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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

λ-Scale Embedded Active Region Photonic Crystal (LEAP) Lasers for Optical Interconnects

by 1,2,* and 1,2
1
NTT Device Technology Laboratories, NTT Corporation, 3-1 Morinosato-Wakamiya, Atsugi-shi, Kanagawa 243-0198, Japan
2
NTT Nanophotonics Center, NTT Corporation, 3-1 Morinosato-Wakamiya, Atsugi-shi, Kanagawa 243-0198, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
invited paper.
Photonics 2019, 6(3), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics6030082
Received: 13 June 2019 / Revised: 22 July 2019 / Accepted: 23 July 2019 / Published: 25 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photonic Crystal Laser and Related Optical Devices)
The distances optical interconnects must cover are decreasing as Internet traffic continues to increase. Since short-reach interconnect applications require many transmitters, cost and power consumption are significant issues. Directly modulated lasers with a wavelength-scale active volume will be used as optical interconnects on boards and chips in the future because a small active volume is expected to reduce power consumption. We developed electrically driven photonic crystal (PhC) lasers with a wavelength-scale cavity in which the active region is embedded in a line-defect waveguide of an InP-based PhC slab. We call this a λ-scale embedded active region PhC laser, or a LEAP laser. The device, whose active region has six quantum wells with 2.5 × 0.3 × 0.15 μm3 active volume, exhibits a threshold current of 28 μA and provides 10 fJ/bit of operating energy to 25 Gbit/s NRZ (non-return-to-zero) signals. The fiber-coupled output power is 6.9 μW. We also demonstrate heterogeneous integration of LEAP lasers on a SiO2/Si substrate for low-cost photonic integrated circuits (PICs). The threshold current is 40.5 μA and the output power is 4.4 μW with a bias current of 200 μA. These results indicate the feasibility of using PhC lasers in very-short-distance optical communications. View Full-Text
Keywords: photonic crystal laser; direct modulation; heterogeneous integration; buried heterostructure photonic crystal laser; direct modulation; heterogeneous integration; buried heterostructure
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Matsuo, S.; Takeda, K. λ-Scale Embedded Active Region Photonic Crystal (LEAP) Lasers for Optical Interconnects. Photonics 2019, 6, 82.

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