Next Article in Journal
A Review of Intrinsic Optical Imaging Serial Blockface Histology (ICI-SBH) for Whole Rodent Brain Imaging
Next Article in Special Issue
λ-Scale Embedded Active Region Photonic Crystal (LEAP) Lasers for Optical Interconnects
Previous Article in Journal
Statistical Assessment of Open Optical Networks
Previous Article in Special Issue
Photonic Crystal Circular Defect (CirD) Laser
Open AccessFeature PaperReview

Photonic and Iontronic Sensing in GaInAsP Semiconductor Photonic Crystal Nanolasers

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Yokohama National University, Yokohama 240-8501, Japan
Invited paper.
Photonics 2019, 6(2), 65;
Received: 15 May 2019 / Revised: 6 June 2019 / Accepted: 6 June 2019 / Published: 10 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photonic Crystal Laser and Related Optical Devices)
The GaInAsP semiconductor photonic crystal nanolaser operates at room temperature by photopumping and emits near-infrared light at a wavelength longer than 1.3 μm. Immersion of the nanolaser in a solution causes its laser characteristics to change. Observation of this phenomenon makes it possible to perform biosensing without a fluorescent label or a chromogenic substrate. The most common phenomenon between many photonic sensors is that the resonance wavelength reflects the refractive index of attached media; an index change of 2.5 × 10−4 in the surrounding liquid can be measured through an emission wavelength shift without stabilization. This effect is applicable to detecting environmental toxins and cell behaviors. The laser emission intensity also reflects the electric charge of surface ions. The intensity varies when an electrolyte or a negatively charged deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), which is positively or negatively charged in water, is accumulated on the surface. This effect allows us to detect the antigen-antibody reaction of a biomarker protein from only the emission intensity without any kind of spectroscopy. In detecting a small amount of DNA or protein, a wavelength shift also appears from its concentration that is 2–3 orders of magnitude lower than those of the conventional chemical methods, such as the enzyme-linked immuno-solvent assay. It is unlikely that this wavelength behavior at such low concentrations is due to the refractive index of the biomolecules. It is observed that the electric charge of surface ions is induced by various means, including plasma exposure and an electrochemical circuit shifting the wavelength. This suggests that the superhigh sensitivity is also due to the effect of charged ions. Thus, we call this device an iontronic photonic sensor. This paper focuses on such a novel sensing scheme of nanolaser sensor, as an example of resonator-based photonic sensors, in addition to the conventional refractive index sensing. View Full-Text
Keywords: GaInAsP; photonic crystal; nanolaser; sensing; biophotonics GaInAsP; photonic crystal; nanolaser; sensing; biophotonics
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Baba, T. Photonic and Iontronic Sensing in GaInAsP Semiconductor Photonic Crystal Nanolasers. Photonics 2019, 6, 65.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop