Advance in Shaping Rheological and Functional Properties of Systems Based on Cereal Biopolymers

A special issue of Polymers (ISSN 2073-4360). This special issue belongs to the section "Biomacromolecules, Biobased and Biodegradable Polymers".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (25 April 2024) | Viewed by 10519

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Department of Food Technology and Human Nutrition, Institute of Food Technology, College of Natural Science, University of Rzeszow, Zelwerowicza Street 4, 35-601 Rzeszow, Poland
Interests: physicochemical and rheological properties of malto-oligosaccharides based on chemically modified starches; physicochemical and rheological properties of starch of various botanical origins; analysis of rheological properties of flour and dough based on flour systems with plant additives with health-promoting properties; the content of bioactive ingredients and antioxidant properties of nuts; functional food; development of functional bread with health-promoting features
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Guest Editor
Department of Food Technology and Human Nutrition, Faculty of Biology and Agriculture, Rzeszow University, Zelwerowicza 4, 35-601 Rzeszow, Poland
Interests: secondary metabolites; chromatographic techniques; polyphenols; antioxidant activity; wine chemistry; biological activity of plant-origin food
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Guest Editor
Department Food Technology and Human Nutrition, Institute of Food Technology, College of Natural Science, University of Rzeszow, Zelwerowicza 4 St., 35-601 Rzeszow, Poland
Interests: assessment of the suitability of cereal in bakery and novel food production; baking value of wheat, rye, and triticale flour; quality of wheat and rye dough; gluten-free food; functional food; food industry by-products; development of new food products
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Guest Editor
Department Food Technology and Human Nutrition, Institute of Food Technology, College of Natural Science, University of Rzeszow, Zelwerowicza 4 St., 35-601 Rzeszow, Poland
Interests: carbohydrates; starch; hydrocolloids; gels; rheological properies; thixotropy
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Special Issue Information

Cereal biopolymers are widespread around the world. Bio-renewal, ease of production and wide application in the food and non-food industries are just some of their features. Cereal starch biopolymers differ in rheological and functional properties from potato biopolymers. Similarly to multi-component systems with their participation, the addition of various technological components can shape their new properties, as well as a number of chemical, physical, or enzymatic modifications. The effect of technological components on the rheological properties of dough based on cereal flour and non-grain flour is also interesting. In this aspect, it is also interesting to make gluten-free dough and shape its properties under the influence of various modifications and addition of ingredients.

Keywords

  • biopolymer
  • cereal
  • starch
  • rheological properties
  • functional properties
  • flour
  • dough

Published Papers (4 papers)

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15 pages, 1593 KiB  
Article
Influence of the Addition of Vital Wheat Gluten on Thermal and Rheological Properties of Triticale Flour
by Karolina Pycia, Joanna Kaszuba, Zuzanna Posadzka and Lesław Juszczak
Polymers 2023, 15(8), 1870; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15081870 - 13 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1818
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the addition of vital wheat gluten to triticale flour on its thermal and rheological properties. In the tested systems (TG), triticale flour from Belcanto grain was replaced with vital wheat gluten in [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the addition of vital wheat gluten to triticale flour on its thermal and rheological properties. In the tested systems (TG), triticale flour from Belcanto grain was replaced with vital wheat gluten in the amounts of 1%, 2%, 3%, 4% and 5%. Wheat flour (WF) and triticale flour (TF) were also tested. For the tested flours and mixtures with gluten, the falling number, gluten content, as well as the parameters of gelatinization and retrogradation characteristics using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and characteristics of pasting using a viscosity analyzer (RVA) were determined. In addition, viscosity curves were plotted, and viscoelastic properties of the obtained gels were also assessed. It was observed that there were no statistically significant differences between the TF and TG samples in terms of falling number. The average value of this parameter in TG samples was 317 s. It was found that the replacement of TF with vital gluten reduced the gelatinization enthalpy and increased the retrogradation enthalpy, as well as the degree of retrogradation. The highest viscosity was characterized by the WF paste (1784 mPa·s) and the lowest by the TG5% mixture (1536 mPa·s). Replacing TF with gluten resulted in a very visible decrease in the apparent viscosity of the systems. In addition, the gels based on the tested flours and TG systems had the character of weak gels (tan δ = G″/G′ > 0.1), while the values of the parameters G′ and G″ decreased as the share of gluten in the systems increased. Full article
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15 pages, 2368 KiB  
Article
Fibrous Structures from Starch and Gluten
by Jan M. Bühler, Atze Jan van der Goot and Marieke E. Bruins
Polymers 2022, 14(18), 3818; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14183818 - 13 Sep 2022
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Abstract
Starch is added to meat analogues for binding and water holding. In this study, we investigate whether starch can have an additional role as a structuring agent. Therefore, different types of starch were combined with wheat gluten at various amounts and sheared in [...] Read more.
Starch is added to meat analogues for binding and water holding. In this study, we investigate whether starch can have an additional role as a structuring agent. Therefore, different types of starch were combined with wheat gluten at various amounts and sheared in a High Temperature Shear Cell to determine how starch influences the structuring behavior of gluten–starch blends. The starches were chosen based on their diverse amylose contents, leading to different technological properties. Remarkable differences were found between the starches investigated. The addition of Amioca starch (containing 1% amylose) had a strong negative influence on the ability of gluten to form fibers. Maize starch (25% amylose) and Hylon VII (68% amylose) formed fibrous materials up to high starch additions. The pre-gelatinizing of maize starch further increased the ability of gluten–starch mixtures to form fibrous structures. The influence of the different types of starch on the hardness, deformability, and stiffness of the sheared samples was also assessed, revealing a spectrum of achievable properties through the addition of starch. Most remarkable was the formation of a material with anisotropy in Young’s modules. This anisotropy is also found in chicken meat, but not in protein-based fibrous materials. Furthermore, it was observed that the pre-gelatinization of starch facilitated fiber formation. A similar effect of pre-gelatinizing the starch was found when using faba bean meal with added wheat gluten, where fibrous structures could even be formed in a recipe that previously failed to produce such structures without pre-treatment. Full article
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11 pages, 2180 KiB  
Article
Effects of Mung Bean (Vigna radiata) Protein Isolate on Rheological, Textural, and Structural Properties of Native Corn Starch
by Mohammad Tarahi, Sara Hedayati and Fakhri Shahidi
Polymers 2022, 14(15), 3012; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14153012 - 25 Jul 2022
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 2836
Abstract
It is critical to understand the starch–protein interactions in food systems to obtain products with desired functional properties. This study aimed to investigate the influence of mung bean protein isolate (MBPI) on the rheological, textural, and structural properties of native corn starch (NCS) [...] Read more.
It is critical to understand the starch–protein interactions in food systems to obtain products with desired functional properties. This study aimed to investigate the influence of mung bean protein isolate (MBPI) on the rheological, textural, and structural properties of native corn starch (NCS) and their possible interactions during gelatinization. The dynamic rheological measurements showed a decrease in the storage modulus (G’) and loss modulus (G”) and an increase in the loss factor (tan δ), by adding MBPI to NCS gels. In addition, the textural properties represented a reduction in firmness after the addition of MBPI. The Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of the freeze-dried NCS/MBPI gels confirmed that the NCS gel became softer by incorporating the MBPI. Moreover, X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns showed a peak at 17.4°, and the relative crystallinity decreased with increasing MBPI concentrations. The turbidity determination after 120 h refrigerated storage showed that the addition of MBPI could reduce the retrogradation of NCS gels by interacting with leached amylose. Additionally, the syneresis of NCS/MBPI gels decreased at 14 days of refrigerated storage from 60.53 to 47.87%. Full article
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15 pages, 2175 KiB  
Article
The Self-Enforcing Starch–Gluten System—Strain–Dependent Effects of Yeast Metabolites on the Polymeric Matrix
by Thekla Alpers, Viviane Tauscher, Thomas Steglich, Thomas Becker and Mario Jekle
Polymers 2021, 13(1), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13010030 - 23 Dec 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2606
Abstract
The rheological behaviour of dough during the breadmaking process is strongly affected by the accumulation of yeast metabolites in the dough matrix. The impact of metabolites in yeasted dough-like concentrations on the rheology of dough has not been characterised yet for process-relevant deformation [...] Read more.
The rheological behaviour of dough during the breadmaking process is strongly affected by the accumulation of yeast metabolites in the dough matrix. The impact of metabolites in yeasted dough-like concentrations on the rheology of dough has not been characterised yet for process-relevant deformation types and strain rates, nor has the effect of metabolites on strain hardening behaviour of dough been analysed. We used fundamental shear and elongational rheometry to study the impact of fermentation on the dough microstructure and functionality. Evaluating the influence of the main metabolites, the strongest impact was found for the presence of expanding gas cells due to the accumulation of the yeast metabolite CO2, which was shown to have a destabilising impact on the surrounding dough matrix. Throughout the fermentation process, the polymeric and entangled gluten microstructure was found to be degraded (−37.6% average vessel length, +37.5% end point rate). These microstructural changes were successfully linked to the changing rheological behaviour towards a highly mobile polymer system. An accelerated strain hardening behaviour (+32.5% SHI for yeasted dough) was promoted by the pre-extension of the gluten strands within the lamella around the gas cells. Further, a strain rate dependency was shown, as a lower strain hardening index was observed for slow extension processes. Fast extension seemed to influence the disruption of sterically interacting fragments, leading to entanglements and hindered extensibility. Full article
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