Special Issue "Non-invasive Drug Delivery Systems"

A special issue of Pharmaceutics (ISSN 1999-4923). This special issue belongs to the section "Drug Delivery and Controlled Release".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 October 2020) | Viewed by 32171

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Driton Vllasaliu
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Cancer and Pharmaceutical Sciences, King’s College London, 150 Stamford Street, London SE1 9NH, UK
Interests: mucosal delivery of biologics; nanomedicine; in vitro mucosal models

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Many drugs, including a proportion of small drug molecules, as well as most biologics (peptides, therapeutic proteins, antibodies and nucleic acid-based therapeutics), are currently administered by injection. This is predominantly owing to the poor bioavailability following non-invasive (e.g. oral) administration. Non-invasive drug delivery offers many advantages over injection, including improved patient acceptability and adherence to therapy and potentially enhanced drug safety profile. The reduction in needle-related complications and healthcare costs (associated with administration by healthcare professionals) achieved by non-invasive delivery can present further opportunities for medicines optimization.

Non-invasive drug delivery systems have therefore been researched extensively and significant progress in the field is clearly apparent. With this Special Issue on ‘Non-Invasive Drug Delivery Systems’ it is aimed to present the current state-of-the-art in the field. The areas covered incorporate novel mucosal delivery systems (including but not limited to oral, pulmonary and nasal delivery systems), as well as non-invasive skin delivery systems. Delivery systems include formulations or devices utilised for delivery of drugs which normally require administration by injection (including but not limited to biologics). Research scientists working in this field are therefore invited to contribute by submitting original research articles, review articles or commentaries.

Dr. Driton Vllasaliu
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Biologics delivery
  • Devices for drug delivery
  • Mucosal drug delivery
  • Nanomedicine
  • Non-invasive drug delivery
  • Non-injection drug delivery

Published Papers (16 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Non-Invasive Drug Delivery Systems
Pharmaceutics 2021, 13(5), 611; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13050611 - 23 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 814
Abstract
Non-invasive drug delivery generally refers to painless drug administration methods involving drug delivery across the biological barriers of the mucosal surfaces or the skin [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-invasive Drug Delivery Systems)

Research

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Article
Organic Solution Advanced Spray-Dried Microparticulate/Nanoparticulate Dry Powders of Lactomorphin for Respiratory Delivery: Physicochemical Characterization, In Vitro Aerosol Dispersion, and Cellular Studies
Pharmaceutics 2021, 13(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13010026 - 25 Dec 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1697
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to formulate Lactomorphin (MMP2200) in its pure state as spray-dried(SD) powders, and with the excipient Trehalose as co-spray-dried(co-SD) powders; for intranasal and deep lung administration with Dry Powder Inhalers (DPI). Lactomorphin is a glycopeptide which was developed [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to formulate Lactomorphin (MMP2200) in its pure state as spray-dried(SD) powders, and with the excipient Trehalose as co-spray-dried(co-SD) powders; for intranasal and deep lung administration with Dry Powder Inhalers (DPI). Lactomorphin is a glycopeptide which was developed for the control of moderate to severe pain. Particles were rationally designed and produced by advanced spray drying particle engineering in a closed mode from a dilute organic solution. Comprehensive physicochemical characterization using different analytical techniques was carried out to analyze the particle size, particle morphology, particle surface morphology, solid-state transitions, crystallinity/non-crystallinity, and residual water content. The particle chemical composition was confirmed using attenuated total reflectance-Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR), and Confocal Raman Microscopy (CRM) confirmed the particles’ chemical homogeneity. The solubility and Partition coefficient (LogP) of Lactomorphin were determined by the analytical and computational methodology and revealed the hydrophilicity of Lactomorphin. A thermal degradation study was performed by exposing samples of solid-state Lactomorphin to a high temperature (62 °C) combined with zero relative humidity (RH) and to a high temperature (62 °C) combined with a high RH (75%) to evaluate the stability of Lactomorphin under these two different conditions. The solid-state processed particles exhibited excellent aerosol dispersion performance with an FDA-approved human DPI device to reach lower airways. The cell viability resazurin assay showed that Lactomorphin is safe up to 1000 μg/mL on nasal epithelium cells, lung cells, endothelial, and astrocyte brain cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-invasive Drug Delivery Systems)
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Article
Design and Characterization of Sodium Alginate and Poly(vinyl) Alcohol Hydrogels for Enhanced Skin Delivery of Quercetin
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(12), 1149; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12121149 - 27 Nov 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1746
Abstract
Nature has led to the discovery of biopolymers with noteworthy pharmaceutical applications. Blended biopolymers have demonstrated promising characteristics when compared with their individual counterparts. Sodium alginate (SA) is a marine polymer that has demonstrated the ability to form hydrogels, an interesting property for [...] Read more.
Nature has led to the discovery of biopolymers with noteworthy pharmaceutical applications. Blended biopolymers have demonstrated promising characteristics when compared with their individual counterparts. Sodium alginate (SA) is a marine polymer that has demonstrated the ability to form hydrogels, an interesting property for the development of cutaneous formulations. Predicting the good performance of blended biopolymers, a novel series of hybrid hydrogels based on SA and poly(vinyl) alcohol (PVA) were prepared. Quercetin, a natural polyphenolic flavonoid commonly found in fruits and vegetables, is widely known for its strong anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity, thus with potential applications against melanoma, dermatitis, psoriasis, and skin ageing. Here, hydrogels were produced at different ratios of SA and PVA. The surface morphology, structure, interaction of polymers, the capacity to absorb water and the entrapment efficiency of quercetin were evaluated for the blended hydrogels. Targeting the cutaneous application of the formulations, the rheological properties of all unloaded and quercetin-loaded hydrogels revealed pseudoplastic behavior, evidence of non-thixotropy, good resistance to deformation, and profile maintenance with temperatures ranging from 20 °C up to 40 °C. The incorporation of quercetin in the hydrogel retained its antioxidant activity, confirmed by radical scavenging assays (ABTS and DPPH). The permeability of quercetin through the skin showed different penetration/permeation profiles according to the hydrogel’s blend. This behavior will allow the selection of SA-PVA at 2/1 ratio for a local and prolonged skin effect, making the use of these hydrogels a good solution to consider for the treatment of skin ageing and inflammation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-invasive Drug Delivery Systems)
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Article
Development of Lidocaine-Loaded Dissolving Microneedle for Rapid and Efficient Local Anesthesia
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(11), 1067; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12111067 - 09 Nov 2020
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 1467
Abstract
Lidocaine is a local anesthetic agent used in the form of injection and topical cream. However, these formulation types have limitations of being either painful or slow-acting, thereby hindering effective and complete clinical performance of lidocaine. Dissolving microneedles (DMNs) are used to overcome [...] Read more.
Lidocaine is a local anesthetic agent used in the form of injection and topical cream. However, these formulation types have limitations of being either painful or slow-acting, thereby hindering effective and complete clinical performance of lidocaine. Dissolving microneedles (DMNs) are used to overcome these limitations owing to their fast onset time and minimally invasive administration methods. Using hyaluronic acid and lidocaine to produce the drug solution, a lidocaine HCl encapsulated DMN (Li-DMN) was fabricated by centrifugal lithography. The drug delivery rate and local anesthetic quality of Li-DMNs were evaluated using the pig cadaver insertion test and Von Frey behavior test. Results showed that Li-DMNs could deliver sufficient lidocaine for anesthesia that is required to be utilized for clinical level. Results from the von Frey test showed that the anesthetic effect of Li-DMNs was observed within 10 min after administration, thus confirming fast onset time. A toxicity test for appropriate clinical application standard was conducted with a microbial limit test and an animal skin irritation test, showing absence of skin irritation and irritation-related microorganisms. Overall, Li-DMN is a possible alternative drug delivery method for local anesthesia, meeting the requirements for clinical conditions and overcoming the drawbacks of other conventional lidocaine administration methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-invasive Drug Delivery Systems)
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Article
Oral Insulin Delivery Using Poly (Styrene Co-Maleic Acid) Micelles in a Diabetic Mouse Model
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(11), 1026; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12111026 - 27 Oct 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1390
Abstract
The oral delivery of insulin is a convenient and safe physiological route of administration for management of diabetes mellitus. In this study, we developed a poly-(styrene-co-maleic acid) (SMA) micellar system for oral insulin delivery to overcome the rapid degradation of insulin in the [...] Read more.
The oral delivery of insulin is a convenient and safe physiological route of administration for management of diabetes mellitus. In this study, we developed a poly-(styrene-co-maleic acid) (SMA) micellar system for oral insulin delivery to overcome the rapid degradation of insulin in the stomach, improve its absorption in the intestine, and provide a physiologically-relevant method of insulin to reach portal circulation. The insulin was encapsulated into SMA micelles in a pH-dependent process. The charge and size of the nanoparticles were determined by dynamic light scattering. The insulin loading of the nanoparticles was measured by HPLC. The transport of the SMA-insulin through biological membranes was assessed in vitro using Caco-2 cells, ex vivo rat intestinal section, and in vivo in a streptozotocin-induced diabetes mouse model. SMA-insulin micelles were negatively charged and had a mean diameter of 179.7 nm. SMA-insulin efficiently stimulated glucose uptake in HepG-2 hepatic cells and was transported across the Caco-2 epithelial cells in vitro by 46% and ex vivo across intestinal epithelium by 22%. The animal studies demonstrated that orally-administered SMA-insulin can produce a hypoglycemic effect up to 3 h after administration of one dose. Overall, our results indicate that SMA micelles are capable of the oral delivery of bioactive compounds like insulin and can be effective tools in the management of diabetes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-invasive Drug Delivery Systems)
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Article
Development and Optimization of Naringenin-Loaded Chitosan-Coated Nanoemulsion for Topical Therapy in Wound Healing
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(9), 893; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12090893 - 20 Sep 2020
Cited by 44 | Viewed by 2539
Abstract
The potential role of naringenin (NAR), a natural flavonoid, in the treatment of chronic wound has prompted the present research to deliver the drug in nanoemulsion (NE) form, where synergistic role of chitosan was achieved through development of chitosan-coated NAR NE (CNNE). The [...] Read more.
The potential role of naringenin (NAR), a natural flavonoid, in the treatment of chronic wound has prompted the present research to deliver the drug in nanoemulsion (NE) form, where synergistic role of chitosan was achieved through development of chitosan-coated NAR NE (CNNE). The NE consisted of Capryol 90, Tween 20 and Transcutol P, which was fabricated by low-energy emulsification method to encapsulate NAR within the oil core. The optimization of the formulated NEs was performed using Box–Behnken statistical design to obtain crucial variable parameters that influence globule size, size distribution and surface charge. Finally, the optimized formulation was coated with different concentrations of chitosan and subsequently characterized in vitro. The size of the CNNE was found to be increased when the drug-loaded formulation was coated with chitosan. Controlled release characteristics depicted 67–81% release of NAR from the CNNE, compared to 89% from the NE formulation. Cytotoxicity study of the formulation was performed in vitro using fibroblast cell line (NIH-3T3), where no inhibition in proliferation of the cells was observed with CNNE. Finally, the wound healing potential of the CNNE was evaluated in an abrasion-created wound model in experimental animals where the animals were treated and compared histologically at 0 and 14 days. Significant improvement in construction of the abrasion wound was observed when the animals were treated with formulated CNNE, whereas stimulation of skin regeneration was depicted in the histological examination. Therefore, it could be summarized that the chitosan coating of the developed NAR NE is a potential platform to accelerate healing of wounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-invasive Drug Delivery Systems)
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Article
Monoolein Assisted Oil-Based Transdermal Delivery of Powder Vaccine
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(9), 814; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12090814 - 27 Aug 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1231
Abstract
An increasing number of protein vaccines have been researched for cancer, inflammation, and allergy therapies. Most of the protein therapeutics are administered through injection because orally-administered proteins are metabolized by the digestive system. Although transdermal administration has received increasing attention, the natural barrier [...] Read more.
An increasing number of protein vaccines have been researched for cancer, inflammation, and allergy therapies. Most of the protein therapeutics are administered through injection because orally-administered proteins are metabolized by the digestive system. Although transdermal administration has received increasing attention, the natural barrier formed by the skin is an obstacle. Monoolein is a common skin penetration enhancer that facilitates topical and transdermal drug delivery. Conventionally, it has been used in an aqueous vehicle, often with polyhydric alcohols. In the current study, monoolein was dissolved in an oil vehicle, isopropyl myristate, to facilitate the skin permeation of powder proteins. The skin permeabilities of the proteins were examined in-vivo and ex-vivo. Monoolein concentration-dependently enhanced the skin permeation of proteins. The protein permeability correlated with the zeta potential of the macromolecules. Dehydration of the stratum corneum (SC), lipid extraction from the SC, and disordering of ceramides caused by monoolein were demonstrated through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analysis and small-angle X-ray scattering analysis. An antigen model protein, ovalbumin from egg white, was delivered to immune cells in living mice, and induced antigen-specific IgG antibodies. The patch system showed the potential for transdermal vaccine delivery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-invasive Drug Delivery Systems)
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Article
Novel and Modified Neutrophil Elastase Inhibitor Loaded in Topical Formulations for Psoriasis Management
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(4), 358; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12040358 - 14 Apr 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1534
Abstract
Human neutrophil elastase (HNE) is a serine protease that degrades matrix proteins. An excess of HNE may trigger several pathological conditions, such as psoriasis. In this work, we aimed to synthesize, characterize and formulate new HNE inhibitors with a 4-oxo-β-lactam scaffold with less [...] Read more.
Human neutrophil elastase (HNE) is a serine protease that degrades matrix proteins. An excess of HNE may trigger several pathological conditions, such as psoriasis. In this work, we aimed to synthesize, characterize and formulate new HNE inhibitors with a 4-oxo-β-lactam scaffold with less toxicity, as well as therapeutic index in a psoriasis context. HNE inhibitors with 4-oxo-β-lactam scaffolds were synthesized and characterized by NMR, FTIR, melting point, mass spectrometry and elemental analysis. In vitro cytotoxicity and serine protease assays were performed. The compound with the highest cell viability (AAN-16) was selected to be incorporated in an emulsion (AAN-16 E) and in a microemulsion (AAN-16 ME). Formulations were characterized in terms of organoleptic properties, pH, rheology, droplet size distribution, in vitro drug release and in vivo psoriatic activity. All compounds were successfully synthesized according to analytical methodology, with good yields. Both formulations presented suitable physicochemical properties. AAN-16 E presented the most promising therapeutic effects in a murine model of psoriasis. Overall, new HNE inhibitors were synthesized with high and selective activity and incorporated into topical emulsions with potential to treat psoriasis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-invasive Drug Delivery Systems)
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Article
Cow Milk and Intestinal Epithelial Cell-Derived Extracellular Vesicles as Systems for Enhancing Oral Drug Delivery
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(3), 226; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12030226 - 04 Mar 2020
Cited by 40 | Viewed by 2802
Abstract
Ingestion is the preferred way for drug administration. However, many drugs have poor oral bioavailability, warranting the use of injections. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) from cow milk have shown potential utility in improving oral drug bioavailability. However, EVs produced by intestinal epithelial cells have [...] Read more.
Ingestion is the preferred way for drug administration. However, many drugs have poor oral bioavailability, warranting the use of injections. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) from cow milk have shown potential utility in improving oral drug bioavailability. However, EVs produced by intestinal epithelial cells have not been investigated for this application. We compared the capacity of cow milk EVs and intestinal epithelial cell-derived counterparts to enhance oral drug bioavailability. EVs were isolated, fluorescently labelled, and loaded with curcumin (CUR) as a model poorly absorbable drug. These were then characterised before testing in an intestinal model (Caco-2). Epithelial cell-derived EVs showed notably higher cell uptake compared to cow milk EVs. Cell uptake was significantly higher in differentiated compared to undifferentiated cells for both types of EVs. While both milk- and cell-derived EVs improved the cell uptake and intestinal permeability of CUR (confirming oral drug bioavailability enhancement potential), epithelial cell EVs demonstrated a superior effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-invasive Drug Delivery Systems)
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Article
Development and In Vivo Evaluation of Multidrug Ultradeformable Vesicles for the Treatment of Skin Inflammation
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(12), 644; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11120644 - 03 Dec 2019
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 1599
Abstract
The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of two chemically different edge activators, i.e., Tween® 80 and sodium deoxycholate, on (i) the physical, mechanical, and biological properties of ultradeformable vesicles, and (ii) the administration of naproxen sodium-loaded multidrug ultradeformable [...] Read more.
The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of two chemically different edge activators, i.e., Tween® 80 and sodium deoxycholate, on (i) the physical, mechanical, and biological properties of ultradeformable vesicles, and (ii) the administration of naproxen sodium-loaded multidrug ultradeformable vesicles for the transdermal route in order to obtain therapeutically meaningful drug concentrations in the target tissues and to potentiate its anti-inflammatory effect by association with the antioxidant drug idebenone. The results obtained in this investigation highlighted a synergistic action between naproxen and idebenone in the treatment of inflammatory disease with a more pronounced anti-inflammatory effect in multidrug ultradeformable vesicles compared to the commercial formulation of Naprosyn® gel. Systems made up of Tween® 80 appeared to be the most suitable in terms of percutaneous permeation and anti-inflammatory activity due to the greater deformability of these vesicles compared to multidrug ultradeformable vesicles with sodium deoxycholate. Our findings are very encouraging and suggest the use of these carriers in the topical treatment of inflammatory diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-invasive Drug Delivery Systems)
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Article
Evaluation of Sucrose Laurate as an Intestinal Permeation Enhancer for Macromolecules: Ex Vivo and In Vivo Studies
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(11), 565; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11110565 - 31 Oct 2019
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 1878
Abstract
Oral delivery of macromolecules requires permeation enhancers (PEs) adaptable to formulation. Sucrose laurate (SL) (D1216), a food grade surfactant, was assessed in Caco-2 monolayers, isolated rat intestinal tissue mucosae, and rat intestinal instillations. Accordingly, 1 mM SL increased the apparent permeability coefficient ( [...] Read more.
Oral delivery of macromolecules requires permeation enhancers (PEs) adaptable to formulation. Sucrose laurate (SL) (D1216), a food grade surfactant, was assessed in Caco-2 monolayers, isolated rat intestinal tissue mucosae, and rat intestinal instillations. Accordingly, 1 mM SL increased the apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) of [14C]-mannitol and reduced transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) across monolayers. It altered expression of the tight junction protein, ZO-1, increased plasma membrane potential, and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential in Caco-2 cells. The concentrations that increased flux were of the same order as those that induced cytotoxicity. In rat colonic tissue mucosae, the same patterns emerged in respect to the concentration-dependent increases in paracellular marker fluxes and TEER reductions with 5 mM being the key concentration. While the histology revealed some perturbation, ion transport capacity was retained. In rat jejunal and colonic instillations, 50 and 100 mM SL co-administered with insulin induced blood glucose reductions and achieved relative bioavailability values of 2.4% and 8.9%, respectively, on a par with the gold standard PE, sodium caprate (C10). The histology of the intestinal loops revealed little damage. In conclusion, SL is a candidate PE with high potential for emulsion-based systems. The primary action is plasma membrane perturbation, leading to tight junction openings and a predominant paracellular flux. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-invasive Drug Delivery Systems)
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Review

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Review
Microemulsion-Based Media in Nose-to-Brain Drug Delivery
Pharmaceutics 2021, 13(2), 201; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13020201 - 02 Feb 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2547
Abstract
Nose-to-brain drug delivery has recently attracted enormous attention as an alternative to other delivery routes, including the most popular oral one. Due to the unique anatomical features of the nasal cavity, drugs administered intranasally can be delivered directly to the central nervous system. [...] Read more.
Nose-to-brain drug delivery has recently attracted enormous attention as an alternative to other delivery routes, including the most popular oral one. Due to the unique anatomical features of the nasal cavity, drugs administered intranasally can be delivered directly to the central nervous system. The most important advantage of this approach is the ability to avoid the blood–brain barrier surrounding the brain and blocking the entry of exogenous substances to the central nervous system. Moreover, selective brain targeting could possibly avoid peripheral side effects of pharmacotherapy. The challenges associated with nose-to-brain drug delivery are mostly due to the small volume of the nasal cavity and insufficient drug absorption from nasal mucosa. These issues could be minimized by using a properly designed drug carrier. Microemulsions as potential drug delivery systems offer good solubilizing properties and the ability to enhance drug permeation through biological membranes. The aim of this review is to summarize the current status of the research focused on microemulsion-based systems for nose-to-brain delivery with special attention to the most extensively investigated neurological and psychiatric conditions, such as neurodegenerative diseases, epilepsy, and schizophrenia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-invasive Drug Delivery Systems)
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Review
Oral Delivery of Biologics via the Intestine
Pharmaceutics 2021, 13(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13010018 - 24 Dec 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1674
Abstract
Biologics are currently one of the most promising avenues for therapeutic interventions in conditions such as metabolic disease, ageing and inflammatory disorders, and for chronic ailments, oral delivery of such medicines has for years been recognised as an important goal. Despite decades of [...] Read more.
Biologics are currently one of the most promising avenues for therapeutic interventions in conditions such as metabolic disease, ageing and inflammatory disorders, and for chronic ailments, oral delivery of such medicines has for years been recognised as an important goal. Despite decades of intensive research, oral delivery of biologics is only just starting to prove feasible. There has been much talk about the barriers to uptake of biologics, and indeed, one function of the intestine is to prevent, in one way or another, passage of unwanted materials across the gut, and yet, grams of biological agents both large and small pass across the intestinal cell wall every day. This review first describes the functioning of the gut under normal circumstances, then identifies the principle biological mechanisms which have been harnessed successfully, to date, to achieve oral uptake, outlining the pros and cons of each approach. Examples with different biologics are given, and information on result of the latest clinical trials is provided, where available. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-invasive Drug Delivery Systems)
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Review
The Current Status of Clinical Research Involving Microneedles: A Systematic Review
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(11), 1113; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12111113 - 19 Nov 2020
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 1627
Abstract
In recent years, a number of clinical trials have been published on the efficacy and safety of drug delivery using microneedles (MNs). This review aims to systematically summarize and analyze the current evidence including the clinical effect and safety of MNs. Three electronic [...] Read more.
In recent years, a number of clinical trials have been published on the efficacy and safety of drug delivery using microneedles (MNs). This review aims to systematically summarize and analyze the current evidence including the clinical effect and safety of MNs. Three electronic databases, including PubMed, were used to search the literature for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and clinical controlled trials (CCTs) that evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of MNs from their inception to 28 June 2018. Data were extracted according to the characteristics of study subjects; disorder, types, and details of the intervention (MNs) and control groups; outcome measurements; effectiveness; and incidence of adverse events (AEs). Overall, 31 RCTs and seven CCTs met the inclusion criteria. Although MNs were commonly used in skin-related studies, evaluating the effects of MNs was difficult because many studies did not provide adequate comparison values between groups. For osteoporosis treatment, vaccine, and insulin delivery studies, MNs were comparable to or more effective than the gold standard. Regarding the safety of MNs, most AEs reported in each study were minor (grade 1 or 2). A well-designed RCT is necessary to clearly evaluate the effectiveness of MNs in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-invasive Drug Delivery Systems)
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Review
Pulmonary Delivery of Biological Drugs
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(11), 1025; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12111025 - 26 Oct 2020
Cited by 37 | Viewed by 3761
Abstract
In the last decade, biological drugs have rapidly proliferated and have now become an important therapeutic modality. This is because of their high potency, high specificity and desirable safety profile. The majority of biological drugs are peptide- and protein-based therapeutics with poor oral [...] Read more.
In the last decade, biological drugs have rapidly proliferated and have now become an important therapeutic modality. This is because of their high potency, high specificity and desirable safety profile. The majority of biological drugs are peptide- and protein-based therapeutics with poor oral bioavailability. They are normally administered by parenteral injection (with a very few exceptions). Pulmonary delivery is an attractive non-invasive alternative route of administration for local and systemic delivery of biologics with immense potential to treat various diseases, including diabetes, cystic fibrosis, respiratory viral infection and asthma, etc. The massive surface area and extensive vascularisation in the lungs enable rapid absorption and fast onset of action. Despite the benefits of pulmonary delivery, development of inhalable biological drug is a challenging task. There are various anatomical, physiological and immunological barriers that affect the therapeutic efficacy of inhaled formulations. This review assesses the characteristics of biological drugs and the barriers to pulmonary drug delivery. The main challenges in the formulation and inhalation devices are discussed, together with the possible strategies that can be applied to address these challenges. Current clinical developments in inhaled biological drugs for both local and systemic applications are also discussed to provide an insight for further research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-invasive Drug Delivery Systems)
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Review
Silica Nanoparticles in Transmucosal Drug Delivery
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(8), 751; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12080751 - 10 Aug 2020
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 2790
Abstract
Transmucosal drug delivery includes the administration of drugs via various mucous membranes, such as gastrointestinal, nasal, ocular, and vaginal mucosa. The use of nanoparticles in transmucosal drug delivery has several advantages, including the protection of drugs against the harsh environment of the mucosal [...] Read more.
Transmucosal drug delivery includes the administration of drugs via various mucous membranes, such as gastrointestinal, nasal, ocular, and vaginal mucosa. The use of nanoparticles in transmucosal drug delivery has several advantages, including the protection of drugs against the harsh environment of the mucosal lumens and surfaces, increased drug residence time, and enhanced drug absorption. Due to their relatively simple synthetic methods for preparation, safety profile, and possibilities of surface functionalisation, silica nanoparticles are highly promising for transmucosal drug delivery. This review provides a description of silica nanoparticles and outlines the preparation methods for various core and surface-functionalised silica nanoparticles. The relationship between the functionalities of silica nanoparticles and their interactions with various mucous membranes are critically analysed. Applications of silica nanoparticles in transmucosal drug delivery are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-invasive Drug Delivery Systems)
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