Special Issue "Photonic Crystal Laser and Related Optical Devices"

A special issue of Photonics (ISSN 2304-6732).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Masahiko Kondow Website E-Mail
Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Photonic crystals (PhCs) are 1D, 2D or 3D periodic dielectric materials. They have interesting properties, such as photonic bandgap and slow light. 1D PhC is widely available in our society as filters, mirrors, and so on. Vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSEL) also employ 1D PhCs as Fabry–Pérot mirrors. Much research into 2D and 3D PhC has been reported over the last 30 years. However, very few devices in which 2D or 3D PhC is used are on the market. This Special Issue focuses on optical devices that utilize 2D or 3D PhC, such as photonic crystal lasers, in order to promote the applications of PhCs. Electric or mechanical devices are welcome to be presented in this issue if PhC is used. 1D PhC devices are also welcome if specific properties of the PhC are applied beyond conventional multi-layered filters or mirrors.

Prof. Masahiko Kondow
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Photonic Crystal
  • Photonic Bandgap
  • Slow Light
  • Nanocavity
  • Waveguide
  • Laser
  • Optical Device

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
λ-Scale Embedded Active Region Photonic Crystal (LEAP) Lasers for Optical Interconnects
Photonics 2019, 6(3), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics6030082 - 25 Jul 2019
Abstract
The distances optical interconnects must cover are decreasing as Internet traffic continues to increase. Since short-reach interconnect applications require many transmitters, cost and power consumption are significant issues. Directly modulated lasers with a wavelength-scale active volume will be used as optical interconnects on [...] Read more.
The distances optical interconnects must cover are decreasing as Internet traffic continues to increase. Since short-reach interconnect applications require many transmitters, cost and power consumption are significant issues. Directly modulated lasers with a wavelength-scale active volume will be used as optical interconnects on boards and chips in the future because a small active volume is expected to reduce power consumption. We developed electrically driven photonic crystal (PhC) lasers with a wavelength-scale cavity in which the active region is embedded in a line-defect waveguide of an InP-based PhC slab. We call this a λ-scale embedded active region PhC laser, or a LEAP laser. The device, whose active region has six quantum wells with 2.5 × 0.3 × 0.15 μm3 active volume, exhibits a threshold current of 28 μA and provides 10 fJ/bit of operating energy to 25 Gbit/s NRZ (non-return-to-zero) signals. The fiber-coupled output power is 6.9 μW. We also demonstrate heterogeneous integration of LEAP lasers on a SiO2/Si substrate for low-cost photonic integrated circuits (PICs). The threshold current is 40.5 μA and the output power is 4.4 μW with a bias current of 200 μA. These results indicate the feasibility of using PhC lasers in very-short-distance optical communications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photonic Crystal Laser and Related Optical Devices)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Photonic Crystal Circular Defect (CirD) Laser
Photonics 2019, 6(2), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics6020054 - 20 May 2019
Abstract
We describe the design of photonic crystal circular defect (CirD) lasers to construct a compact optical module with a wavelength division multiplexing function for the application of inter-chip or intra-chip optical interconnects. Subsequently, we investigated the characteristics of CirD lasers including the quality [...] Read more.
We describe the design of photonic crystal circular defect (CirD) lasers to construct a compact optical module with a wavelength division multiplexing function for the application of inter-chip or intra-chip optical interconnects. Subsequently, we investigated the characteristics of CirD lasers including the quality factor of the cavity, the lasing threshold, and the modulation speed with a three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain method and two-dimensional rate equations. Finally, we demonstrated the single mode lasing and wavelength tuning behaviors of the CirD lasers using optical pumping technology under room-temperature continuous-wave conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photonic Crystal Laser and Related Optical Devices)
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Review

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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Progress in Photonic-Crystal Surface-Emitting Lasers
Photonics 2019, 6(3), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics6030096 - 29 Aug 2019
Abstract
Photonic-crystal surface-emitting lasers (PCSELs) have attracted considerable attention as a novel semiconductor laser that surpasses traditional semiconductor lasers. In this review article, we review the current progress of PCSELs, including the demonstration of large-area coherent oscillation, the control of beam patterns, the demonstration [...] Read more.
Photonic-crystal surface-emitting lasers (PCSELs) have attracted considerable attention as a novel semiconductor laser that surpasses traditional semiconductor lasers. In this review article, we review the current progress of PCSELs, including the demonstration of large-area coherent oscillation, the control of beam patterns, the demonstration of beam steering, and the realization of watt-class and high-beam-quality operation. Furthermore, we show very recent progress in the exploration of high brightness of more than 300 MW cm2 sr1, obtained with a high output power of about 10 W while maintaining a high beam quality M2 ~ 2. The PCSELs with such high performances are expected to be applied to a variety of fields, such as laser-based material processing, optical sensing (light-detection and ranging (LiDAR)), and lighting, as they retain the benefits of compact and high-efficiency semiconductor lasers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photonic Crystal Laser and Related Optical Devices)
Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Photonic and Iontronic Sensing in GaInAsP Semiconductor Photonic Crystal Nanolasers
Photonics 2019, 6(2), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics6020065 - 10 Jun 2019
Abstract
The GaInAsP semiconductor photonic crystal nanolaser operates at room temperature by photopumping and emits near-infrared light at a wavelength longer than 1.3 μm. Immersion of the nanolaser in a solution causes its laser characteristics to change. Observation of this phenomenon makes it possible [...] Read more.
The GaInAsP semiconductor photonic crystal nanolaser operates at room temperature by photopumping and emits near-infrared light at a wavelength longer than 1.3 μm. Immersion of the nanolaser in a solution causes its laser characteristics to change. Observation of this phenomenon makes it possible to perform biosensing without a fluorescent label or a chromogenic substrate. The most common phenomenon between many photonic sensors is that the resonance wavelength reflects the refractive index of attached media; an index change of 2.5 × 10−4 in the surrounding liquid can be measured through an emission wavelength shift without stabilization. This effect is applicable to detecting environmental toxins and cell behaviors. The laser emission intensity also reflects the electric charge of surface ions. The intensity varies when an electrolyte or a negatively charged deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), which is positively or negatively charged in water, is accumulated on the surface. This effect allows us to detect the antigen-antibody reaction of a biomarker protein from only the emission intensity without any kind of spectroscopy. In detecting a small amount of DNA or protein, a wavelength shift also appears from its concentration that is 2–3 orders of magnitude lower than those of the conventional chemical methods, such as the enzyme-linked immuno-solvent assay. It is unlikely that this wavelength behavior at such low concentrations is due to the refractive index of the biomolecules. It is observed that the electric charge of surface ions is induced by various means, including plasma exposure and an electrochemical circuit shifting the wavelength. This suggests that the superhigh sensitivity is also due to the effect of charged ions. Thus, we call this device an iontronic photonic sensor. This paper focuses on such a novel sensing scheme of nanolaser sensor, as an example of resonator-based photonic sensors, in addition to the conventional refractive index sensing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photonic Crystal Laser and Related Optical Devices)
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