Special Issue "Molecularly Imprinted Polymers"

A special issue of Polymers (ISSN 2073-4360).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (25 January 2018).

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Claudio Baggiani

Universita degli Studi di Torino, Department of Chemistry, Torino, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Phone: 39-11-6707846
Interests: molecular imprinting; ion imprinting; molecular recognition; immunoassay
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Cristina Giovannoli

Universita degli Studi di Torino, Department of Chemistry, Torino, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: molecular imprinting; ion imprinting; molecular recognition; immunoassay

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

It is a pleasure to invite you to contribute a paper to this Special Issue on “Molecularly Imprinted Polymers” in Polymers. Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) are synthetic polymers with a tailor-made capacity to recognize a target molecular structure. Since the seminal works of Mosbach and Wulff during the 1980s, MIPs have attracted an ever-growing interest by the scientific community, witnessed by the exponential increase in scientific literature. In recent years, molecular imprinting technology has become a hot topic in the preparation of artificial systems capable of mimicking natural receptors. The expanding number of synthetical methods, the accessibility to many different formats and morphologies, the progress made in understanding the molecular recognition mechanisms that characterize them, and the broad spectrum of applications based on their selectivity properties, make these materials a vibrant and constantly current field of research. This Special Issue of Polymers provides a collection of high quality full research papers, communications and critical reviews covering both applied and fundamental aspects of molecular imprinting technology.

Prof. Dr. Claudio Baggiani
Prof. Dr. Cristina Giovannoli
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Polymers is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • MIP
  • Molecularly imprinted polymer
  • Molecular imprinting
  • Ion imprinting
  • Molecular recognition
  • Artificial receptor
  • Binding polymer

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
New Methods to Study the Behavior of Molecularly Imprinted Polymers in Aprotic Solvents
Polymers 2018, 10(9), 1015; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10091015
Received: 2 August 2018 / Revised: 3 September 2018 / Accepted: 6 September 2018 / Published: 12 September 2018
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (711 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
This work presents three new experimental methods for studying molecular imprinting. The electric conductivity measurements of the pre-polymerization mixture of amine templates in an aprotic solvent provide evidence of ionic dissociation of the pre-polymerization complexes. The displacement measurement of the template propranolol from [...] Read more.
This work presents three new experimental methods for studying molecular imprinting. The electric conductivity measurements of the pre-polymerization mixture of amine templates in an aprotic solvent provide evidence of ionic dissociation of the pre-polymerization complexes. The displacement measurement of the template propranolol from its molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) using a quaternary ammonium ion in toluene, shows that this MIP behaves as an ion exchanger even in a non-polar solvent. The same experiment also shows that template binding to the MIP from toluene involves ionic interaction. The third experimental method introduced here serves to study the models of template binding on MIPs. To this end the binding isotherm of propranolol (PR) has been measured on a polymer mixture consisting of non-imprinted control polymer (NIP) and a stronger binding acidic polymer, respectively. All three methods are suitable for studying several other imprinting systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecularly Imprinted Polymers)
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Open AccessArticle
Pressure-Stable Imprinted Polymers for Waste Water Remediation
Polymers 2018, 10(7), 704; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10070704
Received: 8 May 2018 / Revised: 14 June 2018 / Accepted: 23 June 2018 / Published: 26 June 2018
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Abstract
In wastewater treatment, the removal of heavy metal ions is difficult. Ion exchange resins are ineffective since heavy metal ions cannot compete with “hard ions” in binding to the resins. Imprinting polymerization can increase the specificity of ion exchange resins to allow heavy [...] Read more.
In wastewater treatment, the removal of heavy metal ions is difficult. Ion exchange resins are ineffective since heavy metal ions cannot compete with “hard ions” in binding to the resins. Imprinting polymerization can increase the specificity of ion exchange resins to allow heavy metal ions to compete. Unfortunately, a high capacity is also needed. When high porosity and surface area are used to increase capacity, polymeric resins lose pressure stability needed for water treatment. In this research, a bulky, hydrophobic co-monomer was used to prevent Zn+2 imprinted sites from collapsing. Both the co-monomer and crosslinking density were optimized to allow for maximum pore access while maintaining pressure stability. IR and SEM studies were used to study phase separation of the hydrophobic co-monomer from the hydrophilic resin. Capacity was measured for just the imprinting ion first, and then in combination with a competing ion and compared with porosity and pore-size measurements. Capacity under pressure was also characterized. A resin with high capacity was identified that allowed for the heavy metal ion to compete while still maintaining pressure stability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecularly Imprinted Polymers)
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Open AccessArticle
Molecularly Imprinted Polymers for the Selective Extraction of Bisphenol A and Progesterone from Aqueous Media
Polymers 2018, 10(6), 679; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10060679
Received: 29 May 2018 / Revised: 13 June 2018 / Accepted: 15 June 2018 / Published: 19 June 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (10229 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
This paper describes the development of a novel sorbent for selective extraction of endocrine disruptors (EDs) from aqueous media. The main goal was to obtain sufficient molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) for selective detection, preconcentration, and extraction of EDs such as bisphenol A (BPA) [...] Read more.
This paper describes the development of a novel sorbent for selective extraction of endocrine disruptors (EDs) from aqueous media. The main goal was to obtain sufficient molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) for selective detection, preconcentration, and extraction of EDs such as bisphenol A (BPA) and progesterone (PG). Series of MIPs and their analogues, non-molecularly imprinted polymers (NIPs), were synthesised following a non-covalent imprinting strategy based on radical polymerisation. Sets of synthesis were performed in order to optimise variables of the polymerisation including solvent, cross-linker, and template ratio. The retention capacity of MIPs was determined using HPLC in the range of 33.3% to 96.6% and 32.5% to 96% for BPA and PG, respectively. The adsorption mechanism was studied by isothermal and kinetic assays. The kinetic analysis showed a high retention capacity within 15 min of contact. The polymer yield was obtained in the range of 30% to 100%. Additionally, there was no significant cross-reactivity observed upon testing MIPs with structural analogues and other endocrine disruptors instead of target molecules. The results also revealed the high importance of different concentrations of cross-linker and solvent during the polymerisation. Firstly, the pre-organisation of complementary functional groups, which were present in the polymerisation mixture, and secondly, selective cavity formation for target molecules. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecularly Imprinted Polymers)
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Open AccessArticle
Photonic Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Film for the Detection of Testosterone in Aqueous Samples
Polymers 2018, 10(4), 349; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10040349
Received: 26 February 2018 / Revised: 19 March 2018 / Accepted: 20 March 2018 / Published: 22 March 2018
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Abstract
The detection of testosterone in aqueous solutions is a difficult task due to the low concentration levels that are relevant in environmental and physiological samples. Current analytical methods are expensive and/or complex. To address this issue, we fabricated a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) [...] Read more.
The detection of testosterone in aqueous solutions is a difficult task due to the low concentration levels that are relevant in environmental and physiological samples. Current analytical methods are expensive and/or complex. To address this issue, we fabricated a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) photonic film for the detection of testosterone in water. The films were obtained using colloidal crystals as templates for the pore morphology. Monodispersed silica particles with an average diameter 330 nm were used to obtain the colloidal crystal by vertical deposition. A solution of acrylic acid with testosterone as the imprinted template was infiltrated in the colloidal crystal and polymerized via bulk polymerization; the particles were then removed by acid etching and the testosterone eluted by a suitable solvent. The material was characterized by FTIR, swelling experiments and microscopy; MIPs were investigated by equilibrium rebinding, kinetics and reuse experiments. The results showed that the MIPs exhibited selectivity to the template, a 30-min equilibration time and stability after at least six cycles of use and regeneration. After incubation, the reflectance spectra of the films showed a shift of the Bragg diffraction peak that correlated with testosterone concentration in the 5–100 ppb range. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecularly Imprinted Polymers)
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Open AccessArticle
Preparation of Molecularly Imprinted Mesoporous Materials for Highly Enhancing Adsorption Performance of Cytochrome C
Polymers 2018, 10(3), 298; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10030298
Received: 15 February 2018 / Revised: 8 March 2018 / Accepted: 9 March 2018 / Published: 10 March 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (11909 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Molecularly imprinted mesoporous materials (MIMs) were synthesized to improve the adsorption performance of Cytochrome c (Cyt c) by using an imidazolium-based amphiphilic ionic liquid 1-octadecyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (C18MIMCl) as surfactant in aqueous solution via the epitope imprinting approach. The surface-exposed C-terminus nonapeptide [...] Read more.
Molecularly imprinted mesoporous materials (MIMs) were synthesized to improve the adsorption performance of Cytochrome c (Cyt c) by using an imidazolium-based amphiphilic ionic liquid 1-octadecyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (C18MIMCl) as surfactant in aqueous solution via the epitope imprinting approach. The surface-exposed C-terminus nonapeptide of Cyt c (residues 96–104, AYLKKATNE) was utilized as the imprinted template. The nitrogen adsorption-desorption, thermo-gravimetric analysis, and transmission electron microscopy verified the successful preparation of MIMs with ordered mesoporous structure. The adsorption isotherm studies showed that the obtained MIMs exhibited superior adsorption capacity toward Cyt c of 86.47 mg·g−1 because of the high specific surface areas of 824 m2·g−1, and the appropriate pore size promoted the mass transfer of Cyt c, causing a rapid adsorption equilibrium within 20 min. Furthermore, these MIMs still remained excellent selectivity and recognition ability according to the selective as well as the competitive adsorption studies, suggesting that the molecularly imprinted mesoporous materials is expected to be used in the field of highly efficient separation and enrichment of proteins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecularly Imprinted Polymers)
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Open AccessArticle
Affinity Capillary Electrochromatography of Molecularly Imprinted Thin Layers Grafted onto Silica Capillaries Using a Surface-Bound Azo-Initiator and Living Polymerization
Polymers 2018, 10(2), 192; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10020192
Received: 31 December 2017 / Revised: 12 February 2018 / Accepted: 13 February 2018 / Published: 15 February 2018
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Abstract
Molecularly imprinted thin layers were prepared in silica capillaries by using two different surface polymerization strategies, the first using 4,4′-azobis(4-cyanovaleric acid) as a surface-coupled radical initiator, and the second, S-carboxypropyl-S’-benzyltrithiocarbonate as a reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) agent in combination with 2,2′-azobisisobutyronitrile as [...] Read more.
Molecularly imprinted thin layers were prepared in silica capillaries by using two different surface polymerization strategies, the first using 4,4′-azobis(4-cyanovaleric acid) as a surface-coupled radical initiator, and the second, S-carboxypropyl-S’-benzyltrithiocarbonate as a reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) agent in combination with 2,2′-azobisisobutyronitrile as a free radical initiator. The ability to generate imprinted thin layers was tested on two different polymerization systems: (i) a 4-vinylpyridine/ethylene dimethacrylate (4VP-EDMA) in methanol-water solution with 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) as a template; and (ii) methacrylic acid/ethylene dimethacrylate (MAA-EDMA) in a chloroform solution with warfarin as the template molecule. The binding properties of the imprinted capillaries were studied and compared with those of the corresponding non-imprinted polymer coated capillaries by injecting the template molecule and by measuring its migration times relative to a neutral and non-retained marker. The role of running buffer hydrophobicity on recognition was investigated by studying the influence of varying buffer acetonitrile concentration. The 2,4,5-T-imprinted capillary showed molecular recognition based on a reversed phase mechanism, with a decrease of the template recognition in the presence of higher acetonitrile content; whereas warfarin-imprinted capillaries showed a bell-shaped trend upon varying the acetonitrile percentage, illustrating different mechanisms underlying imprinted polymer-ligand recognition. Importantly, the results demonstrated the validity of affinity capillary electrochromatography (CEC) to screen the binding properties of imprinted layers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecularly Imprinted Polymers)
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Open AccessArticle
Preparation of Protein Molecular-Imprinted Polysiloxane Membrane Using Calcium Alginate Film as Matrix and Its Application for Cell Culture
Polymers 2018, 10(2), 170; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10020170
Received: 18 January 2018 / Revised: 8 February 2018 / Accepted: 9 February 2018 / Published: 10 February 2018
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (7479 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bovine serum albumin (BSA) molecular-imprinted polysiloxane (MIP) membrane was prepared by sol-gel technology, using silanes as the functional monomers, BSA as the template and CaAlg hydrogel film as the matrix. The stress-strain curves of wet CaAlg membrane and molecular-imprinted polysiloxane membrane were investigated. [...] Read more.
Bovine serum albumin (BSA) molecular-imprinted polysiloxane (MIP) membrane was prepared by sol-gel technology, using silanes as the functional monomers, BSA as the template and CaAlg hydrogel film as the matrix. The stress-strain curves of wet CaAlg membrane and molecular-imprinted polysiloxane membrane were investigated. We evaluate the adsorption and recognition properties of MIP membrane. Results showed that the adsorption capacity of BSA-imprinted polysiloxane for BSA reached 28.83 mg/g, which was 2.18 times the non-imprinted polysiloxane (NIP) membrane. The adsorption rate was higher than that of the protein-imprinted hydrogel. BSA-imprinted polysiloxane membrane could identify the protein template from competitive proteins such as bovine hemoglobin, ovalbumin and bovine γ-globulin. In order to obtain the biomaterial that can promote cell adhesion and proliferation, fibronectin (FN)-imprinted polysiloxane (FN-MIP) membrane was obtained by using fibronectin as the template, silanes as functional monomers, and CaAlg hydrogel membrane as the substrate or matrix. The FN-MIP adsorbed more FN than NIP. The FN-imprinted polysiloxane membrane was applied to culture mouse fibroblast cells (L929) and the results proved that the FN-MIP had a better effect on cell adhesion than NIP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecularly Imprinted Polymers)
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Open AccessArticle
Synthesis of Molecularly Imprinted Cryogels to Deplete Abundant Proteins from Bovine Serum
Polymers 2018, 10(1), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10010097
Received: 30 November 2017 / Revised: 15 January 2018 / Accepted: 16 January 2018 / Published: 20 January 2018
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Abstract
Molecularly imprinted polyacrylamide cryogels were synthesized with pending templates (bovine serums of different concentrations). As the serum concentrations increased in the monomer solutions, the resulting cryogels could adsorb and deplete more proteins from serum samples. Due to the addition of vinyltriethoxysilane (VTEOS) in [...] Read more.
Molecularly imprinted polyacrylamide cryogels were synthesized with pending templates (bovine serums of different concentrations). As the serum concentrations increased in the monomer solutions, the resulting cryogels could adsorb and deplete more proteins from serum samples. Due to the addition of vinyltriethoxysilane (VTEOS) in the prepolymerizing solutions, the polymers came as organic–inorganic hybrid materials. It endued the silica-modified amphoteric polyacrylamide cryogels with improved mechanical strengths. Scanning electron micrography (SEM), Infrared (IR) spectrometry, thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were carried out to characterize these macroporous polymers. Amphoteric cryogels proved to be favorable materials recognizing and binding proteins. When used as liquid chromatography stationary phases, they were capable of simultaneously adsorbing various serum proteins. Electrophoresis showed that abundant proteins were gradually depleted by the cryogels prepared from increased ratios of bovine serums in the monomer solutions. As abundant proteins are always imprinted first, this sample per se imprinting method provides an effective and convenient way to deplete abundant proteins from complex samples such as serums, meanwhile concentrating and collecting scarce species therein. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecularly Imprinted Polymers)
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Open AccessArticle
The Multi-Template Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Based on SBA-15 for Selective Separation and Determination of Panax notoginseng Saponins Simultaneously in Biological Samples
Polymers 2017, 9(12), 653; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym9120653
Received: 20 October 2017 / Revised: 23 November 2017 / Accepted: 23 November 2017 / Published: 28 November 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3918 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The feasible, reliable and selective multi-template molecularly imprinted polymers (MT-MIPs) based on SBA-15 ([email protected]) for the selective separation and determination of the trace level of ginsenoside Rb1 (Rb1), ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1) and notoginsenoside R1 (R1 [...] Read more.
The feasible, reliable and selective multi-template molecularly imprinted polymers (MT-MIPs) based on SBA-15 ([email protected]) for the selective separation and determination of the trace level of ginsenoside Rb1 (Rb1), ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1) and notoginsenoside R1 (R1) simultaneously from biological samples were developed. The polymers were constructed by SBA-15 as support, Rb1, Rg1, R1 as multi-template, acrylamide (AM) as functional monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as cross-linker. The new synthetic [email protected] were satisfactorily applied to solid-phase extraction (SPE) coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for the separation and determination of trace Rb1, Rg1 and R1 in plasma samples. Under the optimized conditions, the limits of detection (LODs) and quantitation (LOQs) of the proposed method for Rb1, Rg1 and R1 were in the range of 0.63–0.75 ng·mL−1 and 2.1–2.5 ng·mL−1, respectively. The recoveries of R1, Rb1 and Rg1 were obtained between 93.4% and 104.3% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) in the range of 3.3–4.2%. All results show that the obtained [email protected] could be a promising prospect for the practical application in the selective separation and enrichment of trace Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) in the biological samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecularly Imprinted Polymers)
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Open AccessArticle
Studying the Drug Delivery Kinetics of a Nanoporous Matrix Using a MIP-Based Thermal Sensing Platform
Polymers 2017, 9(11), 560; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym9110560
Received: 11 October 2017 / Revised: 24 October 2017 / Accepted: 26 October 2017 / Published: 28 October 2017
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Abstract
The implementation of Molecularly Imprinted Polymers (MIPs) into sensing systems has been demonstrated abundantly over the past few decades. In this article, a novel application for an MIP-based thermal sensing platform is introduced by using the sensor to characterize the drug release kinetics [...] Read more.
The implementation of Molecularly Imprinted Polymers (MIPs) into sensing systems has been demonstrated abundantly over the past few decades. In this article, a novel application for an MIP-based thermal sensing platform is introduced by using the sensor to characterize the drug release kinetics of a nanoporous silver-organic framework. This Ag nanoporous matrix was loaded with acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) which was used as a model drug compound in this study. The drug elution properties were studied by placing the nanoporous matrix in phosphate buffered saline solution for two days and measuring the drug concentration at regular time intervals. To this extent, an acrylamide-based MIP was synthesized that was able to detect aspirin in a specific and selective manner. Rebinding of the template to the MIP was analyzed using a thermal sensor platform. The results illustrate that the addition of aspirin into the sensing chamber leads to a concentration-dependent increase in the phase shift of a thermal wave that propagates through the MIP-coated sensor chip. After constructing a dose-response curve, this system was used to study the drug release kinetics of the nanoporous matrix, clearly demonstrating that the metalorganic framework releases the drug steadily over the course of the first hour, after which the concentration reaches a plateau. These findings were further confirmed by UV–Visible spectroscopy, illustrating a similar time-dependent release in the same concentration range, which demonstrates that the MIP-based platform can indeed be used as a low-cost straightforward tool to assess the efficacy of drug delivery systems in a lab environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecularly Imprinted Polymers)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview
Recent Progress of Imprinted Polymer Photonic Waveguide Devices and Applications
Polymers 2018, 10(6), 603; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10060603
Received: 8 April 2018 / Revised: 18 May 2018 / Accepted: 22 May 2018 / Published: 31 May 2018
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Abstract
Polymers are promising materials for fabricating photonic integrated waveguide devices. Versatile functional devices can be manufactured using a simple process, with low cost and potential mass-manufacturing. This paper reviews the recent progress of polymer photonic integrated devices fabricated using the UV imprinting technique. [...] Read more.
Polymers are promising materials for fabricating photonic integrated waveguide devices. Versatile functional devices can be manufactured using a simple process, with low cost and potential mass-manufacturing. This paper reviews the recent progress of polymer photonic integrated devices fabricated using the UV imprinting technique. The passive polymer waveguide devices for wavelength filtering, power splitting, and light collecting, and the active polymer waveguide devices based on the thermal-optic tuning effect, are introduced. Then, the electro-optic (EO) modulators, by virtue of the high EO coefficient of polymers, are described. Finally, the photonic biosensors, which are based on low-cost and biocompatible polymer platforms, are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecularly Imprinted Polymers)
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Open AccessReview
Green Strategies for Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Development
Polymers 2018, 10(3), 306; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10030306
Received: 26 January 2018 / Revised: 1 March 2018 / Accepted: 6 March 2018 / Published: 12 March 2018
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (1749 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Molecular imprinting is a powerful technology to create artificial receptors within polymeric matrices. Although it was reported for the first time by Polyakov, eighty-four years ago, it remains, nowadays, a very challenging research area. Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) have been successfully used in [...] Read more.
Molecular imprinting is a powerful technology to create artificial receptors within polymeric matrices. Although it was reported for the first time by Polyakov, eighty-four years ago, it remains, nowadays, a very challenging research area. Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) have been successfully used in several applications where selective binding is a requirement, such as immunoassays, affinity separation, sensors, and catalysis. Conventional methods used on MIP production still use large amounts of organic solvents which, allied with stricter legislation on the use and release of chemicals to the environment and the presence of impurities on final materials, will boost, in our opinion, the use of new cleaner synthetic strategies, in particular, with the application of the principles of green chemistry and engineering. Supercritical carbon dioxide, microwave, ionic liquids, and ultrasound technology are some of the green strategies which have already been applied in MIP production. These strategies can improve MIP properties, such as controlled morphology, homogeneity of the binding sites, and the absence of organic solvents. This review intends to give examples reported in literature on green approaches to MIP development, from nano- to micron-scale applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecularly Imprinted Polymers)
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