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Polyphenols for Health and Sport

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Phytochemicals and Human Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 August 2022) | Viewed by 16104

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Institute of Sport Sciences, The Jerzy Kukuczka Academy of Physical Education, 40-065 Katowice, Poland
Interests: oxidative stress; inflammation; dietary antioxidants; sport nutrition; exercise metabolism
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Polyphenols are important elements of the diet. Most of them have a strong antioxidant effect, which is particularly important in the processes of cleansing and regeneration of the body. These compounds reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Moreover, a growing body of evidence supports that strenuous physical effort may lead to a substantial enhancement of oxidative stress, which would  increase requirements for exogenous antioxidants to strengthen antioxidant defence system in athletes. Polyphenol supplementation  may limit or even prevent the exercise-induced tissue damage and help the athletes to recover from damage.  However, the choice of polyphenols and its daily intake should be adapted to individual needs.

Dr. Ewa Sadowska-Krępa
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • polyphenols
  • antioxidant enzymes
  • non-enzymatic antioxidants
  • gene expression
  • prevention
  • disease
  • physical activity

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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12 pages, 1162 KiB  
Article
Oxidative Stress and Total Phenolics Concentration in COPD Patients—The Effect of Exercises: A Randomized Controlled Trial
by Katarzyna Domaszewska, Sara Górna, Malwina Pietrzak and Tomasz Podgórski
Nutrients 2022, 14(9), 1947; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14091947 - 06 May 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1959
Abstract
Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) suffer from exercise intolerance, the sensation of dyspnea, and fatigue, which are the main reasons for limiting their physical activity. In addition to changes in the respiratory and circulatory systems in patients with COPD, peripheral muscle [...] Read more.
Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) suffer from exercise intolerance, the sensation of dyspnea, and fatigue, which are the main reasons for limiting their physical activity. In addition to changes in the respiratory and circulatory systems in patients with COPD, peripheral muscle dysfunction, with numerous metabolic dysfunctions, is observed. One of the symptoms of the described anomalies, among others, is an antioxidative and prooxidative imbalance. The aim of the study was to demonstrate the impact of endurance training, carried out in the extended pulmonary rehabilitation program in COPD patients, on the imbalance between prooxidants and antioxidants in their bodies. Methods: The tests were carried out on a group of patients (n = 32) with COPD; 20 randomly selected people underwent a modified rehabilitation program during their rehabilitation stay, and the obtained results were compared with the results of 12 patients (control group) who were treated without endurance training. At the beginning and at the end of the study, spirometry and cardiopulmonary exercise tests (CPET) were performed. Oxidative stress (allantoin (All) and substances which react with thiobarbituric acid) and antioxidant (ferric reducing ability of plasma and total phenolics) parameters’ concentrations were determined in the venous blood. Results: In the study group, greater post-training increases of VO2max (p = 0.0702) and FEV1/FVC (p < 0.05; ES: 0.436) were reported. The applied CPET at each time caused an increase in the All concentration (p < 0.05) in the study and control groups. Conclusions: Endurance training applied as a part of the rehabilitation process did not cause the additional aggravation of oxidative stress and blood total phenolics concentration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyphenols for Health and Sport)
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8 pages, 454 KiB  
Article
Acute Effect of Caffeine-Based Multi-Ingredient Supplement on Reactive Agility and Jump Height in Recreational Handball Players
by Piotr Kaczka, Marcin Maciejczyk, Amit Batra, Anna Tabęcka-Łonczyńska and Marek Strzała
Nutrients 2022, 14(8), 1569; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14081569 - 09 Apr 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2150
Abstract
Pre-exercise caffeine and guarana-based multi-ingredient supplement (MS) consumption may be more effective for physical performance improvement than caffeine and guarana alone due to the synergistic effect of biologically active ingredients in multi-ingredient supplements. This study aimed to examine the acute effect of MS [...] Read more.
Pre-exercise caffeine and guarana-based multi-ingredient supplement (MS) consumption may be more effective for physical performance improvement than caffeine and guarana alone due to the synergistic effect of biologically active ingredients in multi-ingredient supplements. This study aimed to examine the acute effect of MS on the reactive agility and jump performance in recreational handball male players. A randomized, double-blind, crossover study involved twenty-four male handball players (body mass 74.6 ± 8.8 kg; body height 179 ± 7 cm; age 23.8 ± 1.4 years). Participants were tested under three conditions: placebo, caffeine + guarana (CAF + GUA), or MS ingestion 45 min before exercise tests. Participants performed a reactive agility test (Y-shaped test) and countermovement jump (CMJ). None of the supplements improved countermovement jump height (p = 0.06). The time needed to complete the agility test was significantly (p = 0.02) shorter in the MS condition than in the placebo. The differences in agility between PL vs. CAF + GUA and MS vs. CAF + GUA conditions were not statistically significant (p = 0.88 and p = 0.07, respectively). The results of this study indicate that the caffeine-based multi-ingredient performance was effective in improvement in reactive agility but not in jump height in recreational handball male players. A similar effect was not observed with CAF + GUA ingestion alone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyphenols for Health and Sport)
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15 pages, 2148 KiB  
Article
Platelet Activation Favours NOX2-Mediated Muscle Damage in Elite Athletes: The Role of Cocoa-Derived Polyphenols
by Alessandra D’Amico, Elena Cavarretta, Chiara Fossati, Paolo Borrione, Fabio Pigozzi, Giacomo Frati, Sebastiano Sciarretta, Vincenzo Costa, Fabrizio De Grandis, Antonia Nigro, Mariangela Peruzzi, Fabio Miraldi, Wael Saade, Antonella Calogero, Paolo Rosa, Gioacchino Galardo, Lorenzo Loffredo, Pasquale Pignatelli, Cristina Nocella and Roberto Carnevale
Nutrients 2022, 14(8), 1558; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14081558 - 08 Apr 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2303
Abstract
Mechanisms of exercise-induced muscle injury with etiopathogenesis and its consequences have been described; however, the impact of different intensities of exercise on the mechanisms of muscular injury development is not well understood. The aim of this study was to exploit the relationship between [...] Read more.
Mechanisms of exercise-induced muscle injury with etiopathogenesis and its consequences have been described; however, the impact of different intensities of exercise on the mechanisms of muscular injury development is not well understood. The aim of this study was to exploit the relationship between platelet activation, oxidative stress and muscular injuries induced by physical exercise in elite football players compared to amateur athletes. Oxidant/antioxidant status, platelet activation and markers of muscle damage were evaluated in 23 elite football players and 23 amateur athletes. Compared to amateurs, elite football players showed lower antioxidant capacity and higher oxidative stress paralleled by increased platelet activation and muscle damage markers. Simple linear regression analysis showed that sNOX2-dp and H2O2, sCD40L and PDGF-bb were associated with a significant increase in muscle damage biomarkers. In vitro studies also showed that plasma obtained from elite athletes increased oxidative stress and muscle damage in human skeletal muscle myoblasts cell line compared to amateurs’ plasma, an effect blunted by the NOX2 inhibitor or by the cell treatment with cocoa-derived polyphenols. These results indicate that platelet activation increased muscular injuries induced by oxidative stress. Moreover, NOX2 inhibition and polyphenol extracts treatment positively modulates redox status and reduce exercise-induced muscular injury. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyphenols for Health and Sport)
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Review

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25 pages, 1716 KiB  
Review
Hesperidin Functions as an Ergogenic Aid by Increasing Endothelial Function and Decreasing Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress and Inflammation, Thereby Contributing to Improved Exercise Performance
by Maria Imperatrice, Iris Cuijpers, Freddy J. Troost and Mireille M. J. P. E. Sthijns
Nutrients 2022, 14(14), 2955; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14142955 - 19 Jul 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3902
Abstract
The regulation of blood flow to peripheral muscles is crucial for proper skeletal muscle functioning and exercise performance. During exercise, increased mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation leads to increased electron leakage and consequently induces an increase in ROS formation, contributing to DNA, lipid, and protein [...] Read more.
The regulation of blood flow to peripheral muscles is crucial for proper skeletal muscle functioning and exercise performance. During exercise, increased mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation leads to increased electron leakage and consequently induces an increase in ROS formation, contributing to DNA, lipid, and protein damage. Moreover, exercise may increase blood- and intramuscular inflammatory factors leading to a deterioration in endurance performance. The aim of this review is to investigate the potential mechanisms through which the polyphenol hesperidin could lead to enhanced exercise performance, namely improved endothelial function, reduced exercise-induced oxidative stress, and inflammation. We selected in vivo RCTs, animal studies, and in vitro studies in which hesperidin, its aglycone form hesperetin, hesperetin-metabolites, or orange juice are supplemented at any dosage and where the parameters related to endothelial function, oxidative stress, and/or inflammation have been measured. The results collected in this review show that hesperidin improves endothelial function (via increased NO availability), inhibits ROS production, decreases production and plasma levels of pro-inflammatory markers, and improves anaerobic exercise outcomes (e.g., power, speed, energy). For elite and recreational athletes, hesperidin could be used as an ergogenic aid to enhance muscle recovery between training sessions, optimize oxygen and nutrient supplies to the muscles, and improve anaerobic performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyphenols for Health and Sport)
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30 pages, 1460 KiB  
Review
Modulation of Inflammation by Plant-Derived Nutraceuticals in Tendinitis
by Anna-Lena Mueller, Aranka Brockmueller, Ajaikumar B. Kunnumakkara and Mehdi Shakibaei
Nutrients 2022, 14(10), 2030; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14102030 - 12 May 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 4810
Abstract
Tendinitis (tendinopathy) is a pro-inflammatory and painful tendon disease commonly linked with mechanical overuse and associated injuries, drug abuse, and lifestyle factors (including poor diet and physical inactivity) that causes significant healthcare expenditures due to its high incidence. Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) [...] Read more.
Tendinitis (tendinopathy) is a pro-inflammatory and painful tendon disease commonly linked with mechanical overuse and associated injuries, drug abuse, and lifestyle factors (including poor diet and physical inactivity) that causes significant healthcare expenditures due to its high incidence. Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) is one of the major pro-inflammatory transcription factors, along with other inflammation signaling pathways, triggered by a variety of stimuli, including cytokines, endotoxins, physical and chemical stressors, hypoxia, and other pro-inflammatory factors. Their activation is known to regulate the expression of a multitude of genes involved in inflammation, degradation, and cell death. The pathogenesis of tendinitis is still poorly understood, whereas efficient and sustainable treatment is missing. Targeting drug suppression of the key inflammatory regulators represents an effective strategy for tendinitis therapy, but requires a comprehensive understanding of their principles of action. Conventional monotherapies are often ineffective and associated with severe side effects in patients. Therefore, agents that modulate multiple cellular targets represent therapeutic treatment potential. Plant-derived nutraceuticals have been shown to act as multi-targeting agents against tendinitis via various anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms, whereat they were able to specifically modulate numerous signaling pathways, including NF-κB, p38/MAPK, JNK/STAT3, and PI3K/Akt, thus down-regulating inflammatory processes. This review discusses the utility of herbal nutraceuticals that have demonstrated safety and tolerability as anti-inflammatory agents for the prevention and treatment of tendinitis through the suppression of catabolic signaling pathways. Limitations associated with the use of nutraceuticals are also described. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyphenols for Health and Sport)
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