Photonic-crystal surface-emitting lasers (PCSELs) have attracted considerable attention as a novel semiconductor laser that surpasses traditional semiconductor lasers. In this review article, we review the current progress of PCSELs, including the demonstration of large-area coherent oscillation, the control of beam patterns, the demonstration of beam steering, and the realization of watt-class and high-beam-quality operation. Furthermore, we show very recent progress in the exploration of high brightness of more than 300 MW cm−2
, obtained with a high output power of about 10 W while maintaining a high beam quality M2
~ 2. The PCSELs with such high performances are expected to be applied to a variety of fields, such as laser-based material processing, optical sensing (light-detection and ranging (LiDAR)), and lighting, as they retain the benefits of compact and high-efficiency semiconductor lasers.
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