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Nutrition for Older Persons' Health

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutrition and Public Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 November 2020) | Viewed by 31509

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Université de Bordeaux; CNRS; Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France; Postal address: Centre Henri Choussat, Hôpital Xavier Arnozan, 33604 Pessac cédex, France
Interests: frailty; diabetes mellitus in older people; oncogeriatrics; cachexia

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nutrition for better health in older age represents a very wide topic and deserves our scientific interest. The promotion of a sustainable healthy diet anchored in the cultural and social environment of older subjects is expected in order to lead to a better quality of life. The use of nutraceuticals to improve aging conditions is increasing, and we need scientific validation of the industry’s health claims. Dietary interventions may prevent or care for low-grade inflammation, also called inflammaging associated with earlier health decline. Multimodal frailty treatments include a wide spectrum of dietary and physical exercise interventions with the aim to recover to a robust health or to decrease adverse events’ rate and functional decline. Nutritional care plays an important role in frequent disease in older age, such as diabetes mellitus, cancers and organ failures, particularly renal insufficiency. Finally, malnutrition (cachexia) and sarcopenia or sarcopenic obesity may benefit from targeted nutritional strategies, including pharmaconutrition.

Prof. Dr. Isabelle Bourdel-Marchasson
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Frailty
  • Age-related chronic diseases
  • Prevention
  • Dietary intervention

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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14 pages, 738 KiB  
Article
Nutritional Status and Indicators of 2-Year Mortality and Re-Hospitalizations: Experience from the Internal Clinic Departments in Tertiary Hospital in Croatia
by Tanja Miličević, Ivana Kolčić, Tina Đogaš, Piero Marin Živković, Maja Radman and Josipa Radić
Nutrients 2021, 13(1), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13010068 - 28 Dec 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2188
Abstract
We aimed to provide insight into nutritional and clinical indicators of malnutrition risk and their influence on two-year mortality and re-hospitalization rate among patients hospitalized in internal clinic departments in the tertiary hospital in Croatia. Initially, data on 346 participants were obtained, while [...] Read more.
We aimed to provide insight into nutritional and clinical indicators of malnutrition risk and their influence on two-year mortality and re-hospitalization rate among patients hospitalized in internal clinic departments in the tertiary hospital in Croatia. Initially, data on 346 participants were obtained, while 218 of them where followed-up two years later. At baseline, the majority of participants were old and polymorbid (62.1% suffered from arterial hypertension, 29.5% from cancer, and 29.2% from diabetes). Even apparently presenting with satisfying anthropometric indices, 38.4% of them were at-risk for malnutrition when screened with the Nutritional Risk Screening-2002 (NRS-2002) questionnaire (NRS-2002 ≥ 3). More importantly, only 15.3% of all participants were prescribed an oral nutritional supplement during hospitalization. Those that were at-risk for malnutrition suffered significantly more often from cancer (54.9% vs. 20.6%; p < 0.001) and died more often in the follow-up period (42.7% vs. 23.5%; p < 0.003). Their anthropometric indices were generally normal and contradictory 46.3% were overweight and obese (body mass index (BMI) > 25 kg/m2). Only 36.6% of nutritionally endangered participants used an oral supplement in the follow-up period. NRS-2002 ≥ 3 correlated with anthropometric indices, glomerular filtration rate, age, and length of the initial hospital stay. Unlike other studies, NRS-2002 ≥ 3 was not an independent predictor of mortality and re-hospitalizations; other clinical, rather than nutritional parameters proved to be better predictors. Patients in our hospital are neither adequately nutritionally assessed nor managed. There is an urgent need to develop strategies to prevent, identify, and treat malnutrition in our hospital and post-discharge. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition for Older Persons' Health)
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15 pages, 1023 KiB  
Article
Effect of an Enriched Protein Drink on Muscle Mass and Glycemic Control during Combined Lifestyle Intervention in Older Adults with Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes: A Double-Blind RCT
by Robert G. Memelink, Wilrike J. Pasman, Anke Bongers, Anita Tump, Annemieke van Ginkel, Wim Tromp, Suzan Wopereis, Sjors Verlaan, Johan de Vogel-van den Bosch and Peter J. M. Weijs
Nutrients 2021, 13(1), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13010064 - 28 Dec 2020
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 6809
Abstract
Background: Weight loss is key to treatment of older adults with obesity and type 2 diabetes, but also a risk for muscle mass loss. This study investigated whether a whey protein drink enriched with leucine and vitamin D could preserve muscle mass and [...] Read more.
Background: Weight loss is key to treatment of older adults with obesity and type 2 diabetes, but also a risk for muscle mass loss. This study investigated whether a whey protein drink enriched with leucine and vitamin D could preserve muscle mass and improve glycemic control during combined lifestyle intervention in this population. Methods: 123 older adults with obesity and type 2 diabetes were randomized into a 13-week lifestyle intervention with dietary advice and exercise, receiving either the enriched protein drink (test) or an isocaloric control (control). Muscle mass was assessed with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and glycemic control by oral glucose tolerance test. Statistical analyses were performed using a linear mixed model. Results: There was a nonsignificant increase in leg muscle mass (+0.28 kg; 95% CI, −0.01 to 0.56) and a significant increase in appendicular muscle mass (+0.36 kg; 95% CI, 0.005 to 0.71) and total lean mass (+0.92 kg; 95% CI, 0.19 to 1.65) in test vs. control. Insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index) also increased in test vs. control (+0.52; 95% CI, 0.07 to 0.97). Conclusions: Use of an enriched protein drink during combined lifestyle intervention shows beneficial effects on muscle mass and glycemic control in older adults with obesity and type 2 diabetes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition for Older Persons' Health)
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9 pages, 240 KiB  
Article
What Are the Risk Factors for Malnutrition in Older-Aged Institutionalized Adults?
by Lorenzo M. Donini, Blossom C. M. Stephan, Aldo Rosano, Alessio Molfino, Eleonora Poggiogalle, Andrea Lenzi, Mario Siervo and Maurizio Muscaritoli
Nutrients 2020, 12(9), 2857; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12092857 - 18 Sep 2020
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 5439
Abstract
Malnutrition is common in older adults and is associated with functional impairment, reduced quality of life, and increased morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to explore the association between health (including depression), physical functioning, disability and cognitive decline, and risk [...] Read more.
Malnutrition is common in older adults and is associated with functional impairment, reduced quality of life, and increased morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to explore the association between health (including depression), physical functioning, disability and cognitive decline, and risk of malnutrition. Participants were recruited from nursing homes in Italy and completed a detailed multidimensional geriatric evaluation. All the data analyses were completed using Stata Version 15.1. The study included 246 participants with an age range of 50 to 102 (80.4 ± 10.5). The sample was characterised by a high degree of cognitive and functional impairment, disability, and poor health and nutritional status (according to Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), 38.2% were at risk for malnutrition and 19.5% were malnourished). Using a stepwise linear regression model, age (B = −0.043, SE = 0.016, p = 0.010), depression (B = −0.133, SE = 0.052, p = 0.011), disability (B = 0.517, SE = 0.068, p < 0.001), and physical performance (B = −0.191, SE = 0.095, p = 0.045) remained significantly associated with the malnutrition risk in the final model (adjusted R-squared = 0.298). The logistic regression model incorporating age, depression, disability, and physical performance was found to have high discriminative accuracy (AUC = 0.747; 95%CI: 0.686 to 0.808) for predicting the risk of malnutrition. The results of the study confirm the need to assess nutritional status and to investigate the presence of risk factors associated with malnutrition in order to achieve effective prevention and plan a better intervention strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition for Older Persons' Health)
12 pages, 611 KiB  
Article
Quality of Life: Psychological Symptoms—Effects of a 2-Month Healthy Diet and Nutraceutical Intervention; A Randomized, Open-Label Intervention Trial (RISTOMED)
by Isabelle Bourdel-Marchasson, Rita Ostan, Sophie C Regueme, Alessandro Pinto, Florence Pryen, Zoubida Charrouf, Patrizia A d’Alessio, Claire Roubaud Baudron, Florent Guerville, Jessica Durrieu, Lorenzo M Donini, Claudio Franceschi and Luzia Valentini
Nutrients 2020, 12(3), 800; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030800 - 18 Mar 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3929
Abstract
Depression symptoms and lower health-related quality of life (HRQoL) are associated with inflammation. This multicenter dietary intervention was shown to reduce inflammation in older people. This was the main outcome. Here, we describe the effects on HRQoL, anxiety, and depressive symptoms according to [...] Read more.
Depression symptoms and lower health-related quality of life (HRQoL) are associated with inflammation. This multicenter dietary intervention was shown to reduce inflammation in older people. This was the main outcome. Here, we describe the effects on HRQoL, anxiety, and depressive symptoms according to inflammation status. Overall, 125 healthy older subjects (65–80 year) were recruited (Italy, France, and Germany) and randomized into four arms (A, Healthy diet (HD); B, HD plus De Simone Formulation probiotic blend; C, HD plus AISA d-Limonene; D, HD plus Argan oil). The HD was weight maintaining, rich in antioxidant vitamins, polyphenols, polyunsaturated fatty acids (n6: n3 ratio = 3:1), and fiber. Data on inflammatory parameters, mental (MCS) and physical (PCS) component summaries of HRQoL (SF−36), anxiety symptoms (STAI state), and depressive symptoms (CES-D) were collected before and after 56 days of intervention. Body fat mass proportion (BFM) was considered a co-variable. A decrease of CES-D score was seen in the four arms (A: −40.0%, p = 0.001; B: −32.5%, p = 0.023; C: −42.8%, p = 0.004; and D: −33.3%, p = 0.21). Within the subgroups of subjects with medium/high inflammation a similar decrease in CES-D score occurred in all groups (A: −44.8%, p = 0.021; B, −46.7%, p = 0.024; C, −52.2%, p = 0.039; D, −43.8%, p = 0.037). The effect of interventions on CES-D was not related to baseline inflammation. MCS-HRQoL improved in A and C. There was no change in anxiety or PCS-HRQoL. In this trial with no control group, a decrease in depressive symptoms in healthy older volunteers was observed after a 2-month healthy diet intervention, independently of inflammation but with possible limitations due to participation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition for Older Persons' Health)
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9 pages, 938 KiB  
Article
Saliva Secretion and Swallowing—The Impact of Different Types of Food and Drink on Subsequent Intake
by Catherina Bozorgi, Celina Holleufer and Karin Wendin
Nutrients 2020, 12(1), 256; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12010256 - 19 Jan 2020
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 6522
Abstract
The oral processing of food is important for eating and digestion in order to gain energy and nutrients. Due to disease, injury, or aging, individuals may experience difficulties in this process. These difficulties often lead to dysphagia, which is associated with malnutrition. Thus, [...] Read more.
The oral processing of food is important for eating and digestion in order to gain energy and nutrients. Due to disease, injury, or aging, individuals may experience difficulties in this process. These difficulties often lead to dysphagia, which is associated with malnutrition. Thus, it is of importance to find solutions and strategies to enable food intake. It is well known that sour and/or carbonated foods and drinks increase saliva secretion and trigger the swallowing reflex. However, knowledge regarding how subsequent food intake is impacted is lacking. The aim of this study was to clarify whether sour and/or carbonated foods and drinks had subsequent impacts on swallowing function. Twelve healthy participants evaluated eleven foods and drinks in terms of their ability to increase saliva production and ease the swallowing of subsequent food. Results showed that sourness and carbonation had positive impacts on saliva secretion and swallowing. No correlation was found between the pH/sourness of the foods and the ease of swallowing them. It was concluded that the ingestion of cherry tomatoes, natural yoghurt, and, in particular, citrus juice made swallowing of a neutral cracker easier. These results may be used to increase food intake among dysphagia patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition for Older Persons' Health)
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Review

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26 pages, 1059 KiB  
Review
The Effects of Cow-Milk Protein Supplementation in Elderly Population: Systematic Review and Narrative Synthesis
by Barbara Zanini, Anna Simonetto, Matilde Zubani, Maurizio Castellano and Gianni Gilioli
Nutrients 2020, 12(9), 2548; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12092548 - 23 Aug 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 5915
Abstract
Background. To review currently available evidence on the effect of cow-milk proteins supplementation (CPS) on health in the elderly. Methods. Five electronic databases (Pubmed, Web of Science, Embase, Cochrane Library, ClinicalTrials.gov) were searched for studies about CPS among older people. All types of [...] Read more.
Background. To review currently available evidence on the effect of cow-milk proteins supplementation (CPS) on health in the elderly. Methods. Five electronic databases (Pubmed, Web of Science, Embase, Cochrane Library, ClinicalTrials.gov) were searched for studies about CPS among older people. All types of publications were included, with the exception of systematic reviews, meta-analyses, opinion letters, editorials, case reports, conference abstracts and comments. An additional search in Google Scholar and a manual review of the reference lists were performed. Results. Overall, 103 studies were included. Several studies explored the role of CPS in the preservation or improvement of muscle mass among healthy subjects (40 studies) and pre-frail, frail or sarcopenic patients (14), with evidence of beneficial effects. Other studies assessed the effect of CPS on bones (12), cardiovascular disease (8), inflamm-aging (7), chronic pulmonary disease (4), neurocognitive function (4), and vaccines (2), with weak evidence of positive effects. Seven studies in the field of protein metabolism investigated the role of CPS as an important contributor to nutritional needs. Other investigational areas are considered in the last five studies. Conclusions. The beneficial effects of CPS in achieving aged-related nutritional goals, in preserving muscle mass and in recovering after hospitalization may be particularly relevant in the elderly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition for Older Persons' Health)
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