Special Issue "Lipid Metabolism in Plants"

A special issue of Plants (ISSN 2223-7747). This special issue belongs to the section "Plant Physiology and Metabolism".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 29 February 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Hyun Uk Kim
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Bioindustry and Bioresource Engineering, Plant Engineering Research Institute, Sejong University, Seoul 05006, Korea
Interests: plant lipid metabolim; fatty acid and triacylglycerol metabolic enigneeing in plants; plastid–lipid associated proteins
Dr. Kyeong-Ryeol Lee
E-Mail
Guest Editor
Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, National Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Rural Development Administration, Jeonju 54874, Korea
Interests: fatty acid modification in plants; oilseed biotechnology; oil production in plant vegetative tissues

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In plants, lipids function in a variety of ways. Lipids are a major component of biological membranes and are used as a compact energy source for seed germination. Fatty acids, the major lipids in plants, are synthesized in plastid and assembled by glycerolipids or triacylglycerols in endoplasmic reticulum. The metabolism of fatty acids and triacylglycerols are well studied in most Arabidopsis model plants by forward and reverse genetics methods. However, research on the diverse functions of lipids in plants, including various crops, has yet to be completed. In this Special Issue, we will cover a variety of areas to identify lipid metabolism in plants. The papers will cover a variety of topics, including fatty acids and glycerolipids, lipid trafficking and channeling, lipid signaling, storage lipids, extracellular lipids, lipid biotechnology in cyanobacteria, and algae and plants. Selected papers for this Special Issue have undergone a rigorous peer-review process aimed at a rapid and wide dissemination of research results, development and applications.

Prof. Dr. Hyun Uk Kim
Dr. Kyeong-Ryeol Lee
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • fatty acids, glycerolipids and triacylglycerol
  • lipid signaling
  • lipid trafficking and channeling
  • lipids and environment
  • extracellular lipids
  • lipid biotechnology

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
The Arabidopsis MYB96 Transcription Factor Mediates ABA-Dependent Triacylglycerol Accumulation in Vegetative Tissues under Drought Stress Conditions
Plants 2019, 8(9), 296; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8090296 - 22 Aug 2019
Abstract
Triacylglycerols (TAGs), a major lipid form of energy storage, are involved in a variety of plant developmental processes. While carbon reserves mainly accumulate in seeds, significant amounts of TAG have also been observed in vegetative tissues. Notably, the accumulation of leaf TAGs is [...] Read more.
Triacylglycerols (TAGs), a major lipid form of energy storage, are involved in a variety of plant developmental processes. While carbon reserves mainly accumulate in seeds, significant amounts of TAG have also been observed in vegetative tissues. Notably, the accumulation of leaf TAGs is influenced by environmental stresses such as drought stress, although underlying molecular networks remain to be fully elucidated. In this study, we demonstrate that the R2R3-type MYB96 transcription factor promotes TAG biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. Core TAG biosynthetic genes were up-regulated in myb96-ox seedlings, but down-regulated in myb96-deficient seedlings. In particular, ABA stimulates TAG accumulation in the vegetative tissues, and MYB96 plays a fundamental role in this process. Considering that TAG accumulation contributes to plant tolerance to drought stress, MYB96-dependent TAG biosynthesis not only triggers plant adaptive responses but also optimizes energy metabolism to ensure plant fitness under unfavorable environmental conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lipid Metabolism in Plants)
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Open AccessArticle
Functional Characterization of Physcomitrella patens Glycerol-3-Phosphate Acyltransferase 9 and an Increase in Seed Oil Content in Arabidopsis by Its Ectopic Expression
Plants 2019, 8(8), 284; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8080284 - 13 Aug 2019
Abstract
Since vegetable oils (usually triacylglycerol [TAG]) are extensively used as food and raw materials, an increase in storage oil content and production of valuable polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in transgenic plants is desirable. In this study, a gene encoding glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 9 (GPAT9), [...] Read more.
Since vegetable oils (usually triacylglycerol [TAG]) are extensively used as food and raw materials, an increase in storage oil content and production of valuable polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in transgenic plants is desirable. In this study, a gene encoding glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 9 (GPAT9), which catalyzes the synthesis of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) from a glycerol-3-phosphate and acyl-CoA, was isolated from Physcomitrella patens, which produces high levels of very-long-chain PUFAs in protonema and gametophores. P. patens GPAT9 shares approximately 50%, 60%, and 70% amino acid similarity with GPAT9 from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Klebsormidium nitens, and Arabidopsis thaliana, respectively. PpGPAT9 transcripts were detected in both the protonema and gametophores. Fluorescent signals from the eYFP:PpGPAT9 construct were observed in the ER of Nicotiana benthamiana leaf epidermal cells. Ectopic expression of PpGPAT9 increased the seed oil content by approximately 10% in Arabidopsis. The levels of PUFAs (18:2, 18:3, and 20:2) and saturated FAs (16:0, 18:0, and 20:0) increased by 60% and 43%, respectively, in the storage oil of the transgenic seeds when compared with the wild type. The transgenic embryos with increased oil content contained larger embryonic cells than the wild type. Thus, PpGPAT9 may be a novel genetic resource to enhance storage oil yields from oilseed crops. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lipid Metabolism in Plants)
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Open AccessArticle
Diversion of Carbon Flux from Sugars to Lipids Improves the Growth of an Arabidopsis Starchless Mutant
Plants 2019, 8(7), 229; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8070229 - 17 Jul 2019
Abstract
Inactivation of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase1 (ADG1) causes a starchless phenotype in Arabidopsis. Mutants defective in ADG1 show severe growth retardation in day/night conditions but exhibit similar growth to wild type under continuous light, implying that starch plays an important role in supporting respiration, metabolism [...] Read more.
Inactivation of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase1 (ADG1) causes a starchless phenotype in Arabidopsis. Mutants defective in ADG1 show severe growth retardation in day/night conditions but exhibit similar growth to wild type under continuous light, implying that starch plays an important role in supporting respiration, metabolism and growth at night. In addition to carbohydrates, lipids and proteins can serve as alternative respiratory substrates for the energy production in mature plants. To test the role of lipids in plant growth, we generated transgenic plants overexpressing phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase1 (PDAT1) in adg1. We found that PDAT1 overexpression caused an increase in both fatty acid synthesis and turnover and increased the accumulation of triacylglycerol (TAG) at the expense of sugars, and enhanced the growth of adg1. We demonstrated that unlike sugars, which were metabolized within a few hours of darkness, TAG breakdown was slow, occurring throughout the entire dark period. The slow pace of TAG hydrolysis provided a sustained supply of fatty acids for energy production, thereby alleviating energy deficiency at night and thereby improving the growth of the starchless mutants. We conclude that lipids can contribute to plant growth by providing a constant supply of fatty acids as an alternative energy source in mature starchless mutant plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lipid Metabolism in Plants)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Role of Galactolipids in Plastid Differentiation Before and After Light Exposure
Plants 2019, 8(10), 357; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8100357 - 20 Sep 2019
Abstract
Galactolipids, monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) and digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG), are the predominant lipid classes in the thylakoid membrane of chloroplasts. These lipids are also major constituents of internal membrane structures called prolamellar bodies (PLBs) and prothylakoids (PTs) in etioplasts, which develop in the cotyledon cells of [...] Read more.
Galactolipids, monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) and digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG), are the predominant lipid classes in the thylakoid membrane of chloroplasts. These lipids are also major constituents of internal membrane structures called prolamellar bodies (PLBs) and prothylakoids (PTs) in etioplasts, which develop in the cotyledon cells of dark-grown angiosperms. Analysis of Arabidopsis mutants defective in the major galactolipid biosynthesis pathway revealed that MGDG and DGDG are similarly and, in part, differently required for membrane-associated processes such as the organization of PLBs and PTs and the formation of pigment–protein complexes in etioplasts. After light exposure, PLBs and PTs in etioplasts are transformed into the thylakoid membrane, resulting in chloroplast biogenesis. During the etioplast-to-chloroplast differentiation, galactolipids facilitate thylakoid membrane biogenesis from PLBs and PTs and play crucial roles in chlorophyll biosynthesis and accumulation of light-harvesting proteins. These recent findings shed light on the roles of galactolipids as key facilitators of several membrane-associated processes during the development of the internal membrane systems in plant plastids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lipid Metabolism in Plants)
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Open AccessReview
WRINKLED1, a “Master Regulator” in Transcriptional Control of Plant Oil Biosynthesis
Plants 2019, 8(7), 238; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8070238 - 22 Jul 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
A majority of plant species generate and accumulate triacylglycerol (TAG) in their seeds, which is the main resource of carbon and energy supporting the process of seedling development. Plant seed oils have broad ranges of uses, being not only important for human diets [...] Read more.
A majority of plant species generate and accumulate triacylglycerol (TAG) in their seeds, which is the main resource of carbon and energy supporting the process of seedling development. Plant seed oils have broad ranges of uses, being not only important for human diets but also renewable feedstock of industrial applications. The WRINKLED1 (WRI1) transcription factor is vital for the transcriptional control of plant oil biosynthetic pathways. Since the identification of the Arabidopsis WRI1 gene (AtWRI1) fifteen years ago, tremendous progress has been made in understanding the functions of WRI1 at multiple levels, ranging from the identification of AtWRI1 target genes to location of the AtWRI1 binding motif, and from discovery of intrinsic structural disorder in WRI1 to fine-tuning of WRI1 modulation by post-translational modifications and protein-protein interactions. The expanding knowledge on the functional understanding of the WRI1 regulatory mechanism not only provides a clearer picture of transcriptional regulation of plant oil biosynthetic pathway, but also helps generate new strategies to better utilize WRI1 for developing novel oil crops. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lipid Metabolism in Plants)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Role of galactolipids in plastid differentiation before and after light exposure

Author: Koichi Kobayashi

Affiliation: Osaka Prefecture University 

Abstract: Galactolipids, monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) and digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG), are the predominant lipid classes in the thylakoid membrane of chloroplasts. These lipids are also major constituents of internal membrane structures in etioplasts, the chloroplast precursors developed in cotyledon cells of dark-grown angiosperms. Analysis of Arabidopsis mutants defective in the major galactolipid biosynthesis pathway revealed that both galactolipids are similarly and in part differently required for membrane-associated processes in etioplasts and play crucial roles in internal membrane transformation during etioplast-to-chloroplast differentiation. 

Title: Overexpression of Physcomitrella patens glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 9 enables to increase Arabidopsis seed oil contents

Author: Professor Mi Chung Suh

Affiliation: Department of Life Science, Sogang University, Seoul, 04107, Korea

Title: WRINKELD transcription factors

Author: Wei Ma

Affiliation: Nanyang Technological University, Singapore

Title: Enhancing Carbon Flux to Lipids Improves the Growth of an Arabidopsis Starchless Mutant

Author: Changcheng Xu

Affiliation: Brookhaven National Laboratory

 

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