Special Issue "Assessing the Role of Diet and Nutrients in Immunity, Autoimmunity and Cancer"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutritional Immunology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 November 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Dimitrios Bogdanos
Website
Guest Editor
Division of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, School of Health Sciences, University of Thessaly, 40500 Larissa, Greece
Interests: autoimmunity; immunonutrition; diet and immunity; immunoregulation; microbiome
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Abdulla Watad

Guest Editor
Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Hashomer, University of Tel Aviv, Israel
Interests: autoimmunity; autoimmune diseases; impact of diet and fasting on the immune system and autoimmune diseases
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The role of diet and nutrients in shaping the immune system has started to emerge. Experimental data from animal studies have shown that dietary habits and constituents can significantly alter immunological functions affecting both humoral (antibody) and cellular immune responses. The interaction of the innate and adaptive immune systems with other systems can be influenced by alterations in diet, dietary restrictions, or excesses consumption of certain dietary constituents.
Data from experimental studies on animal models of inflammatory diseases have defined the influences of specific nutrients in the homeostasis of the immune system in health and disease states, for example, in autoimmune and cancerous diseases and during aging. Auto-antigen-specific and tumor-antigen-related immune responses can be affected by the restriction of protein, calories, or protein and calories. Dietary supplements appear to be instrumental in shaping the immune system, with several playing pivotal roles in promoting anti-inflammatory cytokine production. In particular, the immunoregulatory role of the Mediterranean and Ramazan diets is a research focus.
The current Special Issue of Nutrients will provide a collection of studies related to the topic “Assessing the role of diet and nutrients in immunity, autoimmunity and cancer”. Authors are invited to submit relevent research articles and reviews for inclusion.

Dr. Dimitrios P. Bogdanos
Dr. Abdulla Watad
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • diet
  • nutrient
  • dietary supplement
  • immune system
  • autoimmunity
  • inflammation

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Assessment and State of Nutrition of Patients with Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Neoplasms
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 1961; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12071961 - 30 Jun 2020
Abstract
Introduction: In recent decades, the number of gastro-entero-pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (GEP-NENs) cases, associated with coexisting metabolic disorders, has been continuously increasing. Patients with progressing neoplastic disease are at a risk of malnutrition. To improve the quality of life of neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN) patients, [...] Read more.
Introduction: In recent decades, the number of gastro-entero-pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (GEP-NENs) cases, associated with coexisting metabolic disorders, has been continuously increasing. Patients with progressing neoplastic disease are at a risk of malnutrition. To improve the quality of life of neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN) patients, the therapeutic approach should be supported by a well-balanced diet. The aim of the study was to analyze the nutritional errors and deficits in a group of GEP-NET patients. Materials and methods: The study group included 26 GEP-NET patients; 13 men and 13 women. The mean age of women was 68.77 ± 8.0, and the mean age of men was 64.69 ± 8.1. Three interviews on consumption in the last 24 h were performed, in order to evaluate the quality and quantity of nutrition. The data was incorporated into a dietetics software, which allows one to calculate the number of over 58 micronutrients and macronutrients with the participation of 52 menus. Subsequently, the mean values were compared with the current nutritional standards. Results: An energy deficit was observed in the group of women—76.9%, and men—100%, as well as high fat consumption in 23.1% in both groups. The proportions of SFA/MUFA/PUFA were very negative, whereas the consumption of saccharose was too high. Vitamin D deficiency was observed in 100% of men and women. Moreover, both men and women experienced the deficiency of vitamin E, folates and niacin. The consumption of sodium and phosphorus was twice as high as recommended, and an insufficient supply of calcium was observed in 80% of women and 90% of men. The insufficient consumption of magnesium, iodine and potassium in a significant part of the studied group was observed. All participants consumed too much cholesterol and insufficient amounts of fiber. The healthy diet indicator (HDI) and diet quality index (DQI) scores were 3.1 ± 1.8 (HDI) and 3.7 ± 1.6 (DQI) for women, and 7.2 ± 2.6 (HDI) and 8.5 ± 2.4 (DQI) for men. Conclusions: When analyzing the nutrition of GEP-NET patients, we highlight that they do not have a proper diet, despite the fact that they changed the way they eat. Dietetics support and the development of official nutritional standards seem to be a necessary element in the therapy of GEP-NET patients. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Dietary Crocin is Protective in Pancreatic Cancer while Reducing Radiation-Induced Hepatic Oxidative Damage
Nutrients 2020, 12(6), 1901; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061901 - 26 Jun 2020
Abstract
Pancreatic cancer is one of the fatal causes of global cancer-related deaths. Although surgery and chemotherapy are standard treatment options, post-treatment outcomes often end in a poor prognosis. In the present study, we investigated anti-pancreatic cancer and amelioration of radiation-induced oxidative damage by [...] Read more.
Pancreatic cancer is one of the fatal causes of global cancer-related deaths. Although surgery and chemotherapy are standard treatment options, post-treatment outcomes often end in a poor prognosis. In the present study, we investigated anti-pancreatic cancer and amelioration of radiation-induced oxidative damage by crocin. Crocin is a carotenoid isolated from the dietary herb saffron, a prospect for novel leads as an anti-cancer agent. Crocin significantly reduced cell viability of BXPC3 and Capan-2 by triggering caspase signaling via the downregulation of Bcl-2. It modulated the expression of cell cycle signaling proteins P53, P21, P27, CDK2, c-MYC, Cyt-c and P38. Concomitantly, crocin treatment-induced apoptosis by inducing the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria to cytosol. Microarray analysis of the expression signature of genes induced by crocin showed a substantial number of genes involved in cell signaling pathways and checkpoints (723) are significantly affected by crocin. In mice bearing pancreatic tumors, crocin significantly reduced tumor burden without a change in body weight. Additionally, it showed significant protection against radiation-induced hepatic oxidative damage, reduced the levels of hepatic toxicity and preserved liver morphology. These findings indicate that crocin has a potential role in the treatment, prevention and management of pancreatic cancer. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Low Vitamin D Levels Predict Mortality in Ankylosing Spondylitis Patients: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study
Nutrients 2020, 12(5), 1400; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12051400 - 13 May 2020
Abstract
In this study, we aimed to examine the effect of vitamin D deficiency on all-cause mortality in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients and in the general population. This is a retrospective-cohort study based on the electronic database of the largest health-maintenance organization in Israel. [...] Read more.
In this study, we aimed to examine the effect of vitamin D deficiency on all-cause mortality in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients and in the general population. This is a retrospective-cohort study based on the electronic database of the largest health-maintenance organization in Israel. AS patients who were first diagnosed between 2002–2007 were included. Controls were matched by age, gender and enrollment-time. Follow-up continued until death or end of study follow-up on 1 July 2019. Laboratory measures of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin-D levels during the entire follow-up period were obtained. A total of 919 AS patients and 4519 controls with a mean time of follow-up of 14.3 years were included. The mean age at the time of enrollment was 52 years, and 22% of them were females. AS was associated with a higher proportion of vitamin D deficiency (odds ratio 1.27 [95% confidence-interval (CI) 1.03–1.58]). In AS patients, insufficient levels of vitamin D (<30 ng/mL) were significantly associated with increased incidence of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio (HR) 1.59 [95% CI 1.02–2.50]). This association was more prominent with the decrease in vitamin D levels (< 20 ng/mL, HR 1.63 [95% CI 1.03–2.60]; <10 ng/mL, HR 1.79 [95% CI 1.01–3.20]) and among male patients (<30 ng/mL, HR 2.11 [95% CI 1.20–3.72]; <20 ng/mL, HR 2.12 [95% CI 1.19–3.80]; <10 ng/mL, HR 2.23 [95% CI 1.12–4.43]). However, inadequate levels of vitamin D among controls were not associated with an increased all-cause mortality. Our study has shown that vitamin D deficiency is more common in AS patients than controls and is linked to an increased risk for all-cause mortality. These results emphasize the need for randomized-controlled trials to evaluate the benefits of vitamin D supplementation as a secondary prevention of mortality in patients with chronic inflammatory rheumatic disease. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Antecedent Dietary Glutamine Supplementation Benefits Modulation of Liver Pyroptosis in Mice with Polymicrobial Sepsis
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 1086; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041086 - 14 Apr 2020
Abstract
The liver is the main organ responsible for bacterial and endotoxin clearance. Pyroptosis is a form of proinflammatory programmed cell death activated by caspase-1/11 and gasdermin D (GadD). Pyroptosis protects the host against bacterial infection; however, overactive pyroptosis can lead to organ injury. [...] Read more.
The liver is the main organ responsible for bacterial and endotoxin clearance. Pyroptosis is a form of proinflammatory programmed cell death activated by caspase-1/11 and gasdermin D (GadD). Pyroptosis protects the host against bacterial infection; however, overactive pyroptosis can lead to organ injury. Glutamine (GLN) is a specific amino acid with anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties. This study investigated the effects of GLN pretreatment on liver pyroptosis in a mouse model of polymicrobial sepsis. Mice were assigned to sham, sepsis control (Sepsis-C), and sepsis GLN (Sepsis-G) groups. The sham and Sepsis-C groups were fed the AIN-93G diet. The Sepsis-G group was provided with identical diet components except that part of the casein was replaced by GLN. After feeding the respective diets for 2 weeks, a cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) procedure was performed in the sepsis groups. An antibiotic was administered after CLP. Mice were sacrificed at either 24 or 72 h after CLP. The results showed that sepsis resulted in upregulated liver caspase-1/11 expression. Compared to the Sepsis-C group, the Sepsis-G group had higher liver caspase-11 and NLRP3 gene expressions at 24 h and lower active caspase-1/11 and cleaved GadD protein levels at 72 h after sepsis. Additionally, liver inflammatory cytokine gene expressions had decreased by 72 h post-CLP. The findings suggest that prophylactic administration of GLN initially upregulated liver pyroptosis to eradicate pathogens, yet the process of pyroptosis was suppressed in the late phase of sepsis. This may have beneficially attenuated liver inflammation and injury in an antibiotic-treated septic condition. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Consumption of the Total Western Diet Promotes Colitis and Inflammation-Associated Colorectal Cancer in Mice
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 544; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020544 - 20 Feb 2020
Abstract
Consumption of a Western type diet is a known risk factor for colorectal cancer. Our group previously developed the total Western diet (TWD) for rodents with energy and nutrient profiles that emulate a typical Western diet. In this study, we tested the hypothesis [...] Read more.
Consumption of a Western type diet is a known risk factor for colorectal cancer. Our group previously developed the total Western diet (TWD) for rodents with energy and nutrient profiles that emulate a typical Western diet. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that consumption of the TWD would enhance colitis, delay recovery from gut injury and promote colon tumorigenesis. In multiple experiments using the azoxymethane + dextran sodium sulfate or ApcMin/+ mouse models of colitis-associated colorectal carcinogenesis (CAC), we determined that mice fed TWD experienced more severe and more prolonged colitis compared to their counterparts fed the standard AIN93G diet, ultimately leading to markedly enhanced colon tumorigenesis. Additionally, this increased tumor response was attributed to the micronutrient fraction of the TWD, and restoration of calcium and vitamin D to standard amounts ameliorated the tumor-promoting effects of TWD. Finally, exposure to the TWD elicited large scale, dynamic changes in mRNA signatures of colon mucosa associated with interferon (IFN) response, inflammation, innate immunity, adaptive immunity, and antigen processing pathways, among others. Taken together, these observations indicate that consumption of the TWD markedly enhanced colitis, delayed recovery from gut injury, and enhanced colon tumorigenesis likely via extensive changes in expression of immune-related genes in the colon mucosa. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Fermented Morinda citrifolia (Noni) Alleviates DNCB-Induced Atopic Dermatitis in NC/Nga Mice through Modulating Immune Balance and Skin Barrier Function
Nutrients 2020, 12(1), 249; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12010249 - 18 Jan 2020
Abstract
Morinda citrifolia, a fruit generally known as “Noni”, has been traditionally used in parts of East Asia to relieve inflammatory diseases. Although several studies using noni have been reported, the effect of fermented Morinda citrifolia (F.NONI) on atopic dermatitis (AD) has not [...] Read more.
Morinda citrifolia, a fruit generally known as “Noni”, has been traditionally used in parts of East Asia to relieve inflammatory diseases. Although several studies using noni have been reported, the effect of fermented Morinda citrifolia (F.NONI) on atopic dermatitis (AD) has not been investigated. Thus, we aimed to investigate the improving effect of F.NONI treatment on AD-like skin lesions and elucidate molecular mechanisms. F.NONI was prepared by the fermentation of noni fruit with probiotics and then extracted. F.NONI was orally administrated to NC/Nga mice to evaluate its therapeutic effect on 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB)-induced AD. Oral administration of F.NONI significantly alleviated AD lesions and symptoms such as dermatitis scores, ear thickness, scratching behavior, epidermal thickness, and infiltration of inflammatory cells (e.g., mast cells and eosinophils). In addition, F.NONI treatment reduced the levels of histamine, IgE and IgG1/IgG2a ratio, thymus and activation regulated chemokine (TARC), and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) in serum and beneficially modulated the expressions of Th1, Th2, Th17, and Th22-mediated cytokines in lesioned skin and splenocytes. Furthermore, the expressions of the skin barrier-related proteins including filaggrin (FLG), loricrin (LOR), involucrin (IVL), zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), and occludin (OCC) were restored by F.NONI treatment. Taken together, these results suggest that F.NONI could be a therapeutic agent to attenuate AD-like skin lesions through modulating the immune balance and skin barrier function. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Nutrigenomics and Breast Cancer: State-of-Art, Future Perspectives and Insights for Prevention
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 512; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020512 - 18 Feb 2020
Abstract
Proper nutrition plays a major role in preventing diseases and, therefore, nutritional interventions constitute crucial strategies in the field of Public Health. Nutrigenomics and nutriproteomics are arising from the integration of nutritional, genomics and proteomics specialties in the era of postgenomics medicine. In [...] Read more.
Proper nutrition plays a major role in preventing diseases and, therefore, nutritional interventions constitute crucial strategies in the field of Public Health. Nutrigenomics and nutriproteomics are arising from the integration of nutritional, genomics and proteomics specialties in the era of postgenomics medicine. In particular, nutrigenomics and nutriproteomics focus on the interaction between nutrients and the human genome and proteome, respectively, providing insights into the role of diet in carcinogenesis. Further omics disciplines, like metabonomics, interactomics and microbiomics, are expected to provide a better understanding of nutrition and its underlying factors. These fields represent an unprecedented opportunity for the development of personalized diets in women at risk of developing breast cancer. Full article

Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Author: Tsigalou C. and Tsolou A.
Email: [email protected]
Tentative title: Interplay between Mediterranean diet and gut microbiota in the interface of autoimmunity. An overview

Author: Daponte A.
Email: [email protected]
Tentative title: Vitamin D and immunopathogenesis of pregnancy failure

Author: Bogdanos D.P. and Tsiogkas S.
Email: [email protected]
Tentative title: Delphinidin: an unexpectedly efficient immunosuppressant in patients with autoimmune diseases
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