Special Issue "Interactions between Colletotrichum Species and Plants"

A special issue of Plants (ISSN 2223-7747). This special issue belongs to the section "Plant Protection and Biotic Interactions".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Pedro Talhinhas
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Guest Editor
Linking Landscape, Environment, Agriculture and Food (LEAF), Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Universidade de Lisboa, Tapada da Ajuda, 1349-017 Lisboa, Portugal
Interests: plant pathology; mycology; plant-microbe interactions; Colletotrichum; Pucciniales; lupin; olive; coffee
Dr. Riccardo Baroncelli
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Guest Editor
Centro Hispano-Luso de Investigaciones Agrarias (CIALE), Departamento de Microbiología y Genética, Universidad de Salamanca, Calle del Duero, 12, 37185 Villamayor, Salamanca, Spain
Interests: computational biology; fungal genetics; genomics; transcriptomics and evolution

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Anthracnose is an important plant disease, caused by fungi belonging to the genus Colletotrichum, responsible for important losses in numerous and varied agricultural crops. The genus Colletotrichum encompasses wide and multi-level genetic variability, with diverse lifestyles and hosts and varied degrees of host specificity. Beside its economic impact, Colletotrichum is a model system for studying speciation, host adaptation × polyphagy and histopathology, but also epidemiology and crop protection. In recent years, the taxonomy of Colletotrichum has undergone profound changes, providing challenges and often new frameworks for host–fungus interaction studies. Genome sequencing has also entered Colletotrichum research, again providing powerful tools to better understand host–fungus interaction and ultimately disease resistance.

This Special Issue on “Interactions between Colletotrichum species and plants” intends to bring together the state-of-the-art research on Colletotrichum–host interactions, with articles spanning all the way from the fungal genome through to host resistance, including epidemiological, histopathological, functional, ecological and agronomical aspects of these interactions, either from the pathogen or from the host perspective.

Dr. Pedro Talhinhas
Dr. Riccardo Baroncelli
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • anthracnose
  • Colletotrichum
  • plant pathology
  • crop protection

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Response to Anthracnose in a Tarwi (Lupinus mutabilis) Collection Is Influenced by Anthocyanin Pigmentation
Plants 2020, 9(5), 583; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9050583 - 02 May 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum lupini, is a major limiting factor for lupin production. Tarwi or Andean Lupin (Lupinus mutabilis) is generally regarded as susceptible to anthracnose, but the high protein and oil content of its seeds raise interest in promoting [...] Read more.
Anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum lupini, is a major limiting factor for lupin production. Tarwi or Andean Lupin (Lupinus mutabilis) is generally regarded as susceptible to anthracnose, but the high protein and oil content of its seeds raise interest in promoting its cultivation in Europe. In this study we evaluated the response to anthracnose of 10 tarwi accessions contrasting in anthocyanin pigmentation, by comparison to white lupin (Lupinus albus), using a contemporary Portuguese fungal isolate. A severity rating scale was optimized, including weighted parameters considering the type of symptoms and organs affected. All tarwi accessions were classified as susceptible, exhibiting sporulating necroses on the main stem from seven days after inoculation. Anthracnose severity was lower on anthocyanin-rich tarwi plants, with accession LM34 standing out as the less susceptible. Accession I82 better combines anthracnose response and yield. In global terms, disease severity was lower on white lupin than on tarwi. Although based on a limited collection, the results of the study show the existence of genetic variability among L. mutabilis towards anthracnose response relatable with anthocyanin pigmentation, providing insights for more detailed and thorough characterization of tarwi resistance to anthracnose. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interactions between Colletotrichum Species and Plants)
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Open AccessArticle
Pathological, Morphological, Cytogenomic, Biochemical and Molecular Data Support the Distinction between Colletotrichum cigarro comb. et stat. nov. and Colletotrichum kahawae
Plants 2020, 9(4), 502; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9040502 - 14 Apr 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
The genus Colletotrichum has witnessed tremendous variations over the years in the number of species recognized, ranging from 11 to several hundreds. Host-specific fungal species, once the rule, are now the exception, with polyphagous behavior regarded as normal in this genus. The species [...] Read more.
The genus Colletotrichum has witnessed tremendous variations over the years in the number of species recognized, ranging from 11 to several hundreds. Host-specific fungal species, once the rule, are now the exception, with polyphagous behavior regarded as normal in this genus. The species Colletotrichum kahawae was created to accommodate the pathogens that have the unique ability to infect green developing coffee berries causing the devastating Coffee Berry Disease in Africa, but its close phylogenetic relationship to a polyphagous group of fungi in the C. gloeosporioides species complex led some researchers to regard these pathogens as members of a wider species. In this work we combine pathological, morphological, cytogenomic, biochemical, and molecular data of a comprehensive set of phylogenetically-related isolates to show that the Coffee Berry Disease pathogen forms a separate species, C. kahawae, and also to assign the closely related fungi, previously in C. kahawae subsp. cigarro, to a new species, C. cigarro comb. et stat. nov. This taxonomic clarification provides an opportunity to link phylogeny and functional biology, and additionally enables a much-needed tool for plant pathology and agronomy, associating exclusively C. kahawae to the Coffee Berry Disease pathogen. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interactions between Colletotrichum Species and Plants)
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Open AccessArticle
Current Status of Soybean Anthracnose Associated with Colletotrichum truncatum in Brazil and Argentina
Plants 2019, 8(11), 459; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8110459 - 29 Oct 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Brazil and Argentina have a combined soybean area of 53.6 million hectares, which accounts for over half of the total global production. The soybean crop in South America extends from latitude 8–10° S to 32–36° S. Such a vast, almost contiguous area imposes [...] Read more.
Brazil and Argentina have a combined soybean area of 53.6 million hectares, which accounts for over half of the total global production. The soybean crop in South America extends from latitude 8–10° S to 32–36° S. Such a vast, almost contiguous area imposes a serious sanitary risk to the crop. Currently, the prevalence of anthracnose is increasing, with recurring reports of severe epidemics and expressive yield losses. Soybean anthracnose is mainly associated with Colletotrichum truncatum, although other Colletotrichum species have also been reported as causal agents of this disease. Knowledge about the morphological, cultural, and molecular variability of C. truncatum in South America is crucial for disease management. Here, we present data on the molecular, morphological, biological, cultural, and pathogenicity of C. truncatum isolates collected in Brazil and Argentina. Light microscopy and randomly-amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis were used for estimating the variability of isolates. Colletotrichum truncatum displayed three types of conidiogenesis, viz. conidial formation from conidiogenous cells on hyphal extremities, in conidiomas in acervuli, and directly from fertile setae (a mechanism yet-unreported for C. truncatum). RAPD profiling was effective in revealing the genetic diversity among C. truncatum isolates. The intra-group similarity was greater among the Argentinian isolates when compared to the Brazilian group. Furthermore, the results indicated a strong correlation between geographical origin and molecular grouping, with the exclusive or semi-exclusive assembling of Brazilian and Argentinian isolates in distinct clades. Finally, a preliminary account of the reaction of soybean accessions to C. truncatum is also included. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interactions between Colletotrichum Species and Plants)
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Open AccessArticle
Interaction between Bean and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides: Understanding Through a Biochemical Approach
Plants 2019, 8(9), 345; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8090345 - 12 Sep 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
In addition to its role in animals, nowadays nitric oxide (NO) is considered as an emerging signaling molecule in plant systems. It is now believed that NO exerts its pivotal role in various plant physiological processes, such as in seed germination, plant developmental [...] Read more.
In addition to its role in animals, nowadays nitric oxide (NO) is considered as an emerging signaling molecule in plant systems. It is now believed that NO exerts its pivotal role in various plant physiological processes, such as in seed germination, plant developmental stages, and plant defense mechanisms. In this study, we have taken an initiative to show the biochemical basis of defense response activation in bean leaves during the progression of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.) Penz. and Sacc. in detached bean leaves. Stages of pathogen penetration and colonization were successfully established in the detached bean leaves. Results showed up-regulation of different defense-related enzymes and other defense molecules, such as phenols, flavonoids, callose, and lignin molecules, along with NO at early stages of pathogen invasion. Although in the later stages of the disease, development of NO and other defense components (excluding lignin) were down-regulated, the production of reactive oxygen species in the form of H2O2 became elevated. Consequently, other stress markers, such as lipid peroxidation, proline content, and chlorophyll content, were changed accordingly. Correlation between the disease index and other defense molecules, along with NO, indicate that production of NO and reactive oxygen species (ROS) might influence the development of anthracnose in common bean. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interactions between Colletotrichum Species and Plants)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Long-Term Fungicide Applications on Virulence and Diversity of Colletotrichum spp. Associated to Olive Anthracnose
Plants 2019, 8(9), 311; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8090311 - 29 Aug 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
In this study, the presence and variability of Colletotrichum spp. was evaluated by comparing fungal isolates obtained from olive trees under long-time phytosanitary treatments with trees without any phytosanitary treatments (treated and untreated, respectively). Olive fruits of trees of the highly susceptible ‘Galega [...] Read more.
In this study, the presence and variability of Colletotrichum spp. was evaluated by comparing fungal isolates obtained from olive trees under long-time phytosanitary treatments with trees without any phytosanitary treatments (treated and untreated, respectively). Olive fruits of trees of the highly susceptible ‘Galega vulgar’ cultivar growing in the Alentejo region were used as samples. From the 210 olive trees sampled (half from treated and half from untreated orchards), 125 (59.5%) presented Colletotrichum spp., with a significant lower number of infected trees in treated (39) when compared to untreated orchards (86). The alignment and analysis of beta-tubulin (tub2), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), actin (ACT), chitin synthase (CHS-1) and histone H3 (HIS-3) gene sequences allowed the identification of all 125 isolates as belonging to the C. acutatum complex. The vast majority of the isolates (124) were identified as C. nymphaeae and one isolate, from an untreated tree, was identified as C. godetiae. Isolates were divided into five different groups: Group A: 39 isolates from treated trees matched in 100% with C. nymphaeae sequences from the database; Group B: 76 isolates from untreated trees matched in 100% with C. nymphaeae sequences from the database; Group C: one isolate from untreated trees presenting a single nucleotidic difference in the HIS-3 sequence; Group D: eight isolates from untreated trees presenting differences in two nucleotides in the tub2 sequences that changed the protein structure, together with differences in two specific nucleotides of the GAPDH sequences; Group E: one isolate, from untreated olive trees, matched 100% with C. godetiae sequences from the database in all genes. Considering the similarities of the sampled areas, our results show that the long-time application of fungicides may have caused a reduction in the number of olive trees infected with Colletotrichum spp. but an increase in the number of fruits positive to Colletotrichum spp. within each tree, which may suggest different degrees of virulence of Colletotrichum isolates from trees growing different management regimes. It is imperative that the fungicides described as causing resistance are applied at appropriate times and intervals, since their efficiency decreases when applied incorrectly and new and more virulent species may arise. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interactions between Colletotrichum Species and Plants)
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Open AccessArticle
Molecular Detection of the Seed-Borne Pathogen Colletotrichum lupini Targeting the Hyper-Variable IGS Region of the Ribosomal Cluster
Plants 2019, 8(7), 222; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8070222 - 14 Jul 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Lupins anthracnose is a destructive seed and airborne disease caused by Colletotrichum lupini, affecting stems and pods. Primary seed infections as low as 0.01–0.1% can cause very severe yield losses. One of the most effective management strategies is the development of a [...] Read more.
Lupins anthracnose is a destructive seed and airborne disease caused by Colletotrichum lupini, affecting stems and pods. Primary seed infections as low as 0.01–0.1% can cause very severe yield losses. One of the most effective management strategies is the development of a robust and sensitive seed detection assay to screen seed lots before planting. PCR-based detection systems exhibit higher levels of sensitivity than conventional techniques, but when applied to seed tests they require the extraction of PCR-quality DNA from target organisms in backgrounds of saprophytic organisms and inhibitory seed-derived compounds. To overcome these limitations, a new detection protocol for C. lupini based on a biological enrichment step followed by a PCR assay was developed. Several enrichment protocols were compared with Yeast Malt Broth amended with ampicillin, streptomycin, and lactic acid were the most efficient. A species-specific C. lupini primer pair was developed based on rDNA IGS sequences. The specificity was evaluated against 17 strains of C. lupini, 23 different Colletotrichum species, and 21 different organisms isolated from seeds of Lupinus albus cv. Multitalia, L. luteus cv. Mister, and L. angustifolius cv. Tango. The protocol described here enabled the detection of C. lupini in samples artificially infected with less than 1/10,000 infected seed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interactions between Colletotrichum Species and Plants)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Almond Anthracnose: Current Knowledge and Future Perspectives
Plants 2020, 9(8), 945; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9080945 - 27 Jul 2020
Abstract
Almond anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum spp. has been described as one of the most important diseases of this nut crop in the main almond-growing regions worldwide, including California, Australia and Spain. Currently, almond anthracnose is considered a re-emerging disease in the countries across [...] Read more.
Almond anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum spp. has been described as one of the most important diseases of this nut crop in the main almond-growing regions worldwide, including California, Australia and Spain. Currently, almond anthracnose is considered a re-emerging disease in the countries across the Mediterranean Basin due to the shift of plantations from the original crop areas to others with climatic, edaphic and orographic conditions favoring crop growing and yield. The pathogen mainly affects fruit at the youngest maturity stages, causing depressed, round and orange or brown lesions with abundant gum. The affected fruits can fall prematurely and lead to the drying of branches, causing significant economic losses in years of epidemics. This review aims to compile the current knowledge on the etiology, epidemiology and management of this disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interactions between Colletotrichum Species and Plants)
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Open AccessReview
The Many Questions about Mini Chromosomes in Colletotrichum spp.
Plants 2020, 9(5), 641; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9050641 - 19 May 2020
Abstract
Many fungal pathogens carry accessory regions in their genome, which are not required for vegetative fitness. Often, although not always, these regions occur as relatively small chromosomes in different species. Such mini chromosomes appear to be a typical feature of many filamentous plant [...] Read more.
Many fungal pathogens carry accessory regions in their genome, which are not required for vegetative fitness. Often, although not always, these regions occur as relatively small chromosomes in different species. Such mini chromosomes appear to be a typical feature of many filamentous plant pathogens. Since these regions often carry genes coding for effectors or toxin-producing enzymes, they may be directly related to virulence of the respective pathogen. In this review, we outline the situation of small accessory chromosomes in the genus Colletotrichum, which accounts for ecologically important plant diseases. We summarize which species carry accessory chromosomes, their gene content, and chromosomal makeup. We discuss the large variation in size and number even between different isolates of the same species, their potential roles in host range, and possible mechanisms for intra- and interspecies exchange of these interesting genetic elements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interactions between Colletotrichum Species and Plants)
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