Next Article in Journal
Electrochemotherapy with Calcium Chloride and 17β-Estradiol Modulated Viability and Apoptosis Pathway in Human Ovarian Cancer
Next Article in Special Issue
Organic Solution Advanced Spray-Dried Microparticulate/Nanoparticulate Dry Powders of Lactomorphin for Respiratory Delivery: Physicochemical Characterization, In Vitro Aerosol Dispersion, and Cellular Studies
Previous Article in Journal
Focused Ultrasound and Microbubbles-Mediated Drug Delivery to Brain Tumor
Previous Article in Special Issue
Design and Characterization of Sodium Alginate and Poly(vinyl) Alcohol Hydrogels for Enhanced Skin Delivery of Quercetin
Review

Oral Delivery of Biologics via the Intestine

by 1,2
1
Proxima Concepts Ltd., London NW1 0NH, UK
2
Faculty of Science and Technology, Middlesex University, London NW4 4BT, UK
Pharmaceutics 2021, 13(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13010018
Received: 12 November 2020 / Revised: 17 December 2020 / Accepted: 22 December 2020 / Published: 24 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-invasive Drug Delivery Systems)
Biologics are currently one of the most promising avenues for therapeutic interventions in conditions such as metabolic disease, ageing and inflammatory disorders, and for chronic ailments, oral delivery of such medicines has for years been recognised as an important goal. Despite decades of intensive research, oral delivery of biologics is only just starting to prove feasible. There has been much talk about the barriers to uptake of biologics, and indeed, one function of the intestine is to prevent, in one way or another, passage of unwanted materials across the gut, and yet, grams of biological agents both large and small pass across the intestinal cell wall every day. This review first describes the functioning of the gut under normal circumstances, then identifies the principle biological mechanisms which have been harnessed successfully, to date, to achieve oral uptake, outlining the pros and cons of each approach. Examples with different biologics are given, and information on result of the latest clinical trials is provided, where available. View Full-Text
Keywords: oral delivery; biologics; intestine; receptor-mediated uptake; permeation enhancers; paracellular transport; transcellular transport oral delivery; biologics; intestine; receptor-mediated uptake; permeation enhancers; paracellular transport; transcellular transport
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

New, R. Oral Delivery of Biologics via the Intestine. Pharmaceutics 2021, 13, 18. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13010018

AMA Style

New R. Oral Delivery of Biologics via the Intestine. Pharmaceutics. 2021; 13(1):18. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13010018

Chicago/Turabian Style

New, Roger. 2021. "Oral Delivery of Biologics via the Intestine" Pharmaceutics 13, no. 1: 18. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13010018

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop