugated with [...] Read more.
Nanoparticles play a vital role in cancer treatment to deliver or direct the drug to the malignant cell, avoiding the attacking of normal cells. The aim of the study is to formulate folic-acid-modified chitosan nanoparticles for colon cancer. Chitosan was successfully conjugated with folic acid to produce a folic acid–chitosan conjugate. The folate-modified chitosan was loaded with 5-FU using the ionic gelation method. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized for size, zeta potential, surface morphology, drug contents, entrapment efficiency, loading efficiency, and in vitro release study. The cytotoxicity study of the formulated nanoparticles was also investigated. The conjugation of folic acid with chitosan was confirmed by FTIR and NMR spectroscopy. The obtained nanoparticles were monodispersed nanoparticles with a suitable average size and a positive surface charge. The size and zeta potential and PDI of the CS-5FU-NPs were 208 ± 15, 26 ± 2, and +20 ± 2, respectively, and those of the FA-CS-5FU-NPs were 235 ± 12 and +20 ± 2, respectively, which are in the acceptable ranges. The drug contents’ % yield and the %EE of folate-decorated NPs were 53 ± 1.8% and 59 ± 2%, respectively. The in vitro release of the FA-CS-5FU-NPs and CS-5FU-NPs was in the range of 10.08 ± 0.45 to 96.57 ± 0.09% and 6 ± 0.31 to 91.44 ± 0.21, respectively. The cytotoxicity of the nanoparticles was enhanced in the presence of folic acid. The presence of folic acid in nanoparticles shows much higher cytotoxicity as compared to simple chitosan nanoparticles. The folate-modified nanoparticles provide a potential way to enhance the targeting of tumor cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Materials for Drug Delivery and Tissue Engineering)
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Article
pH-Responsive PVA/BC-f-GO Dressing Materials for Burn and Chronic Wound Healing with Curcumin Release Kinetics
Polymers 2022, 14(10), 1949; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14101949 - 11 May 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 823
Abstract
Polymeric materials have been essential biomaterials to develop hydrogels as wound dressings for sustained drug delivery and chronic wound healing. The microenvironment for wound healing is created by biocompatibility, bioactivity, and physicochemical behavior. Moreover, a bacterial infection often causes the healing process. The [...] Read more.
Polymeric materials have been essential biomaterials to develop hydrogels as wound dressings for sustained drug delivery and chronic wound healing. The microenvironment for wound healing is created by biocompatibility, bioactivity, and physicochemical behavior. Moreover, a bacterial infection often causes the healing process. The bacterial cellulose (BC) was functionalized using graphene oxide (GO) by hydrothermal method to have bacterial cellulose-functionalized-Graphene oxide (BC-f-GO). A simple blending method was used to crosslink BC-f-GO with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) by tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) as a crosslinker. The structural, morphological, wetting, and mechanical tests were conducted using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning electron microscope (SEM), water contact angle, and a Universal testing machine (UTM). The release of Silver-sulphadiazine and drug release kinetics were studied at various pH levels and using different mathematical models (zero-order, first-order, Higuchi, Hixson, Korsmeyer–Peppas, and Baker–Lonsdale). The antibacterial properties were conducted against Gram-positive and Gram-negative severe infection-causing pathogens. These composite hydrogels presented potential anticancer activities against the U87 cell line by an increased GO amount. The result findings show that these composite hydrogels have physical-mechanical and inherent antimicrobial properties and controlled drug release, making them an ideal approach for skin wound healing. As a result, these hydrogels were discovered to be an ideal biomaterial for skin wound healing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Materials for Drug Delivery and Tissue Engineering)
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Article
Tailoring of Geranium Oil-Based Nanoemulsion Loaded with Pravastatin as a Nanoplatform for Wound Healing
Polymers 2022, 14(9), 1912; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14091912 - 07 May 2022
Viewed by 673
Abstract
The healing of a burn wound is a complex process that includes the re-formation of injured tissues and the control of infection to minimize discomfort, scarring, and inconvenience. The current investigation’s objective was to develop and optimize a geranium oil–based self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery [...] Read more.
The healing of a burn wound is a complex process that includes the re-formation of injured tissues and the control of infection to minimize discomfort, scarring, and inconvenience. The current investigation’s objective was to develop and optimize a geranium oil–based self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system loaded with pravastatin (Gr-PV-NE). The geranium oil and pravastatin were both used due to their valuable anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activities. The Box–Behnken design was chosen for the development and optimization of the Gr-PV-NE. The fabricated formulations were assessed for their droplet size and their effects on the burn wound diameter in experimental animals. Further, the optimal formulation was examined for its wound healing properties, antimicrobial activities, and ex-vivo permeation characteristics. The produced nanoemulsion had a droplet size of 61 to 138 nm. The experimental design affirmed the important synergistic influence of the geranium oil and pravastatin for the healing of burn wounds; it showed enhanced wound closure and improved anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial actions. The optimal formulation led to a 4-fold decrease in the mean burn wound diameter, a 3.81-fold lowering of the interleukin-6 serum level compared to negative control, a 4-fold increase in the inhibition zone against Staphylococcus aureus compared to NE with Gr oil, and a 7.6-fold increase in the skin permeation of pravastatin compared to PV dispersion. Therefore, the devised nanoemulsions containing the combination of geranium oil and pravastatin could be considered a fruitful paradigm for the treatment of severe burn wounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Materials for Drug Delivery and Tissue Engineering)
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Article
Biopolymer Material from Human Spongiosa for Regenerative Medicine Application
Polymers 2022, 14(5), 941; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14050941 - 26 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 614
Abstract
Natural biopolymers demonstrate significant bone and connective tissue-engineering application efficiency. However, the quality of the biopolymer directly depends on microstructure and biochemical properties. This study aims to investigate the biocompatibility and microstructural properties of demineralized human spongiosa Lyoplast® (Samara, Russian Federation). The [...] Read more.
Natural biopolymers demonstrate significant bone and connective tissue-engineering application efficiency. However, the quality of the biopolymer directly depends on microstructure and biochemical properties. This study aims to investigate the biocompatibility and microstructural properties of demineralized human spongiosa Lyoplast® (Samara, Russian Federation). The graft’s microstructural and biochemical properties were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), micro-computed tomography, Raman spectroscopy, and proteomic analysis. Furthermore, the cell adhesion property of the graft was evaluated using cell cultures and fluorescence microscopy. Microstructural analysis revealed the hierarchical porous structure of the graft with complete removal of the cellular debris and bone marrow components. Moreover, the proteomic analysis confirmed the preservation of collagen and extracellular proteins, stimulating and inhibiting cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation. We revealed the adhesion of chondroblast cell cultures in vitro without any evidence of cytotoxicity. According to the study results, demineralized human spongiosa Lyoplast® can be effectively used as the bioactive scaffold for articular hyaline cartilage tissue engineering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Materials for Drug Delivery and Tissue Engineering)
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Article
Antibacterial Electrospun Polycaprolactone Nanofibers Reinforced by Halloysite Nanotubes for Tissue Engineering
Polymers 2022, 14(4), 746; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14040746 - 15 Feb 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 795
Abstract
Due to its slow degradation rate, polycaprolactone (PCL) is frequently used in biomedical applications. This study deals with the development of antibacterial nanofibers based on PCL and halloysite nanotubes (HNTs). Thanks to a combination with HNTs, the prepared nanofibers can be used as [...] Read more.
Due to its slow degradation rate, polycaprolactone (PCL) is frequently used in biomedical applications. This study deals with the development of antibacterial nanofibers based on PCL and halloysite nanotubes (HNTs). Thanks to a combination with HNTs, the prepared nanofibers can be used as low-cost nanocontainers for the encapsulation of a wide variety of substances, including drugs, enzymes, and DNA. In our work, HNTs were used as a nanocarrier for erythromycin (ERY) as a model antibacterial active compound with a wide range of antibacterial activity. Nanofibers based on PCL and HNT/ERY were prepared by electrospinning. The antibacterial activity was evaluated as a sterile zone of inhibition around the PCL nanofibers containing 7.0 wt.% HNT/ERY. The morphology was observed with SEM and TEM. The efficiency of HNT/ERY loading was evaluated with thermogravimetric analysis. It was found that the nanofibers exhibited outstanding antibacterial properties and inhibited both Gram- (Escherichia coli) and Gram+ (Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria. Moreover, a significant enhancement of mechanical properties was achieved. The potential uses of antibacterial, environmentally friendly, nontoxic, biodegradable PCL/HNT/ERY nanofiber materials are mainly in tissue engineering, wound healing, the prevention of bacterial infections, and other biomedical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Materials for Drug Delivery and Tissue Engineering)
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Article
Naproxen-Loaded Poly(2-hydroxyalkyl methacrylates): Preparation and Drug Release Dynamics
Polymers 2022, 14(3), 450; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14030450 - 23 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 957
Abstract
Poly(2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate)/Naproxen (NPX/pHEMA) and poly (2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate)/Naproxen (NPX/pHPMA) composites with different NPX content were prepared in situ by free radical photopolymerization route. The resulted hybrid materials were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning Electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray [...] Read more.
Poly(2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate)/Naproxen (NPX/pHEMA) and poly (2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate)/Naproxen (NPX/pHPMA) composites with different NPX content were prepared in situ by free radical photopolymerization route. The resulted hybrid materials were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning Electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). These composites have been studied as drug carrier systems, in which a comparison of the in vitro release dynamic of NPX between the two drug carrier systems has been conducted. Different factors affecting the performance of the release dynamic of this drug, such as the amount of Naproxen incorporated in the drug carrier system, the pH of the medium and the degree of swelling, have been investigated. The results of the swelling study of pHEMA and pHPMA in different media pHs revealed that the diffusion of water molecules through both polymer samples obeys the Fickian model. The “in vitro” study of the release dynamic of Naproxen from NPX/pHEMA and NPX/pHPMA drug carrier systems revealed that the higher percentage of NPX released was obtained from each polymer carrier in neutral pH medium, and the diffusion of NPX trough these polymer matrices also obeys the Fickian model. It was also found that the less the mass percent of NPX in the composites, the better its release will be. The comparison between the two drug carrier systems revealed that the pHEMA leads to the best performance in the release dynamic of NPX. Regarding Naproxen solubility in water, the results deducted from the “in vitro” study of NPX/pHEMA10 and NPX/pHPMA10 drug carrier systems revealed a very significant improvement in the solubility of NPX in media pH1 (2.33 times, 1.43 times) and 7 (3.32 times, 2.60 times), respectively, compared to those obtained by direct dissolution of Naproxen powder. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Materials for Drug Delivery and Tissue Engineering)
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Article
Casein Micelles as Nanocarriers for Benzydamine Delivery
Polymers 2021, 13(24), 4357; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13244357 - 13 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 970
Abstract
The aim of the present work was to optimize the process parameters of the nano spray drying technique for the formulation of benzydamine-loaded casein nanoparticles and to investigate the effect of some process variables on the structural and morphological characteristics and release behavior. [...] Read more.
The aim of the present work was to optimize the process parameters of the nano spray drying technique for the formulation of benzydamine-loaded casein nanoparticles and to investigate the effect of some process variables on the structural and morphological characteristics and release behavior. The obtained particles were characterized in terms of particle size and size distribution, surface morphology, production yield and encapsulation efficiency, drug-polymer compatibility, etc., using dynamic light scattering, scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy. Production yields of the blank nanoparticles were significantly influenced by the concentration of both casein and the crosslinking agent. The formulated drug-loaded nanoparticles had an average particle size of 135.9 nm to 994.2 nm. Drug loading varied from 16.02% to 57.41% and the encapsulation efficiency was in the range 34.61% to 78.82%. Our study has demonstrated that all the investigated parameters depended greatly on the polymer/drug ratio and the drug release study confirmed the feasibility of the developed nanocarriers for prolonged delivery of benzydamine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Materials for Drug Delivery and Tissue Engineering)
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Article
Impacts of Blended Bombyx mori Silk Fibroin and Recombinant Spider Silk Fibroin Hydrogels on Cell Growth
Polymers 2021, 13(23), 4182; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13234182 - 29 Nov 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1189
Abstract
Binary-blended hydrogels fabricated from Bombyx mori silk fibroin (SF) and recombinant spider silk protein eADF4(C16) were developed and investigated concerning gelation and cellular interactions in vitro. With an increasing concentration of eADF4(C16), the gelation time of SF was shortened from typically one week [...] Read more.
Binary-blended hydrogels fabricated from Bombyx mori silk fibroin (SF) and recombinant spider silk protein eADF4(C16) were developed and investigated concerning gelation and cellular interactions in vitro. With an increasing concentration of eADF4(C16), the gelation time of SF was shortened from typically one week to less than 48 h depending on the blending ratio. The biological tests with primary cells and two cell lines revealed that the cells cannot adhere and preferably formed cell aggregates on eADF4(C16) hydrogels, due to the polyanionic properties of eADF4(C16). Mixing SF in the blends ameliorated the cellular activities, as the proliferation of L929 fibroblasts and SaOS-2 osteoblast-like cells increased with an increase of SF content. The blended SF:eADF4(C16) hydrogels attained the advantages as well as overcame the limitations of each individual material, underlining the utilization of the hydrogels in several biomedical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Materials for Drug Delivery and Tissue Engineering)
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Article
Ethyl Cellulose and Hydroxypropyl Methyl Cellulose Blended Methotrexate-Loaded Transdermal Patches: In Vitro and Ex Vivo
Polymers 2021, 13(20), 3455; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13203455 - 09 Oct 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1336
Abstract
Transdermal drug delivery systems (TDDSs) have become innovative, fascinating drug delivery methods intended for skin application to achieve systemic effects. TDDSs overcome the drawbacks associated with oral and parenteral routes of drug administration. The current investigation aimed to design, evaluate and optimize methotrexate [...] Read more.
Transdermal drug delivery systems (TDDSs) have become innovative, fascinating drug delivery methods intended for skin application to achieve systemic effects. TDDSs overcome the drawbacks associated with oral and parenteral routes of drug administration. The current investigation aimed to design, evaluate and optimize methotrexate (MTX)-loaded transdermal-type patches having ethyl cellulose (EC) and hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) at different concentrations for the local management of psoriasis. In vitro release and ex vivo permeation studies were carried out for the formulated patches. Various formulations (F1–F9) were developed using different concentrations of HPMC and EC. The F1 formulation having a 1:1 polymer concentration ratio served as the control formulation. ATR–FTIR analysis was performed to study drug–polymer interactions, and it was found that the drug and polymers were compatible with each other. The formulated patches were further investigated for their physicochemical parameters, in vitro release and ex vivo diffusion characteristics. Different parameters, such as surface pH, physical appearance, thickness, weight uniformity, percent moisture absorption, percent moisture loss, folding endurance, skin irritation, stability and drug content uniformity, were studied. From the hydrophilic mixture, it was observed that viscosity has a direct influence on drug release. Among all formulated patches, the F5 formulation exhibited 82.71% drug release in a sustained-release fashion and followed an anomalous non-Fickian diffusion. The permeation data of the F5 formulation exhibited about a 36.55% cumulative amount of percent drug permeated. The skin showed high retention for the F5 formulation (15.1%). The stability study indicated that all prepared formulations had very good stability for a period of 180 days. Therefore, it was concluded from the present study that methotrexate-loaded transdermal patches with EC and HPMC as polymers at different concentrations suit TDDSs ideally and improve patient compliance for the local management of psoriasis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Materials for Drug Delivery and Tissue Engineering)
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Article
Surface Characterization and Physiochemical Evaluation of P(3HB-co-4HB)-Collagen Peptide Scaffolds with Silver Sulfadiazine as Antimicrobial Agent for Potential Infection-Resistance Biomaterial
Polymers 2021, 13(15), 2454; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13152454 - 26 Jul 2021
Viewed by 887
Abstract
Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB-co-4HB)] is a bacterial derived biopolymer widely known for its unique physical and mechanical properties to be used in biomedical application. In this study, antimicrobial agent silver sulfadiazine (SSD) coat/collagen peptide coat-P(3HB-co-4HB) (SCCC) and SSD blend/collagen [...] Read more.
Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB-co-4HB)] is a bacterial derived biopolymer widely known for its unique physical and mechanical properties to be used in biomedical application. In this study, antimicrobial agent silver sulfadiazine (SSD) coat/collagen peptide coat-P(3HB-co-4HB) (SCCC) and SSD blend/collagen peptide coat-P(3HB-co-4HB) scaffolds (SBCC) were fabricated using a green salt leaching technique combined with freeze-drying. This was then followed by the incorporation of collagen peptides at various concentrations (2.5–12.5 wt.%) to P(3HB-co-4HB) using collagen-coating. As a result, two types of P(3HB-co-4HB) scaffolds were fabricated, including SCCC and SBCC scaffolds. The increasing concentrations of collagen peptides from 2.5 wt.% to 12.5 wt.% exhibited a decline in their porosity. The wettability and hydrophilicity increased as the concentration of collagen peptides in the scaffolds increased. In terms of the cytotoxic results, MTS assay demonstrated the L929 fibroblast scaffolds adhered well to the fabricated scaffolds. The 10 wt.% collagen peptides coated SCCC and SBCC scaffolds displayed highest cell proliferation rate. The antimicrobial analysis of the fabricated scaffolds exhibited 100% inhibition towards various pathogenic microorganisms. However, the SCCC scaffold exhibited 100% inhibition between 12 and 24 h, but the SBCC scaffolds with SSD impregnated in the scaffold had controlled release of the antimicrobial agent. Thus, this study will elucidate the surface interface-cell interactions of the SSD-P(3HB-co-4HB)-collagen peptide scaffolds and controlled release of SSD, antimicrobial agent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Materials for Drug Delivery and Tissue Engineering)
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Article
In Vitro Interaction of Doxorubicin-Loaded Silk Sericin Nanocarriers with MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells Leads to DNA Damage
Polymers 2021, 13(13), 2047; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13132047 - 22 Jun 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1548
Abstract
In this paper, Bombyx mori silk sericin nanocarriers with a very low size range were obtained by nanoprecipitation. Sericin nanoparticles were loaded with doxorubicin, and they were considered a promising tool for breast cancer therapy. The chemistry, structure, morphology, and size distribution of [...] Read more.
In this paper, Bombyx mori silk sericin nanocarriers with a very low size range were obtained by nanoprecipitation. Sericin nanoparticles were loaded with doxorubicin, and they were considered a promising tool for breast cancer therapy. The chemistry, structure, morphology, and size distribution of nanocarriers were investigated by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR–ATR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and dynamic light scattering (DLS). Morphological investigation and DLS showed the formation of sericin nanoparticles in the 25–40 nm range. FTIR chemical characterization showed specific interactions of protein–doxorubicin–enzymes with a high influence on the drug delivery process and release behavior. The biological investigation via breast cancer cell line revealed a high activity of nanocarriers in cancer cells by inducing significant DNA damage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Materials for Drug Delivery and Tissue Engineering)
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Review

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Review
Applications of Polymers for Organ-on-Chip Technology in Urology
Polymers 2022, 14(9), 1668; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14091668 - 20 Apr 2022
Viewed by 1076
Abstract
Organ-on-chips (OOCs) are microfluidic devices used for creating physiological organ biomimetic systems. OOC technology brings numerous advantages in the current landscape of preclinical models, capable of recapitulating the multicellular assemblage, tissue–tissue interaction, and replicating numerous human pathologies. Moreover, in cancer research, OOCs emulate [...] Read more.
Organ-on-chips (OOCs) are microfluidic devices used for creating physiological organ biomimetic systems. OOC technology brings numerous advantages in the current landscape of preclinical models, capable of recapitulating the multicellular assemblage, tissue–tissue interaction, and replicating numerous human pathologies. Moreover, in cancer research, OOCs emulate the 3D hierarchical complexity of in vivo tumors and mimic the tumor microenvironment, being a practical cost-efficient solution for tumor-growth investigation and anticancer drug screening. OOCs are compact and easy-to-use microphysiological functional units that recapitulate the native function and the mechanical strain that the cells experience in the human bodies, allowing the development of a wide range of applications such as disease modeling or even the development of diagnostic devices. In this context, the current work aims to review the scientific literature in the field of microfluidic devices designed for urology applications in terms of OOC fabrication (principles of manufacture and materials used), development of kidney-on-chip models for drug-toxicity screening and kidney tumors modeling, bladder-on-chip models for urinary tract infections and bladder cancer modeling and prostate-on-chip models for prostate cancer modeling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Materials for Drug Delivery and Tissue Engineering)
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