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Open AccessArticle

Early Detection of Sage (Salvia officinalis L.) Responses to Ozone Using Reflectance Spectroscopy

1
Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa, Italy
2
CIRSEC, Centre for Climate Change Impact, University of Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa, Italy
3
Nutrafood Research Center, University of Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Plants 2019, 8(9), 346; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8090346
Received: 26 June 2019 / Revised: 2 September 2019 / Accepted: 4 September 2019 / Published: 12 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ozone Tolerance Mechanisms)
Advancements in techniques to rapidly and non-destructively detect the impact of tropospheric ozone (O3) on crops are required. This study demonstrates the capability of full-range (350–2500 nm) reflectance spectroscopy to characterize responses of asymptomatic sage leaves under an acute O3 exposure (200 ppb for 5 h). Using partial least squares regression, spectral models were developed for the estimation of several traits related to photosynthesis, the oxidative pressure induced by O3, and the antioxidant mechanisms adopted by plants to cope with the pollutant. Physiological traits were well predicted by spectroscopic models (average model goodness-of-fit for validation (R2): 0.65–0.90), whereas lower prediction performances were found for biochemical traits (R2: 0.42–0.71). Furthermore, even in the absence of visible symptoms, comparing the full-range spectral profiles, it was possible to distinguish with accuracy plants exposed to charcoal-filtered air from those exposed to O3. An O3 effect on sage spectra was detectable from 1 to 5 h from the beginning of the exposure, but ozonated plants quickly recovered after the fumigation. This O3-tolerance was confirmed by trends of vegetation indices and leaf traits derived from spectra, further highlighting the capability of reflectance spectroscopy to early detect the responses of crops to O3. View Full-Text
Keywords: antioxidant capacity; aromatic plants; spectral phenotyping; non-enzymatic antioxidants; oxidative stress; partial least squares regression; partial least squares discriminant analysis; permutational multivariate analysis of variance; principal coordinates analysis; vegetation indices antioxidant capacity; aromatic plants; spectral phenotyping; non-enzymatic antioxidants; oxidative stress; partial least squares regression; partial least squares discriminant analysis; permutational multivariate analysis of variance; principal coordinates analysis; vegetation indices
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Marchica, A.; Loré, S.; Cotrozzi, L.; Lorenzini, G.; Nali, C.; Pellegrini, E.; Remorini, D. Early Detection of Sage (Salvia officinalis L.) Responses to Ozone Using Reflectance Spectroscopy. Plants 2019, 8, 346.

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