Special Issue "Advanced Photodetectors Devices and Technologies"

A special issue of Photonics (ISSN 2304-6732).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 February 2017).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. M. Jamal Deen
Website
Guest Editor
Electrical and Computer Engineering, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, ON L8S 4K1, Canada
Interests: optoelectronics; nanoelectronics; sensor technology; bioimagers; biomedical technology
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Advanced photodetectors and the technologies to manufacture them are finding increasing applications in a variety of disciplines, ranging from video surveillance systems, remote sensing and cameras for consumer applications, to biomedical imaging, optical sensing systems, and environmental monitoring. Depending on the type of application, different aspects of photodetectors, and associated manufacturing technologies, are emphasized. For example, smart phones cameras emphasize low cost, high density, high integration, and a small form factor. High-end smart phone cameras consist of dense arrays of a few to tens of Megapixels and include image signal processing electronics integrated into the image sensor, as well as fast auto-focusing, subject tracking, and high-definition video capabilities. Typically, these cameras use silicon manufacturing technology to create low-cost, system-on-chip solutions suitable for high volume consumer applications. In the biomedical area, clinical imaging tools, such as positron emission tomography (PET) or single-photon emission computed tomography, are used to detect many chronic and degenerative diseases, including cardio-vascular, cancer, and Parkinson's, using the emerging solid-state photodetectors (silicon photomultipliers SiPMs) to replace the larger, more costly, more fragile, high-voltage photomultiplier tubes. These solid-state photodetectors are especially useful for multimodality imaging in which the power of functional imaging of nuclear medicine (PET) and the excellent structural imaging of magnetic resonance imaging can be combined as these detectors (SiPMs) are unaffected by high magnetic fields. In the technological area, there are numerous research and technology development activities. Examples of rapidly emerging technologies include solution processed colloidal quantum dots, printing of organic/polymeric semiconductors, and self-assembled epitaxial quantum dots that are used to create a variety of advanced photodetectors. The response characteristics of such advanced photodetectors can be tuned by techniques that include the type or composition of materials, the size of quantum dots, or the use of different quantum-confined materials. For the applications mentioned above (and others), one or more of the performance metrics, such as low dark noise, high quantum efficiency, high sensitivity or responsivity, low power, and fast response, is needed.

This Special Issue will focus on advanced photodetectors devices and technologies including materials, structures, designs, circuits, systems and integration for a variety of single device (e.g., fiber optic detector) or systems applications (e.g., cameras). With both invited and contributed papers, this Special Issue will present the latest developments, state-of-the-art, and emerging applications and technologies in this exciting field.

Prof. Dr. M. Jamal Deen
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Photonics is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Advanced photodiodes – designs, fabrication and applications
  • Novel concepts in photodetectors and technologies
  • Silicon photodetectors—designs, fabrication and applications
  • Other elemental semiconductor photodetectors, systems and technologies
  • Compound semiconductor photodetectors, systems and technologies
  • Solution-processed photodetectors
  • Other emerging photodetector technologies
  • Photodetectors for silicon photonics
  • Photodetectors integration technologies
  • Applications in telecommunications including wireless optical communications
  • Photodetectors in smart systems, e.g., smart phones
  • Environmental monitoring applications
  • Biomedical imaging applications
  • Emerging sensing and imaging applications

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Characterization of SPAD Array for Multifocal High-Content Screening Applications
Photonics 2016, 3(4), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics3040056 - 31 Oct 2016
Cited by 9
Abstract
Current instruments used to detect specific protein-protein interactions in live cells for applications in high-content screening (HCS) are limited by the time required to measure the lifetime. Here, a 32 × 1 single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) array was explored as a detector for [...] Read more.
Current instruments used to detect specific protein-protein interactions in live cells for applications in high-content screening (HCS) are limited by the time required to measure the lifetime. Here, a 32 × 1 single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) array was explored as a detector for fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) in HCS. Device parameters and characterization results were interpreted in the context of the application to determine if the SPAD array could satisfy the requirements of HCS-FLIM. Fluorescence lifetime measurements were performed using a known fluorescence standard; and the recovered fluorescence lifetime matched literature reported values. The design of a theoretical 32 × 32 SPAD array was also considered as a detector for a multi-point confocal scanning microscope. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Photodetectors Devices and Technologies)
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Open AccessArticle
Silicon Drift Detectors with the Drift Field Induced by PureB-Coated Trenches
Photonics 2016, 3(4), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics3040054 - 29 Oct 2016
Cited by 4
Abstract
Junction formation in deep trenches is proposed as a new means of creating a built-in drift field in silicon drift detectors (SDDs). The potential performance of this trenched drift detector (TDD) was investigated analytically and through simulations, and compared to simulations of conventional [...] Read more.
Junction formation in deep trenches is proposed as a new means of creating a built-in drift field in silicon drift detectors (SDDs). The potential performance of this trenched drift detector (TDD) was investigated analytically and through simulations, and compared to simulations of conventional bulk-silicon drift detector (BSDD) configurations. Although the device was not experimentally realized, the manufacturability of the TDDs is estimated to be good on the basis of previously demonstrated photodiodes and detectors fabricated in PureB technology. The pure boron deposition of this technology allows good trench coverage and is known to provide nm-shallow low-noise p+n diodes that can be used as radiation-hard light-entrance windows. With this type of diode, the TDDs would be suitable for X-ray radiation detection down to 100 eV and up to tens of keV energy levels. In the TDD, the drift region is formed by varying the geometry and position of the trenches while the reverse biasing of all diodes is kept at the same constant voltage. For a given wafer doping, the drift field is lower for the TDD than for a BSDD and it demands a much higher voltage between the anode and cathode, but also has several advantages: it eliminates the possibility of punch-through and no current flows from the inner to outer perimeter of the cathode because a voltage divider is not needed to set the drift field. In addition, the loss of sensitive area at the outer perimeter of the cathode is much smaller. For example, the simulations predict that an optimized TDD geometry with an active-region radius of 3100 µm could have a drift field of 370 V/cm and a photo-sensitive radius that is 500-µm larger than that of a comparable BSDD structure. The PureB diodes on the front and back of the TDD are continuous, which means low dark currents and high stability with respect to leakage currents that otherwise could be caused by radiation damage. The dark current of the 3100-µm TDD will increase by only 34% if an interface trap concentration of 1012 cm−2 is introduced to approximate the oxide interface degradation that could be caused during irradiation. The TDD structure is particularly well-suited for implementation in multi-cell drift detector arrays where it is shown to significantly decrease the cross-talk between segments. The trenches will, however, also present a narrow dead area that can split the energy deposited by high-energy photons traversing this dead area. The count rate within a cell of a radius = 300 µm in a multi-cell TDD array is found to be as high as 10 Mcps. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Photodetectors Devices and Technologies)
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Open AccessArticle
Ar+-Implanted Si-Waveguide Photodiodes for Mid-Infrared Detection
Photonics 2016, 3(3), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics3030046 - 27 Jul 2016
Cited by 2
Abstract
Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS)-compatible Ar+-implanted Si-waveguide p-i-n photodetectors operating in the mid-infrared (2.2 to 2.3 µm wavelengths) are demonstrated at room temperature. Responsivities exceeding 21 mA/W are measured at a 5 V reverse bias with an estimated internal quantum efficiency of 3.1%–3.7%. [...] Read more.
Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS)-compatible Ar+-implanted Si-waveguide p-i-n photodetectors operating in the mid-infrared (2.2 to 2.3 µm wavelengths) are demonstrated at room temperature. Responsivities exceeding 21 mA/W are measured at a 5 V reverse bias with an estimated internal quantum efficiency of 3.1%–3.7%. The dark current is found to vary from a few nanoamps down to less than 11 pA after post-implantation annealing at 350 °C. Linearity is demonstrated over four orders of magnitude, confirming a single-photon absorption process. The devices demonstrate a higher thermal processing budget than similar Si+-implanted devices and achieve higher responsivity after annealing up to 350 °C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Photodetectors Devices and Technologies)
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