Special Issue "Value-Based Care Through Community Pharmacy Partnerships"

A special issue of Pharmacy (ISSN 2226-4787).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Stefanie Ferreri
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
UNC Eshelman School of Pharmacy, Division of Practice Advancement and Clinical Education, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 301 Pharmacy Lane, CB 7574 Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7574, USA
Interests: integrating community pharmacists into team-based care; value-based care; incorporating clinical services into the community pharmacy setting; medication therapy management; transitions of care; nonprescription therapeutics
Dr. Megan G. Smith
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Pharmacy Practice, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, 4301 W. Markham Street, #522 Little Rock, AR 72205, USA
Interests: innovative community pharmacy services; implementation and dissemination of interventions within community pharmacy; value-based care; medication therapy management; nonprescription therapeutics; point-of-care testing in community settings

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Community pharmacist-provided clinical services are an underutilized resource in the pursuit of higher-quality, lower-cost health care. Improved health outcomes can be realized when providers, payers, and patients better utilize community pharmacists. However, to achieve success, community pharmacist-provided clinical services must be supported through workflow adaptations, collaborative partnerships with other providers, and restructured reimbursement models. Advances in technology allowing community pharmacists to share health information technology (HIT) with other providers, effectively communicate with their partners in care, and document their clinical activities would further enhance success.

We invite you to share your approaches and successes to integrate community pharmacists as part of the health care team. We hope this Special Issue will inspire pharmacists, educators, payers, and policy makers to share their own practices, adopt new approaches, and innovate to make improvements to health care in the community pharmacy setting.

Dr. Stefanie Ferreri
Dr. Megan G. Smith
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Pharmacy is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Community pharmacy services
  • Medication therapy management
  • Medication adherence
  • Change management
  • Health care delivery models
  • Innovations in community pharmacy practice
  • Community practice-based implementation science
  • Economic outcomes for outpatient pharmacy services
  • Sustainable business models for community pharmacy services

Published Papers (6 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Other

Article
Development and Implementation of an Influenza Point-Of-Care Testing Service in a Chain Community Pharmacy Setting
Pharmacy 2020, 8(4), 182; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy8040182 - 06 Oct 2020
Viewed by 699
Abstract
Point-of-care testing is becoming increasingly commonplace in community pharmacy settings. These tests are often used in the management of chronic disease, such as blood sugar, hemoglobin A1c and lipid levels, but can also be used for acute conditions such as influenza infection and [...] Read more.
Point-of-care testing is becoming increasingly commonplace in community pharmacy settings. These tests are often used in the management of chronic disease, such as blood sugar, hemoglobin A1c and lipid levels, but can also be used for acute conditions such as influenza infection and group A streptococcus pharyngitis. When used for these acute infections, point-of-care tests can allow for pharmacist-initiated treatment. In this study, an influenza point-of-care testing service was developed and implemented in a chain community pharmacy setting and a retrospective review was conducted to assess the service. Of patients tested, 29% tested positive for influenza A and/or B; 92% of patients testing positive received a prescription as a result. While health insurance cannot be billed for the service due to current pharmacy reimbursement practices, this did not appear to negatively affect patient willingness to participate. As point-of-care testing services become more commonplace in community pharmacy settings, patient awareness will similarly increase and allow for more widespread access to acute outpatient care. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Value-Based Care Through Community Pharmacy Partnerships)
Article
Community Pharmacists’ Perceptions of Patient Care Services within an Enhanced Service Network
Pharmacy 2020, 8(3), 172; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy8030172 - 16 Sep 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 913
Abstract
Background: Pharmacists are positioned as an accessible source of patient care services (PCS). Despite the adversity community pharmacies continue to face, the expanding opportunity of offering PCS continues to be a pathway forward. Objective: To identify community pharmacists’ perceptions to deliver PCS within [...] Read more.
Background: Pharmacists are positioned as an accessible source of patient care services (PCS). Despite the adversity community pharmacies continue to face, the expanding opportunity of offering PCS continues to be a pathway forward. Objective: To identify community pharmacists’ perceptions to deliver PCS within an enhanced service network. Methods: One-on-one semi-structured phone interviews were conducted as part of a mixed-methods approach. Interview transcripts were analyzed using a consensus codebook to draft thematic findings. Participants were recruited from an electronic survey targeting community pharmacists from the New York chapters of the Community Pharmacy Enhanced Services Network (CPESN). Results: Twelve pharmacists were interviewed with four main themes identified. The majority of study participants were pharmacy owners (92%) devoting an average of 15 h/week to PCS and 8 h/week addressing social barriers. The main themes identified include: (1) perceptions of pharmacy profession, (2) reimbursement models and sustainability of PCS, (3) provision of patient care services, and (4) how PCS address social determinants of health. Conclusions: Offering PCS opportunities for patients is a direction many community pharmacists have embraced and are working to succeed. Ongoing research is needed focusing on community pharmacists’ self-perceptions of the clinical impact and role they hold in an evolving healthcare system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Value-Based Care Through Community Pharmacy Partnerships)
Communication
The Emerging Role of Community Pharmacists in Remote Patient Monitoring Services
Pharmacy 2020, 8(3), 166; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy8030166 - 06 Sep 2020
Viewed by 1599
Abstract
Remote physiologic monitoring (RPM) services involve the transmission of patient-collected physiologic data to the healthcare team. These data are then analyzed to determine what changes may be needed to enhance patient care. While pharmacists may not be recognized as billing providers through some [...] Read more.
Remote physiologic monitoring (RPM) services involve the transmission of patient-collected physiologic data to the healthcare team. These data are then analyzed to determine what changes may be needed to enhance patient care. While pharmacists may not be recognized as billing providers through some payers, there are opportunities for pharmacist collaboration with providers to enhance patient access to RPM services. Community pharmacist services are traditionally tied to a product, but pharmacists are skilled in medication management, disease state evaluation, and patient counseling, which are skills that can contribute to an elevated RPM program. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Value-Based Care Through Community Pharmacy Partnerships)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Community Pharmacists’ Motivation and Barriers to Providing and Billing Patient Care Services
Pharmacy 2020, 8(3), 145; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy8030145 - 14 Aug 2020
Viewed by 1230
Abstract
Recently, California (CA) pharmacists’ scope of practice has expanded to include independently prescribing self-administered hormonal contraceptives, nicotine replacement therapy medications, travel health medications, routine vaccinations, naloxone hydrochloride, and HIV preexposure and postexposure prophylaxis. However, previous reports indicate that practicing within this expanded scope [...] Read more.
Recently, California (CA) pharmacists’ scope of practice has expanded to include independently prescribing self-administered hormonal contraceptives, nicotine replacement therapy medications, travel health medications, routine vaccinations, naloxone hydrochloride, and HIV preexposure and postexposure prophylaxis. However, previous reports indicate that practicing within this expanded scope has remained limited. Therefore, a 26-item, web-based survey was emailed to CA community pharmacists to assess pharmacists’ knowledge, intent, and barriers to prescribing and billing for these patient care services. A total of 216 chain, supermarket-based, independent, mass merchant, and health-system outpatient pharmacists were included. The primary services provided and medications prescribed are for vaccinations and naloxone. Most pharmacists agree that engagement in and implementation of new strategies to enhance patients’ access to care is important. Common barriers include patient unawareness of pharmacist-provided services, lack of payment for services, and difficulty incorporating services within pharmacy workflow. Pharmacists are confident in their ability to provide patient care services but are less knowledgeable and confident about billing for them. Enhancing promotion of pharmacist-provided services to patients, developing strategies to efficiently incorporate them into the workflow, and payment models can help overcome barriers to providing these services. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Value-Based Care Through Community Pharmacy Partnerships)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Work System and Process Designs for Community Pharmacy-Medical Clinic Partnerships to Improve Retention in Care, Antiretroviral Adherence, and Viral Suppression in Persons with HIV
Pharmacy 2020, 8(3), 125; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy8030125 - 22 Jul 2020
Viewed by 584
Abstract
The objective of this project was to collect and analyze information about work systems and processes that community pharmacy-medical clinic partnerships used for implementing the Patient-Centered HIV Care Model (PCHCM). Paired collaborations of 10 Walgreens community pharmacies and 10 medical clinics were formed [...] Read more.
The objective of this project was to collect and analyze information about work systems and processes that community pharmacy-medical clinic partnerships used for implementing the Patient-Centered HIV Care Model (PCHCM). Paired collaborations of 10 Walgreens community pharmacies and 10 medical clinics were formed in 10 cities located throughout the United States that had relatively high HIV prevalence rates and existing Walgreens HIV Centers of Excellence. Patient service provision data and most significant change stories were collected from key informants at each of the clinic and pharmacy sites over an 8 week period in 2016 and through in-depth phone interviews. Written notes were reviewed by two authors (J.C.S. and O.W.G.) and analyzed using the most significant change technique. The findings showed that half of the partnerships (n = 5) were unable to fully engage in service implementation due to external factors or severe staff turnover during the project period. The other half of the partnerships (n = 5) were able to engage in service implementation, with the most impactful changes being related to strong patient care systems, having a point person at the clinic who served as a connector between sites, and having pharmacists integrated fully into the health care team. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Value-Based Care Through Community Pharmacy Partnerships)

Other

Jump to: Research

Concept Paper
A Student Pharmacist Quality Engagement Team to Support Initial Implementation of Comprehensive Medication Management within Independent Community Pharmacies
Pharmacy 2020, 8(3), 141; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy8030141 - 09 Aug 2020
Viewed by 1110
Abstract
In 2017, the Pennsylvania Pharmacists Care Network (PPCN), an enhanced pharmacy services network, and STRAND Clinical Technologies partnered to launch a payor contract with a Pennsylvania Medicaid Managed Care Organization for the provision of comprehensive medication management (CMM) at PPCN pharmacies. PPCN and [...] Read more.
In 2017, the Pennsylvania Pharmacists Care Network (PPCN), an enhanced pharmacy services network, and STRAND Clinical Technologies partnered to launch a payor contract with a Pennsylvania Medicaid Managed Care Organization for the provision of comprehensive medication management (CMM) at PPCN pharmacies. PPCN and the Community Leadership and Innovation in Practice Center at the University of Pittsburgh School of Pharmacy partnered to create the Quality Engagement Team (QET), a group of student pharmacists formed with the intent to support the initial implementation of this contract. The QET supported the pharmacies through biweekly phone calls, which led to increased pharmacist engagement and produced impactful patient encounter stories that were then reported back to the payor. We utilized Active Implementation Frameworks and select implementation strategies from the Expert Recommendations for Implementing Change project throughout the implementation period. The QET supported the successful implementation of this payor contract, which saw an increase in CMM encounters completed by the pharmacists during each month of the four-month contract period. Students, pharmacists and the payor each derived meaningful benefits from this initiative. Student pharmacists can be a powerful asset in the implementation of payor programs within an enhanced pharmacy services network, resulting in the mutually beneficial and sustainable support of the network. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Value-Based Care Through Community Pharmacy Partnerships)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop