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Open AccessArticle

Assessment and State of Nutrition of Patients with Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Neoplasms

1
Department of Human Nutrition and Metabolomics, Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin, Broniewskiego 24, 71-460 Szczecin, Poland
2
Department of Endocrinology, Metabolic Diseases and Internal Diseases, Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin, Unii Lubelskiej 1, 70-252 Szczecin, Poland
3
Primary Care Department, Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin, Żołnierska 48, 71-210 Szczecin, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 1961; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12071961
Received: 5 June 2020 / Revised: 22 June 2020 / Accepted: 28 June 2020 / Published: 30 June 2020
Introduction: In recent decades, the number of gastro-entero-pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (GEP-NENs) cases, associated with coexisting metabolic disorders, has been continuously increasing. Patients with progressing neoplastic disease are at a risk of malnutrition. To improve the quality of life of neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN) patients, the therapeutic approach should be supported by a well-balanced diet. The aim of the study was to analyze the nutritional errors and deficits in a group of GEP-NET patients. Materials and methods: The study group included 26 GEP-NET patients; 13 men and 13 women. The mean age of women was 68.77 ± 8.0, and the mean age of men was 64.69 ± 8.1. Three interviews on consumption in the last 24 h were performed, in order to evaluate the quality and quantity of nutrition. The data was incorporated into a dietetics software, which allows one to calculate the number of over 58 micronutrients and macronutrients with the participation of 52 menus. Subsequently, the mean values were compared with the current nutritional standards. Results: An energy deficit was observed in the group of women—76.9%, and men—100%, as well as high fat consumption in 23.1% in both groups. The proportions of SFA/MUFA/PUFA were very negative, whereas the consumption of saccharose was too high. Vitamin D deficiency was observed in 100% of men and women. Moreover, both men and women experienced the deficiency of vitamin E, folates and niacin. The consumption of sodium and phosphorus was twice as high as recommended, and an insufficient supply of calcium was observed in 80% of women and 90% of men. The insufficient consumption of magnesium, iodine and potassium in a significant part of the studied group was observed. All participants consumed too much cholesterol and insufficient amounts of fiber. The healthy diet indicator (HDI) and diet quality index (DQI) scores were 3.1 ± 1.8 (HDI) and 3.7 ± 1.6 (DQI) for women, and 7.2 ± 2.6 (HDI) and 8.5 ± 2.4 (DQI) for men. Conclusions: When analyzing the nutrition of GEP-NET patients, we highlight that they do not have a proper diet, despite the fact that they changed the way they eat. Dietetics support and the development of official nutritional standards seem to be a necessary element in the therapy of GEP-NET patients. View Full-Text
Keywords: neuroendocrine neoplasms; gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms; nutrition; methods of nutrition; nutritional status neuroendocrine neoplasms; gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms; nutrition; methods of nutrition; nutritional status
MDPI and ACS Style

Kikut, J.; Jasińska, A.; Pobłocki, J.; Brodowski, J.; Małgorzata, S. Assessment and State of Nutrition of Patients with Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Neoplasms. Nutrients 2020, 12, 1961.

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