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Ar+-Implanted Si-Waveguide Photodiodes for Mid-Infrared Detection

Photonics Research Center, United States Military Academy, West Point, NY 10996, USA
Department of Electrical Engineering, Columbia University, 500 W. 120th Street, New York, NY 10027, USA
Center for Functional Nanomaterials, Brookhaven National Laboratory, PO Box 5000, Upton, NY 11973, USA
College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, SUNYPOLY, Albany, NY 12203, USA
Department of Electrical and Systems Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, 200 S. 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, 1101 Kitchawan Rd., Yorktown Heights, NY 10598, USA
Microelectronics Sciences Laboratories, Columbia University, 500 W. 120th Street, New York, NY 10027, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Photonics 2016, 3(3), 46;
Received: 30 June 2016 / Revised: 18 July 2016 / Accepted: 22 July 2016 / Published: 27 July 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Photodetectors Devices and Technologies)
PDF [1680 KB, uploaded 27 July 2016]


Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS)-compatible Ar+-implanted Si-waveguide p-i-n photodetectors operating in the mid-infrared (2.2 to 2.3 µm wavelengths) are demonstrated at room temperature. Responsivities exceeding 21 mA/W are measured at a 5 V reverse bias with an estimated internal quantum efficiency of 3.1%–3.7%. The dark current is found to vary from a few nanoamps down to less than 11 pA after post-implantation annealing at 350 °C. Linearity is demonstrated over four orders of magnitude, confirming a single-photon absorption process. The devices demonstrate a higher thermal processing budget than similar Si+-implanted devices and achieve higher responsivity after annealing up to 350 °C. View Full-Text
Keywords: silicon; photodetectors; integrated optics devices silicon; photodetectors; integrated optics devices

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Souhan, B.; Chen, C.P.; Lu, M.; Stein, A.; Bakhru, H.; Grote, R.R.; Bergman, K.; Green, W.M.J.; Osgood, R.M. Ar+-Implanted Si-Waveguide Photodiodes for Mid-Infrared Detection. Photonics 2016, 3, 46.

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