Special Issue "Lipid Metabolism in Plants"

A special issue of Plants (ISSN 2223-7747). This special issue belongs to the section "Plant Physiology and Metabolism".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (29 February 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Hyun Uk Kim
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Bioindustry and Bioresource Engineering, Plant Engineering Research Institute, Sejong University, Seoul 05006, Korea
Interests: plant lipid metabolism; fatty acid and triacylglycerol metabolic engineering in plants; plastid–lipid-associated proteins
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Kyeong-Ryeol Lee

Guest Editor
Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, National Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Rural Development Administration, Jeonju 54874, Korea
Interests: fatty acid modification in plants; oilseed biotechnology; oil production in plant vegetative tissues

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In plants, lipids function in a variety of ways. Lipids are a major component of biological membranes and are used as a compact energy source for seed germination. Fatty acids, the major lipids in plants, are synthesized in plastid and assembled by glycerolipids or triacylglycerols in endoplasmic reticulum. The metabolism of fatty acids and triacylglycerols are well studied in most Arabidopsis model plants by forward and reverse genetics methods. However, research on the diverse functions of lipids in plants, including various crops, has yet to be completed. In this Special Issue, we will cover a variety of areas to identify lipid metabolism in plants. The papers will cover a variety of topics, including fatty acids and glycerolipids, lipid trafficking and channeling, lipid signaling, storage lipids, extracellular lipids, lipid biotechnology in cyanobacteria, and algae and plants. Selected papers for this Special Issue have undergone a rigorous peer-review process aimed at a rapid and wide dissemination of research results, development and applications.

Prof. Dr. Hyun Uk Kim
Dr. Kyeong-Ryeol Lee
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Plants is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • fatty acids, glycerolipids and triacylglycerol
  • lipid signaling
  • lipid trafficking and channeling
  • lipids and environment
  • extracellular lipids
  • lipid biotechnology

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Lipid Metabolism in Plants
Plants 2020, 9(7), 871; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9070871 - 09 Jul 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
In plants, lipids function in a variety of ways. Lipids are a major component of biological membranes and are used as a compact energy source for seed germination. Fatty acids, the major lipids in plants, are synthesized in plastid and assembled by glycerolipids [...] Read more.
In plants, lipids function in a variety of ways. Lipids are a major component of biological membranes and are used as a compact energy source for seed germination. Fatty acids, the major lipids in plants, are synthesized in plastid and assembled by glycerolipids or triacylglycerols in endoplasmic reticulum. The metabolism of fatty acids and triacylglycerols is well studied in most Arabidopsis model plants by forward and reverse genetics methods. However, research on the diverse functions of lipids in plants, including various crops, has yet to be completed. The papers of this Special Issue cover the core of the field of plant lipid research on the role of galactolipids in the chloroplast biogenesis from etioplasts and the role of acyltransferases and transcription factors involved in fatty acid and triacylglycerol synthesis. This information will contribute to the expansion of plant lipid research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lipid Metabolism in Plants)

Research

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Open AccessArticle
Patatin-Related Phospholipase AtpPLAIIIα Affects Lignification of Xylem in Arabidopsis and Hybrid Poplars
Plants 2020, 9(4), 451; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9040451 - 03 Apr 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
Lipid acyl hydrolase are a diverse group of enzymes that hydrolyze the ester or amide bonds of fatty acid in plant lipids. Patatin-related phospholipase AIIIs (pPLAIIIs) are one of major lipid acyl hydrolases that are less closely related to potato tuber patatins and [...] Read more.
Lipid acyl hydrolase are a diverse group of enzymes that hydrolyze the ester or amide bonds of fatty acid in plant lipids. Patatin-related phospholipase AIIIs (pPLAIIIs) are one of major lipid acyl hydrolases that are less closely related to potato tuber patatins and are plant-specific. Recently, overexpression of ginseng-derived PgpPLAIIIβ was reported to be involved in the reduced level of lignin content in Arabidopsis and the mature xylem layer of poplar. The presence of lignin-polysaccharides renders cell walls recalcitrant for pulping and biofuel production. The tissue-specific regulation of lignin biosynthesis, without altering all xylem in plants, can be utilized usefully by keeping mechanical strength and resistance to various environmental stimuli. To identify another pPLAIII homolog from Arabidopsis, constitutively overexpressed AtpPLAIIIα was characterized for xylem lignification in two well-studied model plants, Arabidopsis and poplar. The characterization of gene function in annual and perennial plants with respect to lignin biosynthesis revealed the functional redundancy of less lignification via downregulation of lignin biosynthesis-related genes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lipid Metabolism in Plants)
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Open AccessArticle
The Arabidopsis MYB96 Transcription Factor Mediates ABA-Dependent Triacylglycerol Accumulation in Vegetative Tissues under Drought Stress Conditions
Plants 2019, 8(9), 296; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8090296 - 22 Aug 2019
Cited by 6
Abstract
Triacylglycerols (TAGs), a major lipid form of energy storage, are involved in a variety of plant developmental processes. While carbon reserves mainly accumulate in seeds, significant amounts of TAG have also been observed in vegetative tissues. Notably, the accumulation of leaf TAGs is [...] Read more.
Triacylglycerols (TAGs), a major lipid form of energy storage, are involved in a variety of plant developmental processes. While carbon reserves mainly accumulate in seeds, significant amounts of TAG have also been observed in vegetative tissues. Notably, the accumulation of leaf TAGs is influenced by environmental stresses such as drought stress, although underlying molecular networks remain to be fully elucidated. In this study, we demonstrate that the R2R3-type MYB96 transcription factor promotes TAG biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. Core TAG biosynthetic genes were up-regulated in myb96-ox seedlings, but down-regulated in myb96-deficient seedlings. In particular, ABA stimulates TAG accumulation in the vegetative tissues, and MYB96 plays a fundamental role in this process. Considering that TAG accumulation contributes to plant tolerance to drought stress, MYB96-dependent TAG biosynthesis not only triggers plant adaptive responses but also optimizes energy metabolism to ensure plant fitness under unfavorable environmental conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lipid Metabolism in Plants)
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Open AccessArticle
Functional Characterization of Physcomitrella patens Glycerol-3-Phosphate Acyltransferase 9 and an Increase in Seed Oil Content in Arabidopsis by Its Ectopic Expression
Plants 2019, 8(8), 284; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8080284 - 13 Aug 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Since vegetable oils (usually triacylglycerol [TAG]) are extensively used as food and raw materials, an increase in storage oil content and production of valuable polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in transgenic plants is desirable. In this study, a gene encoding glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 9 (GPAT9), [...] Read more.
Since vegetable oils (usually triacylglycerol [TAG]) are extensively used as food and raw materials, an increase in storage oil content and production of valuable polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in transgenic plants is desirable. In this study, a gene encoding glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 9 (GPAT9), which catalyzes the synthesis of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) from a glycerol-3-phosphate and acyl-CoA, was isolated from Physcomitrella patens, which produces high levels of very-long-chain PUFAs in protonema and gametophores. P. patens GPAT9 shares approximately 50%, 60%, and 70% amino acid similarity with GPAT9 from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Klebsormidium nitens, and Arabidopsis thaliana, respectively. PpGPAT9 transcripts were detected in both the protonema and gametophores. Fluorescent signals from the eYFP:PpGPAT9 construct were observed in the ER of Nicotiana benthamiana leaf epidermal cells. Ectopic expression of PpGPAT9 increased the seed oil content by approximately 10% in Arabidopsis. The levels of PUFAs (18:2, 18:3, and 20:2) and saturated FAs (16:0, 18:0, and 20:0) increased by 60% and 43%, respectively, in the storage oil of the transgenic seeds when compared with the wild type. The transgenic embryos with increased oil content contained larger embryonic cells than the wild type. Thus, PpGPAT9 may be a novel genetic resource to enhance storage oil yields from oilseed crops. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lipid Metabolism in Plants)
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Open AccessArticle
Diversion of Carbon Flux from Sugars to Lipids Improves the Growth of an Arabidopsis Starchless Mutant
Plants 2019, 8(7), 229; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8070229 - 17 Jul 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
Inactivation of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase1 (ADG1) causes a starchless phenotype in Arabidopsis. Mutants defective in ADG1 show severe growth retardation in day/night conditions but exhibit similar growth to wild type under continuous light, implying that starch plays an important role in supporting respiration, metabolism [...] Read more.
Inactivation of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase1 (ADG1) causes a starchless phenotype in Arabidopsis. Mutants defective in ADG1 show severe growth retardation in day/night conditions but exhibit similar growth to wild type under continuous light, implying that starch plays an important role in supporting respiration, metabolism and growth at night. In addition to carbohydrates, lipids and proteins can serve as alternative respiratory substrates for the energy production in mature plants. To test the role of lipids in plant growth, we generated transgenic plants overexpressing phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase1 (PDAT1) in adg1. We found that PDAT1 overexpression caused an increase in both fatty acid synthesis and turnover and increased the accumulation of triacylglycerol (TAG) at the expense of sugars, and enhanced the growth of adg1. We demonstrated that unlike sugars, which were metabolized within a few hours of darkness, TAG breakdown was slow, occurring throughout the entire dark period. The slow pace of TAG hydrolysis provided a sustained supply of fatty acids for energy production, thereby alleviating energy deficiency at night and thereby improving the growth of the starchless mutants. We conclude that lipids can contribute to plant growth by providing a constant supply of fatty acids as an alternative energy source in mature starchless mutant plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lipid Metabolism in Plants)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Role of Galactolipids in Plastid Differentiation Before and After Light Exposure
Plants 2019, 8(10), 357; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8100357 - 20 Sep 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Galactolipids, monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) and digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG), are the predominant lipid classes in the thylakoid membrane of chloroplasts. These lipids are also major constituents of internal membrane structures called prolamellar bodies (PLBs) and prothylakoids (PTs) in etioplasts, which develop in the cotyledon cells of [...] Read more.
Galactolipids, monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) and digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG), are the predominant lipid classes in the thylakoid membrane of chloroplasts. These lipids are also major constituents of internal membrane structures called prolamellar bodies (PLBs) and prothylakoids (PTs) in etioplasts, which develop in the cotyledon cells of dark-grown angiosperms. Analysis of Arabidopsis mutants defective in the major galactolipid biosynthesis pathway revealed that MGDG and DGDG are similarly and, in part, differently required for membrane-associated processes such as the organization of PLBs and PTs and the formation of pigment–protein complexes in etioplasts. After light exposure, PLBs and PTs in etioplasts are transformed into the thylakoid membrane, resulting in chloroplast biogenesis. During the etioplast-to-chloroplast differentiation, galactolipids facilitate thylakoid membrane biogenesis from PLBs and PTs and play crucial roles in chlorophyll biosynthesis and accumulation of light-harvesting proteins. These recent findings shed light on the roles of galactolipids as key facilitators of several membrane-associated processes during the development of the internal membrane systems in plant plastids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lipid Metabolism in Plants)
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Open AccessReview
WRINKLED1, a “Master Regulator” in Transcriptional Control of Plant Oil Biosynthesis
Plants 2019, 8(7), 238; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8070238 - 22 Jul 2019
Cited by 9
Abstract
A majority of plant species generate and accumulate triacylglycerol (TAG) in their seeds, which is the main resource of carbon and energy supporting the process of seedling development. Plant seed oils have broad ranges of uses, being not only important for human diets [...] Read more.
A majority of plant species generate and accumulate triacylglycerol (TAG) in their seeds, which is the main resource of carbon and energy supporting the process of seedling development. Plant seed oils have broad ranges of uses, being not only important for human diets but also renewable feedstock of industrial applications. The WRINKLED1 (WRI1) transcription factor is vital for the transcriptional control of plant oil biosynthetic pathways. Since the identification of the Arabidopsis WRI1 gene (AtWRI1) fifteen years ago, tremendous progress has been made in understanding the functions of WRI1 at multiple levels, ranging from the identification of AtWRI1 target genes to location of the AtWRI1 binding motif, and from discovery of intrinsic structural disorder in WRI1 to fine-tuning of WRI1 modulation by post-translational modifications and protein-protein interactions. The expanding knowledge on the functional understanding of the WRI1 regulatory mechanism not only provides a clearer picture of transcriptional regulation of plant oil biosynthetic pathway, but also helps generate new strategies to better utilize WRI1 for developing novel oil crops. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lipid Metabolism in Plants)
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