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Role of Galactolipids in Plastid Differentiation Before and After Light Exposure

1
Department of Botany, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Oiwake-cho, Kita-Shirakawa, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan
2
Department of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 3-8-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8902, Japan
3
Faculty of Liberal Arts and Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai 599-8531, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Plants 2019, 8(10), 357; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8100357
Received: 2 August 2019 / Revised: 10 September 2019 / Accepted: 16 September 2019 / Published: 20 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lipid Metabolism in Plants)
Galactolipids, monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) and digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG), are the predominant lipid classes in the thylakoid membrane of chloroplasts. These lipids are also major constituents of internal membrane structures called prolamellar bodies (PLBs) and prothylakoids (PTs) in etioplasts, which develop in the cotyledon cells of dark-grown angiosperms. Analysis of Arabidopsis mutants defective in the major galactolipid biosynthesis pathway revealed that MGDG and DGDG are similarly and, in part, differently required for membrane-associated processes such as the organization of PLBs and PTs and the formation of pigment–protein complexes in etioplasts. After light exposure, PLBs and PTs in etioplasts are transformed into the thylakoid membrane, resulting in chloroplast biogenesis. During the etioplast-to-chloroplast differentiation, galactolipids facilitate thylakoid membrane biogenesis from PLBs and PTs and play crucial roles in chlorophyll biosynthesis and accumulation of light-harvesting proteins. These recent findings shed light on the roles of galactolipids as key facilitators of several membrane-associated processes during the development of the internal membrane systems in plant plastids. View Full-Text
Keywords: chlorophyll; chloroplast; digalactosyldiacylglycerol; etioplast; galactolipid; monogalactosyldiacylglycerol; photosynthetic proteins; prolamellar body; thylakoid membrane chlorophyll; chloroplast; digalactosyldiacylglycerol; etioplast; galactolipid; monogalactosyldiacylglycerol; photosynthetic proteins; prolamellar body; thylakoid membrane
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Fujii, S.; Wada, H.; Kobayashi, K. Role of Galactolipids in Plastid Differentiation Before and After Light Exposure. Plants 2019, 8, 357.

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